Arets, E.J.M.M. \ Kolk, J.W.H van der \ Hengeveld, G.M. \ Lesschen, J.P. \ Kramer, H. \ Kuikman, P.J. \ Schelhaas, M.J. \ 2019
Abstract: This report provides a complete methodological description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse Gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector. It provides detailed description of the methodologies, activity data and emission factors that were used. Each of the reporting categories Forest Land, Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements, Other land and Harvested Wood Products are described in a separate chapter. Additionally it gives a table-by-table elaboration of the choices and motivations for filling the CRF tables for KP-LULUCF.
Abstract: Welke gevolgen heeft de landbouwparagraaf in het klimaatakkoord? Onderzoeker verbonden aan de WUR: Jan Peter Lesschen is de eerste spreker van de avond. Hij heeft meer dan 10 jaar onderzoekservaring op het gebied van milieu, landgebruik, landbouw, broeikasgasemissies en modelleren op regionale schaal. Zijn inleiding gaat over de korte- en lange koolstof kringloop en de footprint. Hij geeft zijn visie op het vrijkomen van lachgas en de factoren die een werkelijke rol spelen bij de uitstoot van methaan. Wat weten wij wel, waar is onduidelijkheid over, en welke mogelijkheden zijn er? De opname was tijdens een Niscoo Kennisbijeenkomst in Heerenveen op 28 februari 2019.
Abstract: The report estimates the technical potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions up to 2050 of the whole production chain of Dutch agriculture. The mitigation is positioned in the context of the transition of consumption, energy use, biomass and the circular economy and the improvement of biodiversity.
Abstract: Deze studie vergelijkt de prestaties van gangbare en biologische landbouw- en veehouderijsystemen in Nederland op klimaatgebied. Er is een meta-analyse uitgevoerd naar verschillende bestaande vergelijkende studies en verschillen zijn geduid door onderscheidende factoren te noemen---This study compares the environmental performance of conventional and organic agricultural and livestock farming systems in the Netherlands concerning greenhouse gas emissions. A meta-analysis has been carried out into several existing comparative studies and differences have been identified by mentioning differentiating factors
Arets, E.J.M.M. \ Kolk, J.W.H van der \ Hengeveld, G.M. \ Lesschen, J.P. \ Kramer, H. \ Kuikman, P.J. \ Schelhaas, M.J. \ 2018
Abstract: This report provides a complete methodological description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector. It provides detailed description of the methodologies, activity data and emission factors that were used. Each of the reporting categories Forest Land, Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements, Other land and Harvested Wood Products are described in a separate chapter. Additionally it gives a table-by-table elaboration of the choices and motivations for filling the CRF tables for KP-LULUCF
Abstract: In 2013 a new STW research programme was started on sustainable protein recovery. This STW Protein Programme consisted of five sustainable protein technology projects, which aimed at developing innovative methods to extract proteins from plant leaves, microalgae and insects to meet the increasing demand for food proteins for humans and livestock. The aim of the additional STW-project ‘Meer en Beter Eiwit’ was to summarize and evaluate the main results and conclusions of these five projects. Besides, some more recent additional insight on protein extraction was supplemented. Project partners including WUR, knowledge institutes and industry were interviewed to obtain their opinion on the project performed and future research needs.This has led to a vision document that gives direction to future research in the field of protein and technology.The approach of this project was to study the topic from start (biomass) via technology to finish (product). It was further put into a larger perspective, looking at the entire chain. When relevant, additional aspects such a soil quality and global protein demands were included.Biomass choice. When choosing a particular protein-recovery technology,biomass selection is the first requirement. Much research is being done on new biomass. However, the use of existing raw materials and residual flows should not be neglected.By building on existing processes and chains, fast(er)implementation is possible. Traditional crops like grain are relatively dry, and the proteins are present in protein bodies. Therefore, they are more easily extracted and give high yields and purities. New, green crops still require a lot of development.Protein streams in the world Protein-rich sources, like soybeans, rapeseed, maize and wheat are being consumed by both humans and animals.The crop with the largest production volume in Europe is is wheat, followed by potato, maize and barley. Together these four crops cover about 85% of the production of protein crops. Worldwide, maize is the largest crop. By far, the largest amount of proteins is being used in feed (>75%),followed by food