Brunel, Thomas \ Verkempynck, Ruben \ Broekhoven, Wouter van \ Batsleer, Jurgen \ 2019
Abstract: This study aims at describing the spatial distribution – and its temporal variations - of discarding intensity (i.e. expected weight of discards for a standard trawl haul) for the 6 main species discarded by the Dutch beam trawl fisheries. For each species, the spatial distribution (quarterly maps for the period 2013 to 2017) is estimated using statistical models that take spatial and temporal correlation into account, which also allowed to test for the effect of a number of factors related to geography, environment, fishing practices and operational aspects on discarding. The data used to fit those models came from the observer trips and self-sampling program conducted at Wageningen Marine Research and from discards sampling trips conducted by the fishing industry. As by-product, the models provide descriptors of the temporal and spatial scales at which the discards of a given species are structured. The distribution of the expected discards per haul for dab was highly variable from quarter to quarter, with generally high discarding intensity in front of the southern coast of the Netherlands in quarter 1, a discarding intensity which is high on the German bight and low in front of the Dutch coast in quarter 3, and variable distributions for quarter 2 and 4. For plaice, the distribution was more stable, with high values consistently observed in the south of the area (between the south of the Netherlands and England), with occasional hot spots on the German bight. For sole, discards were not observed on the north-western part of the area, and a hotspot of sole discarding was found consistently in front of the southern coast of the Netherlands, occasionally expanding towards England or to the northern coast of the Netherlands. Discarding of turbot first occurred with a low intensity along the coast from Belgium to Germany. After the fourth quarter of 2015, high discarding started to occur, first limited to the small area in the southern North Sea, but progressively expanding to a larger area in the southern and central part of the North Sea, while discarding intensity remained low in the northern part of the area and in front of England. The distribution discarding intensity for whiting was highly variably, characterised by hotspots suddenly appearing for most years in the fourth quarter, and disappear in the following first quarter. Discarding of rays occurred mainly in the western part of the area, especially in front of southern England, with an increasing level since the fourth quarter of 2016. The distributions observed and their variability were further discussed in the light the available information on the distribution and migration of the species and on the management measures potentially influencing discarding.
Abstract: Lowland streams are being restored to their natural situation throughout Europe. However, a lot of projects do not meet their goals. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap on the restoration demands and the current understanding on the morphodynamics of low-energy streams. The focus of this thesis is on the morphodynamic evolution of the lowland stream the Dommel, in The Netherlands. The Dommel is located in the Roer Valley Graben and flows in the sandy deposits of the Boxtel formation. Due to the subsidence of the Roer Valley Graben, it is a good location to study sediment deposits. The used methods, are a combination of literature, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), auguring and Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating. The results indicate a succession that started with a braided system during the Pleniglacial, to a large meandering system in the Late Glacial. Towards the end of the Younger Dryas the large meanders were abandoned and the system shifted to a lower energetic meandering system and eventually an immobile system. The stream kept its immobile river pattern until anthropogenic land use affected the stream by increasing the stream power, causing the Dommel to transit to a more energetic meandering pattern during the Bronze Age (Late Subboreal). It is concluded that the Dommel would have remain lateral immobile, if there were no anthropogenic influences in the catchment.
Wallace, Rodrick \ Chaves, Luis Fernando \ Bergmann, Luke R.. \ Ayres, Constńcia \ Hogerwerf, Lenny \ Kock, Richard \ Wallace, Robert G.. \ 2018
Abstract: The vector-borne Zika virus joins avian influenza, Ebola, and yellow fever as recent public health crises threatening pandemicity. By a combination of stochastic modeling and economic geography, this book proposes two key causes together explain the explosive spread of the worst of the vector-borne outbreaks. Ecosystems in which such pathogens are largely controlled by environmental stochasticity are being drastically streamlined by both agribusiness-led deforestation and deficits in public health and environmental sanitation. Consequently, a subset of infections that once burned out relatively quickly in local forests are now propagating across susceptible human populations whose vulnerability to infection is often exacerbated in structurally adjusted cities. The resulting outbreaks are characterized by greater global extent, duration, and momentum. As infectious diseases in an age of nation states and global health programs cannot, as much of the present modeling literature presumes, be described by interacting populations of host, vector, and pathogen alone, a series of control theory models is also introduced here. These models, useful to researchers and health officials alike, explicitly address interactions between government ministries and the pathogens they aim to control.
Abstract: The main object of this book is to explain some of the mechanisms of integration and secession among regions from the point of view of game theory. To attain this goal, the incentives of regions in a country to unite or to secede and the conditions in the way for the member countries of a federation to leave peacefully are examined. Tensions over secession have become more and more serious, including separatist tensions in China, India, Iraq, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka. Studies included in this book stress differing preferences in the type of policy in each region and the influence of a third region on the power of secession. Decentralization strategies of tax-subsidy policy and governance policy in a political or economic group composed of two regions are shown to be important as a way to avoid wasteful conflict for the secession incentive of a minority region. How those incentives depend on heterogeneity costs associated with different preferences over the type of region and the relative size of the two regions is shown. Also provided is an analytical framework in which secessions are the equilibrium outcome of explicit civil conflict, where regions with different preferences invest in costly conflict activities. Finally, an empirical analysis is made of determinant factors of secession movements in many regions to verify the validity of our theories of secession. This book is recommended to researchers who are interested in a new economic geography and an interdisciplinary approach for regional economics.
Abstract: The Azores archipelago consists of nine islands that emerge from the Azores Plateau in the Central Northern Atlantic, situated within the triple junction of the American, Eurasian and African lithosphere plates. Subaerial volcanic activity has been well known since the Pliocene and continues today, with several well-documented eruptions since the settlement of the islands in the fifteenth century. The origin of the Azores Plateau has been a matter of scientific debate and thus this book provides the first comprehensive overview of geological features in the Azores from volcanological, geochemical, petrological, paleontological, structural and hydrological perspectives.
Abstract: This book summarizes three years of extensive research conducted in Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Vietnam as part of the CECAR – Asia project, which was intended to enhance resilience to climate and ecosystem changes by developing mosaic systems to strengthen resilience of bio-production systems through the integration of large-scale modern agriculture systems with traditional, decentralized small-scale systems. The book starts with climate downscaling and impact assessment in rural Asia, and then explores various adaptation options and measures by utilizing modern science and traditional knowledge including home garden systems and ancient irrigation systems. The book subsequently examines the influence of climatic and ecological changes and the vulnerability of social economies from quantitative and qualitative standpoints, applying econometric and statistical models in agriculture communities of Asia to do so. The main goal of all chapters and case studies presented here is to identify the merits of applying organic methods to both commercial large-scale production and traditional production to strengthen social resilience and promote sustainable development. Especially at a time when modern agriculture systems are highly optimized but run the risk of failure due to changes in the climate and ecosystem, this book offers viable approaches to developing an integrated framework of modern and traditional systems to enhance productivity and total system resilience, as illustrated in various case studies.
