Abstract: Nitrate loss from bioenergy crop fields has attracted considerable attention during the last few years because of its potential negative impact on aquatic and human health. Both controllable and uncontrollable factors for nitrate loss have been the subject of several previous studies. Due to differences in climate, biophysical dissimilarities and land management characteristics in different parts of the world the factors affecting nitrate loss are often inconsistent and hence difficult to generalize. Therefore, reanalyzing the experimental field or plot scale studies to understand the nitrate loss factors in crop fields is useful and necessary in developing management strategies for reducing nitrate loss. This research synthesized and investigated 36 peer reviewed scientific journal articles related to selected bioenergy crop fields that included: continuous corn, corn in rotation with soybean, switchgrass and Miscanthus to conduct a meta-analysis of the available research. In this study, factors such as drain tile spacing, tillage practices, type and timing of the fertilization rate, irrigation and various other factors, which are challenging to represent in regression equations, were also systematically analyzed. In addition, various other agronomic characteristics that are attributed too nitrate loss are caused by perennially planted bio energized crops such as Miscanthus and switchgrass. Results indicated that 49% of nitrate loss through surface runoff from corn fields is directly related to the annual precipitation and fertilization rate. Multiple linear regression equations were developed to estimate the annual subsurface nitrate loss for the continuous corn fields with a R2 value of 0.65, 0.58 and 0.26 for sandy loam, silty loam and clay loam, respectively. Our analysis resulted in the conclusion that corn has a 2 to 3 times higher nitrate loss in surface runoff compared to switchgrass. Likewise, continuous corn and corn in rotation with soybean contributed more than 9 times the subsurface loss of nitrate compared to the established subsurface loss attributed to the Miscanthus and switchgrass
Abstract: Dit proefschrift draagt bij tot een beter begrip van de interacties tussen de bodem-waterplant systemen en tot meer geavanceerde procesgerichte modelmatige benaderingen. Bovendien wordt antwoord gegeven op vier onderzoeksvragen: 1. Wat is de rol van de verticale waterstromen zoals capillaire opstijging en recirculerend percolatiewater op de gewasopbrengsten? 2. Hoe kunnen we droogte-, zout- en zuurstof-stress modelleren en wat is hun invloed op de gewasopbrengsten? 3. Kunnen we de impact van verschillende stress-vormen op de graslandproductie in Nederland voorspellen? 4. Wat is de invloed van veranderingen in grondwaterstanden en landgebruik op gewasopbrengsten en grondwateraanvulling?
Abstract: Met monitoring bij vier kasafdelingen is onderzocht of een tweede scherm een interessante investering isvoor teelten met onbelichte tomaat. Naast de aanschaf van een tweede scherm blijkt het warmteverbruik ingrote mate te worden bepaald de streefwaarden voor temperatuur en luchtvochtigheid. Gebleken is dat eentweede scherm 3 tot 4,5 m3/m2 per jaar bespaart en het piekverbruik met 15% terugdringt. Hierdoor is hetenergiescherm pas interessant als het naast energiebesparing ook teeltvoordelen biedt.---The question whether a second screen is an interesting investment for tomato crops without supplementallighting, is examined by monitoring four greenhouse departments. In addition to the purchase of a secondscreen, the heat use turns out to be mainly influenced by the settings for temperature and humidity. It has beenfound that a second screen saved 3 to 4.5 m3/m2 per year and reduced the peak consumption of heat by 15%.This makes the second energy screen only interesting if it also gives advantages to the cultivation.
food sciences - human nutrition research - health - well-being - education - vegetables - fruit - children - plantations - agroforestry
Abstract: At least 10% of children worldwide are diagnosed with overweight. Part of this problem is attributed to low vegetable intake, for which preference at a younger age is an indicator. Few studies examined long-term effects of school garden interventions on the knowledge about and preference for vegetables. Therefore, in this study, an intervention period of 7 months (17 lessons) was organized for primary school students ( n = 150) of age 10–12 years in the Municipality of Nijmegen (the Netherlands). Surveys were conducted before and after the intervention period to test the ability of students to identify vegetables, to measure their self- reported preference for vegetables, and to analyze students’ attitudes toward statements about gardening, cooking, and outdoor activity. The long-term effects were measured by repeating the survey 1 year after the intervention ( n = 52). Results were compared with a control group of students ( n = 65) with similar background and tested for significance with α = 0.05. School gardening significantly increases the knowledge of primary school - children on 10 vegetables as well as their ability to self- report preference for the vegetables. The short-term ( n = 106) and long- term ( n = 52) preference for vegetables increased ( p < 0.05) in comparison with the control group. The latter did not show a significant learning effect ( p > 0.05). This implies that the exposure to vegetables generated by school gardening programs may increase willingness to taste and daily intake of vegetables on the long term. Students’ attitudes toward gardening, cooking, and outdoor activity were unaffected by the intervention.
life sciences - university research - precision agriculture - nutrition and health - aquatic environment
Abstract: In the early 20th century, Wageningen wheat varieties were popular for their high yields. Today’s plant breeders aim at making crops less dependent on pesticides or more resistant to climate change. The approach is also increasingly customized thanks to robots and DNA techniques.
Drew, R. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ ISHS Section Vegetables, Quality Production Systems, Leafy Green and Non-Root Vegetables, \ ISHS Section Vegetables, Roots, Tubers, Edible Bulbs, Brassica, Asparagus. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ ISHS Commission Plant Genetic Resources, \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ ISHS Working Group Quality Management in Plant Propagation. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ 2018
Soundy, P. \ Slabbert, R. \ Kleyhans, R. \ ISHS Section Vegetables, Quality Production Systems, Leafy Green and Non-Root Vegetables, \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ 2018
Cartea, M. E.. \ Velasco, P. \ Soengas, P. \ Rodríguez, V. M.. \ Francisco, M. \ ISHS Section Vegetables, Roots, Tubers, Edible Bulbs, Brassica, Asparagus. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ 2018
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