consumption. Only a limited amount of proteins is isolated for specific use, for example as emulsifiers in different food formulations. An even smaller amount is used for application in chemicals or materials.Protein purity and functionality. Much research from the past focused on obtaining pure protein, e.g. RuBisCo from green leaves or protein from potato juice. Such processes can be economically feasible if the protein produced has a specific functionality, which allows for use as a high-quality food ingredient. However,high purity is not always required to obtain a certain functionality. In such cases the use of less refined,functional fractions is an interesting alternative.Mild separation and fractionation. When purified components are replaced by functional fractions, less intensive separation conditions can be used.Dry separation of proteins yielding a concentrate could bean alternative to wet separation yielding an isolate. Energy consumption is less, and a more native protein can be obtained. Fractionation can also lead to more complete use of biomass, generating little to no side streams.Chain approach for economy and sustainability. Next, it is also important to include the possibility of complete utilization of the raw material and closing cycles.These latter aspects can make or break economic feasibility and sustainability in a process. Efficient and effective use of protein and nitrogen, while maintaining biodiversity, is the most important development point for sustaining life on this earth. Modern agriculture should further improve nitrogen and feed use efficiencies to increase sustainability. Program evaluation. Next to conclusions on the content of the five projects, the evaluation also provides conclusions on the set-up of the STW/EZ programme on sustainable protein. Both academic and industrial participants acknowledged the added value of the link between fundamental research by a PhD and applied research by research institutes that was made in the project set-up. They also partly attributed the project successes to the multidisciplinary approach in the projects. The possibility within the projects to look at all aspects, and the ability to think anew on existing processes and develop new concepts of biorefinery greatly added to current scientific knowledge on protein extraction.
Arets, E.J.M.M. \ Kolk, J.W.H. van der \ Hengeveld, G.M. \ Lesschen, J.P. \ Kramer, H. \ Kuikman, P.J. \ Schelhaas, M.J. \ 2017
Abstract: This report provides a complete methodological description and background information of the DutchNational System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector. It provides detailed description of themethodologies, activity data and emission factors that were used. Each of the reporting categories, ForestLand, Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements, Other land and Harvested Wood Products are describedin a separate chapter. Additionally it gives a table-by-table elaboration of the choices and motivations forfilling the CRF tables for KP-LULUCF---Dit rapport geeft de methodologische achtergrondinformatie die gebruikt wordt binnen het nationale systeemom broeikasgasemissies voor de LULUCF-sector (landgebruik en bosbouw) te berekenen zoals die aan de VNKlimaatconventie (UNFCCC) en het Kyoto Protocol (KP) worden gerapporteerd. Het rapport geeftgedetailleerde beschrijvingen van de gehanteerde methodologie, gebruikte activiteitendata enemissiefactoren. De te rapporteren categorieën Bos (forest land), Bouwland (cropland), Grasland(grassland), Wetlands, Bebouwd gebied (Settlements), Ander land, en geoogste houtproducten worden perhoofdstuk beschreven. Daarnaast worden in een apart hoofdstuk de gebruikte aggregatiestappen gegevenom tot berekeningen voor het KP te komen en worden voor iedere KP-LULUCF CRF-tabel de gemaaktekeuzes om de tabel te vullen, beschreven en gemotiveerd
Abstract: This report provides a complete methodological description and background information of the DutchNational System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector. It provides detailed description of themethodologies, activity data and emission factors that were used. Additionally it gives a table-by-tableelaboration of the choices and motivations for filling the CRF tables for KP-LULUCF
biogas - gas production - fermentation - assessment - production possibilities - residual streams - european union - biobased economy
Abstract: As the European Commission is working on the further development and concretisation of the post-2020 climate and energy policies, this study was commissioned to zoom in on the potential role, cost and benefits of biogas, and to assess the key barriers and drivers of biogas deployment in the EU. An important question to address was what policies at both EU and Member State level can best contribute to the effective and efficient growth of biogas deployment in the EU. The study focussed on biogas production by digestion processes of local waste streams, i.e. on biogas production from sewage sludge, landfill gas and from suitable organic waste streams from agriculture, the food industry and households.