Abstract: This thesis explores fluid distribution along the Nankai-Trough megathrust fault around the Kii Peninsula of Japan, where devastating earthquakes are expected to occur in the near future. Exploring fluid distribution along subduction zones is an important issue because the fluid is considered to control the occurrence of earthquakes. One of the effective strategies to estimate fluid content is retrieving receiver functions (RFs) from seismograms, but in the case of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs), noisy P-wave reverberations within the seawater column make such an analysis difficult. The author therefore developed a novel technique to suppress the water reverberations, which allows obtaining the fluid distribution data along a wide depth range on the plate interface. This thesis first presents the new technique, called the water layer filter method, and demonstrates its efficiency by using both synthetic and observation data. Then, using the method, a receiver function image of the Philippine Sea Plate is constructed to reveal dehydration processes of the subducting oceanic crust around the Kii Peninsula. Finally, the author performs high-frequency receiver function inversion analysis. The results indicate the presence of a thin fluid-rich sediment layer along the megathrust fault off the Kii Peninsula that acts as a pathway of fluid. Nowadays, the number of offshore observations is increasing worldwide. In this respect, the attempt to better analyze OBS data employing the new method will become more important in future studies.
Abstract: This book investigates different aspects of the relationship between “healthy cities” and “urban planning”, examining various best practices in Europe. It uses the above as a starting point and investigates different aspects of healthy cities, examining various best practices in Europe. Capitalizing on ongoing trials, the chapters identify the policies that underlie plans and projects that have caused positive changes in local communities in terms of the quality of life and safety of inhabitants. From these best practices, the book deduces criteria and guidelines for planning healthy and safe cities.
Clouds Remote sensing - Imaging systems in meteorology - Precipitation (Meteorology) Remote sensing
Abstract: This book presents current applications of remote sensing techniques for clouds and precipitation for the benefit of students, educators, and scientists. It covers ground-based systems such as weather radars and spaceborne instruments on satellites. Measurements and modeling of precipitation are at the core of weather forecasting, and long-term observations of the cloud system are vital to improving atmospheric models and climate projections. The first section of the book focuses on the use of ground-based weather radars to observe and measure precipitation and to detect and forecast storms, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. It also discusses the observation of clouds using ground-based millimeter radar. The second part of the book concentrates on spaceborne remote sensing of clouds and precipitation. It includes cases from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, using satellite radars to observe precipitation systems. Then, the focus is on global cloud observations from the ClaudSat, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), including a perspective on the Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) satellite. It also addresses global atmospheric water vapor profiling for clear and cloudy conditions using microwave observations. The final part of this volume provides a perspective into advances in cloud modeling using remote sensing observations.
Abstract: This interactive book presents comprehensive information on the fundamentals of landslide types and dynamics, while also providing a set of PPT, PDF, and text tools for education and capacity development. It is the second part of a two-volume work created as the core activity of the Sendai Partnerships, the International Consortium of Landslides. The book will be regularly updated and improved over the coming years, based on responses from users and lessons learned during its application.
Geography - Hydrology - Geographic information systems - Geomorphology - Civil engineering - Soil erosion prediction
Abstract: This book presents a novel computation of the topographic LS factor of the USLE model to estimate spatial soil erosion. In developing countries, soil erosion is one of the main concerns as it adversely affects agriculture and reduces food production. Therefore, the author presents a particularly relevant approach, as he demonstrates how the C++ programming allows us to identify important erosion stages like detachment and deposition. He does this by assessing the annual rate of soil erosion from the Shakkar River watershed in India using distributed information and applying RS and GIS techniques. He also discusses different approaches that have been proposed to work out the influence of topography on erosion. Simulated and observed data of sediment loss are compared for the period 1992 to 2006.This book provides an easy-to-understand basic piece of soil erosion and hydrological research and reaches out to young researchers and students at the graduate and undergraduate level as well as applicants of soil erosion models. .
Abstract: This volume presents a novel framework to understand urban climate co-benefits in India, that is, tackling climate change and achieving sustainable development goals in cities. It utilizes methods and tools from several assessment frameworks to scientifically evaluate sector co-benefits for informed decision making. The co-benefits approach can lead to significant improvements in the way societies use environmental resources and distribute their outputs. The volume discusses four main themes: (1) Concepts and theories on cities and climate co-benefits; (2) Contextualizing co-benefit issues across spatial scales and sectors; (3) Sectoral analyses of co-benefits in energy, transport, buildings, waste, and biodiversity, and (4) Innovations and reforms needed to promote co-benefits in cities. The discussions are based on empirical research conducted in Indian cities and aligned with the international discourse on the 2030 UN Development Agenda and New Urban Agenda created at the UN-Habitat III in 2016. The analyses and recommendations in this volume are of considerable interest to policy experts, scholars and researchers of urban and regional studies, geography, public policy, international development/law, economics, development planning, environmental planning, climate change, energy studies, and so on. How can India provide services and infrastructure to its rapidly urbanizing population and simultaneously reduce emissions? While answering such questions this book is a must read to understand India’s course in implementing the Habitat III agenda, as well as achieving relevant Sustainable Development Goals. -Professor Govindan Parayil, Dean of the Patel College of Global Sustainablility, University of South Florida, USA (Former Vice-Rector and Director, UNU-IAS, Japan).
Abstract: This book presents a detailed study of the structure and variability of internal tides and their geographical distribution in the ocean. Based on experimental analysis of oceanic measurements combined with numerical modeling, it offers a comprehensive overview of the internal wave processes around the globe. In particular, it is based on moored buoys observations in many regions in all oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Southern) that have been carried out by researchers from different countries for more than 40 years as part of various oceanographic programs, including WOCE and CLIVAR. However, a significant portion of the data was collected by the author, who is a field oceanographer. The data was processed and interpreted on the basis of the latest knowledge of internal wave motion. The properties of internal waves were analyzed in relation to the bottom topography and mean state of the ocean in specific regions. Internal waves play a major role in the formation of seawater stratification and are responsible for the main processes of ocean dynamics, such as energy transfer and mixing. One of the most significant ideas presented in this book is the generation of internal tides over submarine ridges. Energy fluxes from submarine ridges related to tidal internal waves greatly exceed the fluxes from continental slopes. Submarine ridges form an obstacle to the propagation of tidal currents, which can cause the creation of large amplitude internal tides. Energy fluxes from submarine ridges account for approximately one fourth of the total energy dissipation of the barotropic tides. Model simulations and moored measurements have been combined to generate a map of global distribution of internal tide amplitudes. This book is of interest to oceanographers, marine biologists, civil engineers, and scientists working in climate research, fluid mechanics, acoustics, and underwater navigation.
Abstract: This book offers a unique introduction to the application of data science for transport professionals and students of transport studies. Based on a course taught by the Leeds Institute for Transport Studies, the world’s leading center for training transport professionals, it represents the first textbook in this new area. As transportation planning has become increasingly data-driven, all graduate students and transport professionals urgently need to update their skills to include databases, machine learning, Bayesian statistics, geographic information system (GIS), and big data tools. Similarly, transport professionals including national and local government planners, transport consultants, and car company engineers are called upon to integrate these disparate areas with a specific focus on transportation issues, such as maps. The textbook also features a downloadable software package with all of the open source tools and libraries used in code examples throughout the book, including Python, Spyder, PostGIS, PyMC and GPy installations. As such, it offers a unique resource for graduate/advanced undergraduate students and instructors in transportation studies, urban and regional planning, engineering and geography, as well as transportation professionals.
Renewable energy sources Galapagos Islands - Sustainable development Galapagos Islands - Energy development - Renewable energy sources - Sustainable development
Abstract: The purpose of this book is to present a range of cases and comparison of the issues, insights and cases emerging from the Sustainable Energy Mix Summit in the Galapagos that offer a better understanding of energy mix in fragile environments from a variety of International locations and contexts including the Galapagos. .
Abstract: This book investigates a shared experience of time and space in the post-civil-war city of Beirut: ?the suspended now.? Based on the close analysis of a large corpus of cultural objects; including visual art, literature, architecture and cinema; the book argues that last decades have witnessed a gradual shift in understanding this temporality from being a transitional phase to a more durable experience of precariousness. The theoretically rich analyses take us on a journey through Beirut?s real and imagined geographies, from garbage dumps to real estate advertisements, and from subterranean spaces to martyr?s posters. For scholars of cultural analysis, urban studies, cultural geography and critical theory, the case of post-1990 Beirut offers a fascinating case of neoliberal urban renewal, which challenges existing theories. For scholars of Lebanon and Beirut, this study complements existing work on post-civil-war Lebanese cultural production rooted in trauma studies by its focus on the city?s continual exposure to violence.
Discoveries in geography International cooperation - Space law - Space law International cooperation
Abstract: On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Outer Space Treaty this book gives a first insight into where the next generation considers room for further improvement of the Outer Space Treaty in order to cope with upcoming aspects such as providing solutions for the emerging commercial, economic, environmental and social questions.t the time of the adoption of the Outer Space Treaty in 1967 the purpose of this treaty was to avoid conflicting military situations in space. However, 50 years later the Outer Space Treaty is n demand to meet the ever increasing space activities and the different actors involved such as the rise of the private sector players.
Abstract: This authoritative and comprehensive edited volume presents current research on how demography can contribute to generating scientific knowledge and evidence concerning refugees and forced migration, developing evidence based policy recommendations on protection for forced migrants and reception of refugees, and revealing the determinants and consequences of migration for origin and destination regions and communities. Refugee and other forced migrations have increased substantially in scale, complexity and diversity in recent decades. These changes challenge traditional approaches in response to refugee and other forced migration situations, and protection of refugees. Demography has an important contribution to make in this analytic space. While other disciplines (especially anthropology, law, geography, political science and international relations) have made major contributions to refugee and forced migration studies, demography has been less present with most research focusing on issues of refugee mortality and morbidity. This book specifies the range of topics for which a demographic approach is highly appropriate, and identifies findings of demographic research which can contribute to ever more effective policy making in this important arena of human welfare and international policy.
Siart, Christoph \ Forbriger, Markus \ Bubenzer, Olaf \ 2018
Abstract: Modern archaeology can be considered as an interdisciplinary approach that increasingly combines different methods and datasets to answer questions about ancient cultures and their remains. Having its major focus on new technologies and multi-method research approaches, the book promotes interdisciplinary studies between different disciplines such as archaeology, computer sciences, geography, geoinformatics, geodesy, history, etc. Common fields of work as well as future challenges are identified and discussed from different scientific perspectives. Each chapter starts with a general introduction to the topic followed by case studies. By stimulating knowledge transfer and collaboration, Digital Geoarchaeology contributes to an effective protection of cultural heritage and a better understanding of ancient landscapes along with their forming processes. This book includes topics and applications such as geographic and archaeological information systems, remote sensing, e.g. satellite imagery, aerial photographs, terrestrial and airborne laser scanning, digital image processing and pattern recognition, digital elevation models, 3D and 4D visualization and landscape reconstruction, geophysical prospecting, e.g. ERT, SRT, GPR as well as spatiotemporal analysis.
Abstract: This book evaluates the consequences of economic, social, environmental and cultural change on people living and working within Teesside in the North-East of England. It assesses the lived experiences, working lives, health and cultural perspectives of residents and key stakeholders in the wake of serious de-industralisation in the region. The narrative is embedded within the long-term industrial history of Stockton: an area once dominated by steel, coal and chemical industries. This past still continues to shape its future and influences the ways in which that future is conceived and envisioned. The author explores a ?biography of place? analytical framework to offer a holistic view of the area, which considers the interaction between the social, economic, cultural, visual and environmental legacy of the community, which is firmly grounded in the past, present and future prospects of those who live and work there.
Abstract: This book is dedicated to the study of the islands and their role in a globalised world. Beside Coastal or Oceanic/Marine Geography, there is little comprehensive material about the speciality of small island geography so far. It aims to bridge natural, social and cultural science perspectives. In Geography of Small Islands readers learn about the physical development of islands, their cultural and political importance, as well as their economic particularities. This book appeals to researchers, students and scholars with an interest in the special characteristics in spatialities of islands.
Zhang, Yongxian \ Goebel, Thomas \ Peng, Zhigang \ Willia, Charles A.. \ Yoder, Mark \ Rundle, John B.. \ 2018
Natural disasters Pacific Area - Earthquakes - Natural disasters
Abstract: This is the first of two volumes devoted to earthquakes and multi-hazards around the Pacific Rim. The circum-Pacific seismic belt is home to roughly 80% of the world?s largest earthquakes, making it the ideal location for investigating earthquakes and related hazards such as tsunamis and landslides. Gathering 16 papers that cover a range of topics related to multi-hazards, the book is divided into three sections: earthquake physics, earthquake simulation and data assimilation, and multi-hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting models. The first section includes papers on laboratory-derived rheological parameters as well as seismic studies in the Gulf of California and China. In turn, the second section includes papers on improvements in earthquake simulators as well as the statistical methods used to evaluate their performance, automated methods for determining fault slip using near-field interferometric data, variabilities in earthquake stress drops in California, and the use of social media data to supplement physical sensor data when estimating local earthquake intensity. The final section includes a paper on probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, several papers on time-dependent seismic hazard analysis around the Pacific Rim, and a paper on induced and triggered seismicity at the Geysers geothermal field in California. Rapid advances are being made in our understanding of multi-hazards, as well as the range of tools used to investigate them. This volume provides a representative cross-section of how state-of-the-art knowledge and tools are currently being applied to multi-hazards around the Pacific Rim. The material here should be of interest to scientists involved in all areas of multi-hazards, particularly seismic and tsunami hazards. In addition, it offers a valuable resource for students in the geosciences, covering a broad spectrum of topics related to hazard research.
Abstract: This volume collects several extended articles from the first workshop on Best Practices in Physics-based Fault Rupture Models for Seismic Hazard Assessment of Nuclear Installations (BestPSHANI). Held in 2015, the workshop was organized by the IAEA to disseminate the use of physics-based fault-rupture models for ground motion prediction in seismic hazard assessments (SHA). The book also presents a number of new contributions on topics ranging from the seismological aspects of earthquake cycle simulations for source scaling evaluation, seismic source characterization, source inversion and physics-based ground motion modeling to engineering applications of simulated ground motion for the analysis of seismic response of structures. Further, it includes papers describing current practices for assessing seismic hazard in terms of nuclear safety in low seismicity areas, and proposals for physics-based hazard assessment for critical structures near large earthquakes. The papers validate and verify the models by comparing synthetic results with observed data and empirical models. The book is a valuable resource for scientists, engineers, students and practitioners involved in all aspects of SHA.
Earth sciences Remote sensing - Geographic information systems
Abstract: This book, written by an international team of prominent authors, gathers the latest developments in mobile technologies for the acquisition, management, analysis and sharing of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in the context of Earth observation.ɴ is divided into three parts, the first of which presents case studies on the implementation of VGI for Earth observation, discusses the characteristics of volunteers? engagement in relation with their expertise and motivation, analyzes the tasks they are called upon to perform, and examines the available tools for developing VGI. In turn, the second part introduces readers to essential methods, techniques and algorithms used to develop mobile information systems based on VGI for distinct Earth observation tasks, while the last part focuses on the drawbacks and limitations of VGI with regard to the above-mentioned tasks and proposes innovative methods and techniques to help overcome them. Given its breadth of coverage, the book offers a comprehensive, practice-oriented reference guide for researchers and practitioners in the field of geo-information management.
Abstract: This book develops a morphodynamical approach of spatial networks with a particular emphasis on infrastructure networks such as streets, roads and transportation networks (subway, train). The author presents the mathematical tools needed to characterize these structures and how they evolve in time. The book discusses the most important empirical results and stylized facts, and will present the most important models of spatial networks. The target audience primarily comprises research scientists interested in this rapidly evolving and highly interdisciplinary field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students interested in large networks.
Kiefer, Peter \ Huang, Haosheng \ Weghe, Nico Van de \ Raubal, Martin M.. \ 2018
Abstract: This book gathers a selection of the best papers presented during the 14th International Conference on Location Based Services, which was held in Zurich (Switzerland) between the 15th and 17th January 2018. It presents a general overview of recent research activities related to location based services. Such activities have grown in importance over the past several years, especially those concerning outdoor/indoor positioning, smart environments, spatial modeling, personalization and context-awareness, cartographic communication, novel user interfaces, crowdsourcing, social media, big data analysis, usability and privacy.
Abstract: This volume provides an accessible scientific introduction to the historical geography of Tropical Pacific Islands, assessing the environmental and cultural changes they have undergone and how they are affected currently by these shifts and alterations. The book emphasizes the roles of plants, animals, people, and the environment in shaping the tropical Pacific through a cross-disciplinary approach involving history, geography, biology, environmental science, and anthropology. With these diverse scientific perspectives, the eight chapters of the book provide a comprehensive overview of Tropical Pacific Islands from their initial colonization by native peoples to their occupation by colonial powers, and the contemporary changes that have affected the natural history and social fabric of these islands. The Tropical Pacific Islands are introduced by a description of their geological formation, development, and geography. From there, the book details the origins of the island's original peoples and the dawn of the political economy of these islands, including the domestication and trade of plants, animals, and other natural resources. Next, readers will learn about the impact of missionaries on Pacific Islands, and the affects of Wold War II and nuclear testing on natural resources and the health of its people. The final chapter discusses the islands in the context of natural resource extraction, population increases, and global climate change. Working together these factors are shown to affect rainfall and limited water resources, as well as the ability to sustain traditional crops, and the capacity of the islands to accomodate its residents.
Abstract: This book explores the mediated struggles for autonomy, land rights and social justice in a context of growing authoritarianism and persistent coloniality in Nicaragua. To do so, it draws on in-depth fieldwork, analysis of media texts, and decolonial and other cultural theories. There are two main threats to the authoritarian rule of the Nicaraguan government led by Daniel Ortega: the first is the Managua-based NGO and civil society sector led largely by educated dissident Sandinistas, and the second is the escalating struggle for autonomy and land rights being fought by Nicaragua?s indigenous and Afro-descended inhabitants on the country?s Caribbean coast. In order to confront these threats and, it seems, secure indefinite political tenure, the government engages in a set of centralizing and anti-democratic political strategies characterized by secrecy, institutional power grabs, highly suspect electoral practices, clientelistic anti-poverty programmes, and the control through purchase or co-optation of much of the nation's media. The social movements that threaten Ortega?s rule are however operating through dispersed and topological modalities of power and the creative use of emergent spaces for the circulation of counter-discourses and counter-narratives within a rapidly transforming media environment. The primary response to these mediated tactics is a politics of silence and a refusal to acknowledge or respond to the political claims made by social movements. In the current conjuncture, the authors identify a struggle for hegemony whose strategies and tactics include the citizenship-stripping activities of the state and the citizenship-claiming activities of black, indigenous and dissident actors and activists. This struggle plays out in part through the mediated circulation and counter-circulation of discourses and the infrastructural dynamics of media convergence.
Geochemistry - Groundwater Pollution - Water chemistry
Abstract: This monograph instructs the reader on how to analyze the hydrogeochemical vulnerability. It introduces notions of geochemical signals, points of migration of pollutants in the unsaturated zone, and new hydrogeochemical classifications. Three test sites in the USA, Germany, and Moldova are described as case studies accompanied by illustrative data. The authors presuppose for future readers only the background mathematics and elementary knowledge of hydrogeology. The presented methodology is both for local and regional assessments. It is simple, does not need implication of high qualification specialists and can be applied to test the groundwater quality. The book is useful for undergraduate, graduate, master, and PhD students as well as water quality specialists, ecologists and geology professionals.
Abstract: This edited book investigates the interrelations of disaster impacts, resilience and security in an urban context. Urban as a term captures megacities, cities, and generally, human settlements, that are characterised by concentration of quantifiable and non-quantifiable subjects, objects and value attributions to them. The scope is to narrow down resilience from an all-encompassing concept to applied ways of scientifically attempting to ?measure? this type of disaster related resilience. 28 chapters in this book reflect opportunities and doubts of the disaster risk science community regarding this ?measurability?. Therefore, examples utilising both quantitative and qualitative approaches are juxtaposed. This book concentrates on features that are distinct characteristics of resilience, how they can be measured and in what sense they are different to vulnerability and risk parameters. Case studies in 11 countries either use a hypothetical pre-event estimation of resilience or are addressing a ?revealed resilience? evident and documented after an event. Such information can be helpful to identify benchmarks or margins of impact magnitudes and related recovery times, volumes and qualities of affected populations and infrastructure.
Abstract: This book brings forward the concept of the geology-environmental capacity of ground buildings. It quantifies the geology-environmental capacity of ground buildings by analyzing the main factors of land subsidence and setting up the evaluation system. The geological environmental capacity of ground buildings is mainly controlled by the land subsidence and the output is the floor area ratio. According to the different geology structures and the different requirements of subsidence control in the soft soil areas in Shanghai, the evaluation system of the floor area ratio is built up by the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and the floor area ratios of four typical regions (Lujiazui, Xujiahui, Zhongyuan and Changqiao) are obtained by the ANFIS to offer references for urban planning. By taking the typical soft soil areas in Shanghai as case studies, this book will provide valuable insights to professors and graduate students in the field of Geotechnical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Engineering Geology and Environmental Geology.
City planning - Organizational change - Sustainable urban development
Abstract: This book provides rich knowledge on how to understand and actively contribute to urban sustainability transitions. It combines theoretical frameworks and tools with practical experiences on transition management as a framework that supports urban planning and governance towards sustainability. The book offers the opportunity to become actively engaged in working towards sustainable futures of cities. Readers will be equipped to understand the complexity of urban sustainability transitions and diagnose persistent unsustainability problems in cities. The heart marks the variety of very different local case studies across the world, including Rotterdam in the Netherlands, La Botija in Honduras, Sydney in Australia and Cleveland in the US.
Abstract: Renewable energy represents a game changer for interstate energy relations. The abundant and intermittent nature of sources, possibilities for decentral generation and use of rare earth materials, and generally electric nature of distribution make renewable energy systems very different from those of fossil fuels. What do these geographic and technical characteristics imply for infrastructure topology and operations, business models, and energy markets? What are the consequences for strategic realities and policy considerations of producer, consumer, and transit countries and energy-related patterns of cooperation and conflict between them? Who are the likely winners and losers? The Geopolitics of Renewables is the first in-depth exploration of the implications for interstate energy relations of a transition towards renewable energy. Fifteen international scholars combine insights from several disciplines - international relations, geopolitics, energy security, renewable energy technology, economics, sustainability transitions, and energy policy - to establish a comprehensive overview and understanding of the emerging energy game. Focus is on contemporary developments and how they may shape the coming decades on three levels of analysis: · The emerging global energy game; winners and losers · Regional and bilateral energy relations of established and rising powers · Infrastructure developments and governance responses The book is recommended for academics and policy makers. It offers a novel analytical framework that moves from geography and technology to economics and politics to investigate the geopolitical implications of renewable energy and provides practical illustrations and policy recommendations related to specific countries and regions such as the US, EU, China, India, OPEC, and Russia.
Abstract: This book contains seven parts. The first part deals with some aspects of rainfall analysis, including rainfall probability distribution, local rainfall interception, and analysis for reservoir release. Part 2 is on evapotranspiration and discusses development of neural network models, errors, and sensitivity. Part 3 focuses on various aspects of urban runoff, including hydrologic impacts, storm water management, and drainage systems. Part 4 deals with soil erosion and sediment, covering mineralogical composition, geostatistical analysis, land use impacts, and land use mapping. Part 5 treats remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) applications to different hydrologic problems. Watershed runoff and floods are discussed in Part 6, encompassing hydraulic, experimental, and theoretical aspects. Water modeling constitutes the concluding Part 7. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Xinanjiang, and Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) models are discussed. The book is of interest to researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources, hydrology, environmental resources, agricultural engineering, watershed management, earth sciences, as well as those engaged in natural resources planning and management. Graduate students and those wishing to conduct further research in water and environment and their development and management find the book to be of value.
City planning - Forests and forestry - Geographic information systems - Geography - Geophysics - Landscape ecology - Politics and war - Regional planning
Abstract: This book gives a comprehensive overview of all relevant elements in topography and their practical application. It elaborates on the classical representation of terrain on maps such as cartographic projections, together with their classification, scale, and geographical elements. It is richly illustrated with photographs, maps and figures, in which the theoretical explanations are clarified. Readers will become acquainted with the physical characteristics of the ground, i.e. tectonic and erosive shapes, the importance and classification of terrain, genetic (fluvial, abrasive, glacial, karst) and topographic types such as higher (mountains, hills, peaks) and lower terrain (valleys, fields). In addition, the book discusses cartometry and coordinate systems, orientation in space (geographic, topographic, tactical) including by means of maps, instruments and the night sky and elaborates new techniques and technologies such as aerial photogrammetric imagery, global navigation satellite systems and LiDAR. The book also includes methods for the practical execution of concrete measurement operations, such as determining position and movement on land with maps, compass and azimuth which makes it especially useful for practitioners and professionals, e.g., for landscape planning, military exercises, mountaineering, nature walks etc. As such it offers a valuable guide not only for undergraduate students but also for researchers in the fields of geography, geosciences, geodesy, ecology, forestry and related areas looking for an overview on topography. Uniquely, the book also features an extensive glossary of topographical terms.
Abstract: This book discusses the impact of long-period ground motions on structural design using the situation in Bucharest, the capital city of Romania, as a case study. The first part explores the seismic hazard situation in Bucharest, and the causes of long-period ground motions related to both the source and the site. Subsequently, it examines the current seismic design, detailing building practices in Bucharest, and discusses the impact of long-period ground motions on seismic design. Lastly, several case study buildings in Bucharest are presented and the major difficulties encountered in their design are considered. The book also includes various numerical examples that help readers understand the impact of long-period ground motions on various structural systems, that are currently used in Bucharest. This book is intended for researchers in the field of seismic hazard and risk assessment and designers of multi-story buildings in seismic areas.
Abstract: This book underpins the geography of the Black Sea, covering topics such as morphology, morphography, geology, and history of the Black Sea. It also discusses environmental aspects affecting the population in the Black Sea's coastal settlements and looks to the future of the Black Sea region. This book covers a gap in research in the field of world regional geography of the Black Sea by providing a comprehensive methodology and terminology to readers, students and teachers in the field.
Land use History - Geographic information systems - Information storage and retrieval systems Land use - Land use
Abstract: Hendrik Herold explores potentials and hindrances of using retrospective geoinformation for monitoring, communicating, modeling, and eventually understanding the complex and gradually evolving processes of land cover and land use change. Based on a comprehensive review of literature, available data sets, and suggested algorithms, the author proposes approaches for the two major challenges: To address the diversity of geographical entity representations over space and time, image segmentation is considered a global non-linear optimization problem, which is solved by applying a metaheuristic algorithm. To address the uncertainty inherent to both the data source itself as well as its utilization for change detection, a probabilistic model is developed. Experimental results demonstrate the capabilities of the methodology, e.g., for geospatial data science and earth system modeling. Contents Monitoring and Modeling Land Change Geoinformation from Digital Images An Adaptive Map Image Analysis Approach Modeling Uncertainty for Change Analysis Target Groups Researchers, lecturers, and students from the fields of geoscience, geography, urban and landscape ecology, land change science, earth system science, digital humanities Town and country planners, map librarians, historians The Author Hendrik Herold holds a doctoral degree from Dresden University of Technology, Germany, where he studied Geography, Geology, and Meteorology. .
Abstract: This book investigates the industrial agglomeration and dispersion within a country under trade liberalization and interregional integration by considering both economic forces and geographical elements. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction about the background, research topics and organizations in this book. Chapter 2 provides a detailed explanation of Krugman?s new economic geography (NEG) model and reviews the subsequent refinements of the original model from mainly geographical viewpoints. Chapter 3 extends Krugman?s original model to a two-country and three-region case where the domestic regions are fully asymmetrical in terms of their sizes and accessibilities to global markets. To better explain the reality of developing countries, chapter 4 presents an analytical model which assumes that unskilled workers are employed in both traditional and manufacturing sectors. Chapter 5 empirically investigates the home market effect (HME) in terms of wages in the case of China by using panel data for the period 1980?2012. Chapter 6 gives a summary and implication about the findings and conclusions in this book.
Geophysics in archaeology - Ground penetrating radar - Magnetometry in archaeology
Abstract: This book presents the integrated use of magnetometry and ground-penetrating radar geophysical mapping to understand the human presence within buried archaeological landscapes. Ground-penetrating radar can be used to identify buried living surfaces, geological stratigraphy and the architectural remains of sites in three-dimensions. Magnetometry can produce images denoting differences on the composition of those materials, both anthropogenic and natural, but with more limited three-dimensional resolution. The integration of the two has a unique ability to resolve and interpret these buried materials, differentiated between the human-caused and natural layers, and place all buried features within historic landscapes. The final product of geophysical integration, along with some limited subsurface testing, produces a holistic analysis of human adaptations to, and modifications of, the ancient landscape. Examples are shown from sites in Roman Croatia and Britain, Medieval Ireland, Colonial Connecticut, and an Archaic site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. These examples from very different environments, time periods and cultural groups illustrate how the integrated geophysical methodology can interpret, on a scale approaching many hectares, the ancient landscapes within which people lived.
Abstract: This contributed volume collects cutting-edge research in Geographic Information Science & Technologies, Location Modeling, and Spatial Analysis of Urban and Regional Systems. The contributions emphasize methodological innovations or substantive breakthroughs on many facets of the socio-economic and environmental reality of urban and regional contexts.
Abstract: This multidisciplinary work analyses challenges to sustainable development amidst rapidly changing climate in the world?s largest delta ? the Sundarbans. Empirical evidence unpacks grounded vulnerabilities and reveals their temporal socio-economic impacts. A novel concept of ?everyday disasters? is proposed ? supported by data and photographic evidence ? that contests institutional disaster definition. Then it uncovers how the geopolitics of ecological governance and its hegemonic discourse dominate local policies, which in turn fail to address local socio-ecological concerns, adaptation needs and development aspirations. Absence of local vocabularies, cognitive values and socio-cultural contexts along with spatially constricted, exclusionary, top-down techno-science approaches further escalate knowledge-action gaps. Deconstruction of multiscalar conflicts between the global rhetoric and transformative postcolonial geographies offers an ethical, Southern perspective of sustainability.
Abstract: "The practice of packing a bag is a situation where subtle, daily processes can attune us to the relationships and experiences formed in mobile situations. There has been great attention to mundane and material practices in tourism, yet the process of packing, which is integral to any journey, remains unexamined.Everyday Practices of Tourism Mobilities: Packing a Bag expands on the foundational theories of tourist practices through a rich assortment of photographic documentation and interviews with tourists in hostelling accommodation. It presents the intricacies and relations emerging through packing and the connections to an array of actors entwined in both touristic and everyday experiences of movement. Using case studies in Iceland and Nepal, the book explores how idealised tourist destinations influence everyday actions. The disjuncture between mundane routines and the heightened immersive environments is conducive to tourists attuning to the entanglement of actors and experiences beyond individual expectations. The book traces these moments of collective experiences to reflect on the intersections of globalised mobility and everyday tourist practices.The international scope of this highly original and intriguing book will appeal to a broad academic audience, including scholars of tourism, cultural and social geography, mobilities studies, and environmental humanities."--Provided by publisher.
Abstract: "Extreme weather events, such as droughts, strong winds and storms, flash floods and extreme heat and cold, are among the most destructive yet fascinating aspects of climate variability. Historical records and memories charting the impacts and responses to such events are a crucial component of any research that seeks to understand the nature of events that might take place in the future. Yet all such events need to be situated for their implications to be understood.This book is the first to explore the cultural contingency of extreme and unusual weather events and the ways in which they are recalled, recorded or forgotten. It illustrates how geographical context, particular physical conditions, an area's social and economic activities and embedded cultural knowledges and infrastructures all affect community experiences of and responses to unusual weather. Contributions refer to varied methods of remembering and recording weather and how these act to curate, recycle and transmit extreme events across generations and into the future. With international case studies, from both land and sea, the book explores how and why particular weather events become inscribed into the fabric of communities and contribute to community change in different historical and cultural contexts.This is valuable reading for students and researchers interested in historical and cultural geography, environmental anthropology and environmental studies."--Provided by publisher.
Abstract: "The apocalyptic visions of climate change that are projected in the media often involve extreme weather events, disasters and mass migration of poor people. This book takes a critical look at this notion, drawing on research in Bangladesh, a country located at the heart of debates on climate change and migration.This book argues that rather than leading to dramatic events, climatic and environmental impacts often cause incremental changes in people's habitats and livelihoods, making them migrate in search of better places and income. With or without climate change, climatic and environmental factors can impoverish people, and drive displacement and migration, especially in the global South. These influences, including disasters, need not necessarily make people move, but instead sometimes trap the poorest and the most vulnerable people in their places exposed to hazards or make them migrate to even riskier places, such as crowded and flood-prone urban slums. This book argues that restrictions placed on people's mobility options could increase their vulnerability and favours proactive migration policies.This timely contribution explains the climate-hazard-migration nexus in an accessible, engaging language for students of geography, development studies, politics and environmental studies, as well as humanitarian and development practitioners and policymakers. "--Provided by publisher.
Abstract: "This book offers new perspectives through which to observe and interpret mega-events. Using the specific case studies of World’s Fairs, Di Vita and Morandi present a report of the Milan Expo 2015 and its trans-scalar legacies. While the event and post-event have been affected by the world crisis, the locations of exhibition areas have greatly expanded, encompassing regional as well as post-metropolitan spaces. The two main aims of comparing Milan to previous expos such as Lisbon 1998, Zaragoza 2008 and Shanghai 2010, were to demonstrate the contribution of the 2015 World’s Fair to the urban innovation process and to the debate surrounding a new urban agenda; as well as to examine empirically and theoretically the international discussion regarding the growth of regional and macro-regional scales of contemporary cities in order to offer suggestions for future urban agendas through mega-events. This book will be of great value to students, researchers and policy makers in the area of urban planning and the urban studies more broadly, geography and spatial politics. "--
Abstract: This book offers a unique contribution to the burgeoning field of Chinese historical geography. Urban transformation in China constitutes both a domestic revolution and a world-historical event. Through the exploration of nine urban sites of momentous change, over an extended period of time, this book connects the past with the present, and provides much-needed literature on city growth and how they became complex laboratories of prosperity.0This book offers an innovative interdisciplinary and international perspective, which will be of interest to students and scholars of Chinese urban studies, as well Chinese politics and society.
Abstract: This book contains the keynote presentations, invited speeches, and general session papers presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Asia Urban GeoEngineering, which will be held from 24 November to 27 November 2017 in Changsha, China. The contents will cover the topics of (i) Fundamental behavior and constitutive model of geomaterials, (ii) Excavation and slope engineering, (iii) Tunnel and underground engineering, (iv) Foundation and foundation treatment, (v) Environmental geotechnical engineering, (vi) Numerical methods in geotechnical engineering. It will provide an opportunity to share knowledge and experiences of the analysis, design, construction, and maintenance of urban geoengineering among engineers, researchers, and professors in Asian countries. It will improve our knowledge of requirements of geoengineering for a long-term sustainable urban development and the need to protect and preserve our environment.
Climatic changes - Human ecology - Landscape changes - Social ecology - Urban climatology
Abstract: This book looks at the New Urban Agenda and prospects of its implementation. In 2016, the New Urban Agenda was endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations after having been adopted by the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III) in Quito, Ecuador. Together with the Sustainable Development Goals, it provides a comprehensive and ambitious roadmap for global debate and action related to sustainable urbanisation during the coming decades. As mature economies and ageing societies, Japan and Germany can make considerable contributions to the implementation of the New Urban Agenda. Both countries share a number of similar challenges for environmentally sustainable and resilient urban development under conditions of social change. Furthermore, they have vast experience in actively promoting urban transformation towards a more sustainable urban future. At the same time the authors are making a contribution towards implementing the New Urban Agenda. Other countries may build up on the experience provided and the 20 examples described in this book. The work is based on a longstanding cooperation between the Graduate School of Environmental Studies of the Nagoya University (Japan), the Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development (Germany) and the Technische Universität Dresden (Germany).
Environmental monitoring - Geographic information systems - Geography - Hydrogeology - Hydrology - Regional economics - Space in economics
Abstract: This textbook is a step-by-step tutorial on the applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in environmental and water resource issues. It provides information about GIS and its applications, specifically using the most advanced ESRI GIS technology and its extensions. Eighteen chapters cover GIS applications in the field of earth sciences and water resources in detail from the ground up. Author William Bajjali explains what a GIS is and what it is used for, the basics of map classification, data acquisition, coordinate systems and projections, vectorization, geodatabase and relational database, data editing, geoprocessing, suitability modeling, working with raster, watershed delineation, mathematical and statistical interpolation, and more advanced techniques, tools and extensions such as ArcScan, Topology, Geocoding, Hydrology, Geostatistical Analyst, Spatial Analyst, Network Analyst, 3-D Analyst. ArcPad, ESRI’s cutting-edge mobile GIS software, is covered in detail as well. Each chapter contains concrete case studies and exercises – many from the author’s own work in the United States and Middle East. This volume is targeted toward advanced undergraduates, but could also be useful for professionals and for anyone who utilizes GIS or practices spatial analysis in relation to geology, hydrology, ecology, and environmental sciences.
Abstract: This book provides a unique reference resource not only for geomorphologists, but for all Earth scientists. It shows how landforms vary enormously across Egypt, from high mountains to endless plains, and presents the vast heritage of forms that have developed under different climates. Richly illustrated with numerous plates and figures, it also includes a bibliography offering exhaustive coverage of the literature.
Abstract: This book offers a European perspective on spatial planning and welfare policies in relation to the new conditions derived from the current urban crisis. The book deals with research and policy issues stemming from the fact that in the last ten years European cities have been affected by a structural crisis, not only financial but also a social, environmental and spatial, leading to an economic collapse. The crisis and its consequences due to political, financial and social conflicts contribute to increasing a city’s complexity in terms of decrease of public finance, slowdowns in the real estate market, economic stagnation and the reduction of the consolidated welfare policies. In light of this, this book proposes to reframe European urban welfare towards a “framework-rule” perspective. It is based on new rules and responsibilities as a path to change that would enable cities to respond to new circumstances through innovative actions thanks to co-production. The book focuses on the potential of this approach, identifying innovative perspectives for researchers, institutions and practitioners in the field of urban and regional planning. It also addresses the growth of civic initiatives all over Europe in which citizens and private business are engaged for the self-delivery of urban facilities, while jointly identifying issues and needs, and trying to solve problems with innovative and inclusive responses. This book will appeal to students and researchers along with a professional and policy audience due to the topical nature of the contents.
Casagrande, Gianluca \ Sik, András \ Szabó, Gergely \ 2018
Aerial photography in geography - Drone aircraft
Abstract: This book focuses on small flying drones and their applications in conducting geographic surveys. Scholars and professionals will discover the potential of this tool, and hopefully develop a conceptual and methodological framework for doing the following things: a) Translate their data acquisition needs into specifications. (b) Use the developed specifications to choose the best accessible configuration for their drones, and (c) Design and organize effective and low-cost field deployment and flight operations by integrating technical aspects with regulatory and research requirements. Readers can apply this knowledge to work in cartography, environmental monitoring and analysis, land-use studies and landscape archaeology. Particular attention is also given to the reasons why a drone can dramatically boost a geographer’s capability to understand geographic phenomena both from hard-science and humanities approach.
Abstract: This book brings together contributions from researchers, GIS professionals and game designers to provide a first overview of this highly interdisciplinary field. Its scope ranges from fundamentals about games and play, geographic information technologies, game design and culture, to current examples and forward looking analysis. Of interest to anyone interested in creating and using Geogames, this volume serves as a channel for sharing early experiences, discussing technological challenges and solutions, and outlines a future research agenda. Games and play are part of human life, and in many game activities, place, space and geography plays a central role in determining the rules and interactions that are characteristic of each game. Recent developments and widespread access to mobile information, communication, and geospatial technologies have spurred a flurry of developments, including many variations of gaming activities that are situated in, or otherwise connected to the real world. .
Abstract: This volume identifies existing statist approaches and political economies of river management in South Asia. These rivers are heavily suffering from millions of people who in contrast consider them as holy and worship them. Edited by Professor Imtiaz Ahmed, the contributors of this book from India, Nepal and Pakistan are leading readers on a journey through the transboundary rivers of South Asia where rivers are vital for the life and living. The book explains why the region needs a framework for cooperation on the wellbeing of these rivers. River management is the key to sustaining healthy river systems. The authors stress that right of the rivers must be codified and guaranteed by the state and the people in South Asia. However, the statist approach to the transboundary rivers in South Asia actually conceives them as national rivers. This volume contributes to the current campaign of overcoming the water dystopias in South Asia.
Land use - Land use Environmental aspects - Natural resources Management
Abstract: This book presents the outcome of the Towards Sustainable Land Use in Asia (SLUAS) project, which was the pilot undertaking for development in a series of projects on land use. Monsoon Asia, with its huge and still increasing population and rapid socioeconomic changes, is regarded as a major hot spot of global change in general and of land use change in particular. The major issues include urbanization, rural development, land-related problems such as food problems, and disasters in the context of global change and sustainability. Future Earth, the new international research framework established by International Council for Science (ICSU), the International Social Science Council (ISSC), and other international academic or funding organizations for a sustainable world, has chosen the Global Land Project (GLP) as one of the first such international projects it has endorsed that originated from International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and/or International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP). This endorsement is a clear indication of the importance of the issues related to land use and its changes. Land use change is an essential driving force of environmental change, a result of socioeconomic and environmental changes, and is a major environmental change itself. Because of this complex and multifaceted nature and the difficulties in obtaining relevant data with historical depth, this phenomenon has not been studied fully in the context of global change or sustainability. It is hoped that this book is of use to those who are concerned about the present and future land use in the world.
Ramasubramanian, Laxmi \ Albrecht, Jochen \ Batty, Mike \ 2018
City planning - Urban policy
Abstract: This book assembles and organizes a selected range of methods and techniques that every planning practitioner should know to be successful in the contemporary global urban landscape. The book is unique because it links different aspects of the planning/policy-making enterprise with the appropriate methods and approaches, thus contextualizing the use of specific methods and techniques within a sociopolitical and ethical framework. This volume familiarizes readers with the diverse range of methods, techniques, and skills that must be applied at different scales in dynamic workplace environments where planning policies and programs are developed and implemented. This book is an invaluable resource in helping new entrants to the planning discourse and profession set aside their own disciplinary biases and empowering them to use their expert knowledge to address societal concerns. Chapter One makes the case for the book, why people should read it, and how they should approach the material. Chapter Two is a survey of contemporary planning theory, highlighting both successes and failures. Here, the book makes the argument that understanding historical and contemporary planning theories are necessary to understand how to select and deploy appropriate methods for data analysis, synthesis, and communication. Chapter Three introduces readers to two case studies of neighborhoods in New York City, describing them using different types of maps and data visualizations to tell a context-sensitive story that links history, geography, politics, and economics that drive change in urban areas. Chapter Four discusses approaches that help to frame planning questions, emphasizing the importance of communication and visioning techniques. Chapter Five delves deeper into data-centered approaches from anthropological methods to modeling and scenario building, critically reflecting the pros and cons of each. Chapter Six reviews the planning profession’s complex relationship with public involvement and makes the case for civic engagement to anchor planning practice. Chapter Seven discusses the challenges of implementation, encouraging practitioners to be cognizant of the politics and policies that impact and influence their technical analyses and contributions. Chapter Eight highlights individual skills that practitioners must cultivate to be successful in their work. The book concludes by making the case for a 21st century planning that is context-sensitive, inclusive, and integrates social and spatial concerns.
Venkatesan, R. \ Tandon, Amit \ D'Asaro, Eric Arthur \ Atmanand, M. A.. \ 2018
Oceanography - Oceanography Methodology - Oceanography Research
Abstract: This book provides contributions from leading experts on the integration of novel sensing technologies to yield unprecedented observations of coupled biological, chemical, and physical processes in the ocean from the macro to micro scale. Authoritative entries from experts around the globe provide first-hand information for oceanographers and researchers looking for solutions to measurement problems. