At present, a noticeable tension makes itself felt in the Netherlands between the views of the Dutch government and those of village dwellers (inhabitants of nuclei of less than 6.000 inhabitants) on the future development of the villages. On the one hand, the Dutch government aims at "concerted deconcentration" of the nuclei pattern, based on the ideas laid down in the Second Report on Physical Planning In The Netherlands. Within the framework of this report, only a modest growth is planned for such villages as have less than 6.000 inhabitants. On the other hand, there are villagers - as well as townspeople who favour the residential environment of a village - who advocate a stronger growth of their villages.
The local authorities, who are closer to the inhabitants than the national government, are generally more inclined to comply with the wishes of the population. The national government primarily wish to curb unrestrained sub-urbanisation.
In this study an attempt has been made to analyse the views of present villagers with regard to future development. As a matter of fact, it Is open to doubt whether all villagers unanimously agree on the future of their village.
In order to gain a deeper insight into this matter, a survey was conducted in 1968 in the villages of Beekbergen and Lieren, which are part of the municipality of Apeldoorn.
This survey was based on the following hypothesis:
Modern man would be prepared to consider changes in his present living environment and to accept them, since they may contribute towards an optimum material equipment of the residential environment he envisages.
To test this hypothesis, we started out from two types of change which might lead to a complete modification of the villager's living environment, viz.:
1. extension of the village,
2. migration to a town.
On the basis of the attitudes towards these two elements of change, the population was classified into nine categories, represented in the table below (the share of the various categories In the total population was also indicated).Growth of the village
|partly or exclusively bythe arrival of persons from elsewhere||a-urbanites|
|partly or exclusively by the arrival of persons from the region||regionals|
|no growth or autonomous|
|migration to a town||no||perhaps||readily|
According to the classification criteria applied and to the results of the survey, the categories can be characterised as follows:
persons who do not want a change In residential environment, who are relatively satisfied with the existing situation and who strongly depend on the facilities provided by their own village; in addition, this category feel there is relatively little need of additional facilities in the village.
persons who might want to live in a town, yet do not wish for changes in their present living environment, who are relatively satisfied with the existing situation and strongly depend on facilities outside the village. Whereas this category have relatively little need of additional facilities in the village, they are more keenly aware of existing limitations than the locals.
persons who would gladly live in a town, yet do not wish to change the present living environment. With regard to accepting the existing situation, they represent an average of the population. They are strongly dependent on facilities outside thevillage.
The need for facilities in the village is somewhat less than among the total population.
persons who want to modify the present living environment by an influx of people from the region, who are relatively satisfied with the existing situation and very strongly dependent on local facilities. The need for additional facilities in the village is somewhat greater than among the total population.
persons who want to modify the present living environment by an Influx of people from the region and who might want to live In a town. They are relatively dissatisfied with the existing situation. As regards their dependence on local facilities they represent an average of the population. This also applies to the need for additional facilities.
persons who want to modify the present living environment by an influx of people from other parts of the country, who are relatively satisfied with the existing situation and who strongly depend on the facilities in their own village. The need for additional facilities in the village is relatively great.
persons who want to modify the present living environment by an influx of people from other parts of the country, who might want to live in a town, whose dissatisfaction with the existing situation is relatively deep, and who depend to a fair extent on facilities outside the village.
This category feel a relatively urgent need for additional facilities in the village.
persons who want to modify the present living environment by an influx of people from other parts of the country and who would like to live in a town, whose dissatisfaction with the existing situation is relatively deep, and who depend to a very great extent on facilities outside the village. This category feel a relatively urgent need for additional facilities in the village.
Since the outcome of this survey has revealed that within a village populations definite categories can be distinguished in respect of the development and the material equipment of the village, we have tried to fit these categories into a master plan. The types of environment for this plan were chosen in accordance with those mentioned in the Second Report on Physical Planning in the Netherlands (This is dealt with in detail by D. Hazelhoff in en article in "Stedebouw en Volkshuisvesting", 1967). Fitting the various population categories into specific types of environment yielded the following results:
|population category||type of environment||number of inhabitants|
|locals||A-2-A-1||3.000 to 6.000|
|hetero-locals, a-locals, regionals and hetero-regionals||A-1-B-2||6.000 to 11.000|
|a-urbanites and hetero-urbanites||B-2-B-1||11.000 to 22.000|
|urban-regionals and urbanites||C-2-C-1||45.000 to 90.000|
The desired material equipment of the villages served as a basis for fitting the categories into the various types of environment. Despite the fact that two or more categories were placed in the same type of environment with a view to the desired material equipment, modifications, particularly in the social structure, will often prove necessary.
In a subsequent survey it will be important to pay attention not only to the desired material equipment, public amenities and housing in the villages, but also to:
1. the evaluation of green areas
2. the social structure
3. the distance to centres of greater importance.
In conclusion, it should be kept in mind that the population categories dealt with in the present structure are subject to time and place.