Knegt, B. de \ Hoek, D.C.J. van der \ Veerkamp, C.J. \ Woltjer, I. \ Aa, N.G.F.M. van der \ Boekel, E.M.P.M. van \ Diederiks, J.F.H.A. \ Goosen, H. \ Koekoek, A. \ Lesschen, J.P. \ Staritsky, I.G. \ Veeneklaas, F.R. \ Vries, F. de \ Hendriks, C.M.A. \ 2016
ecosystem services - nature - water - drinking water - flood control - agriculture - netherlands
Abstract: Local projects conducted within the framework of the Natural Capital Netherlands (NKN) programmeidentified various opportunities for mutual improvement of natural capital and the economy. In a follow-upstudy we investigated whether the insights gained also apply to other parts of the Netherlands. Which areasoffer the best opportunities? What measures are needed in these areas to actually capitalise on theseopportunities, and who are the relevant stakeholders? To address these questions, the local opportunitiesidentified in the NKN projects were explored at the national level, using ‘opportunity maps’. The three localprojects are: Greening the Common Agricultural Policy, Clean Water and Delta Programme.---Lokaal uitgevoerde praktijkprojecten die voor het programma Natuurlijk Kapitaal Nederland zijn uitgevoerd,laten zien dat er kansen zijn voor de wederzijdse versterking van natuur en economie. Dit leidt tot devolgende vragen: welke kansen zijn er om de opgedane kennis binnen de praktijkprojecten op te schalennaar de rest van Nederland? Waar liggen deze kansrijke gebieden? En ten slotte: wat zijn mogelijkemaatregelen en relevante stakeholders om deze kansen daadwerkelijk te verzilveren? Om antwoord tekrijgen op deze vragen zijn drie praktijkprojecten met behulp van ‘kansenkaarten’ in landelijk perspectiefgeplaatst. Deze drie praktijkprojecten zijn: Vergroening van het Gemeenschappelijk Landbouwbeleid, SchoonWater en Deltaprogramma.
Abstract: This report provides a complete methodological description of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The methodologies follow the IPCC 2006 guidelines for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land-Uses (AFOLU). Based on these guidelines, this report provides detailed descriptions and motivations of the used methods, activity data, and emission factors for calculation of the emissions and removals as reported in the National Inventory Report (NIR). The structure of the report follows the structure for national inventory reports as laid out in the appendix to Decision 24/CP.19 of the UNFCCC.
Westhoek, Henk \ Lesschen, Jan Peter \ Leip, Adrian \ Rood, Trudy \ Wagner, Suzanne \ De Marco, Alessandra \ Murphy-Bokern, Donal \ Pallière, Christian \ Howard, Clare M. \ Oenema, Oene \ Sutton, Mark A. \ 2015
greenhouse gases - emission - livestock farming - environmental assessment - uncertainty analysis - africa - latin america - europe
Abstract: The global animal food chain, including land use change, currently generates 14.5% of global emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as measured in CO2 equivalents. The bulk of GHG emissions originate from CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management, CO2 and N2O emissions from feed production, processing and transport, and CO2 emissions from energy consumption. No research has until now been done to assess the uncertainties in GHG emission profiles of livestock. Until now, research on uncertainties has been limited to either one greenhouse gas and /or to agriculture in general. The objective of this research is to assess the uncertainty in the model inputs and parameters of GHG emission profiles of livestock sectors. This research is limited to three continents: Africa, Latin America and Europe. The GHG included are CH4, N2O and CO2.
Arets, E.J.M.M. \ Hengeveld, G.M. \ Lesschen, J.P. \ Kramer, H. \ Kuikman, P.J. \ Kolk, J.W.H. van der \ 2014
greenhouse gases - environmental policy - air pollution - monitoring
Abstract: This report provides a complete description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector and the Dutch LULUCF submission under the Kyoto Protocol for the 2014 submission of The Netherlands. The 2014 submission reports greenhouse gas emissions over the year 2012. It includes detailed descriptions of the methodologies used to calculate activity data and emissions and it gives the full text of the NIR-II for KP-LULUCF, as well as a description of the table-by-table methodologies, choices and motivations. In 2012 afforestation and reforestation activities produced a sink of 458.66 Gg CO2 equivalents while deforestation caused an emission of 838.67 Gg CO2 equivalents. These values were based on changes in above-and belowground biomass, dead wood, litter and soil (mineral as well as organic), and agricultural lime application on deforested areas.
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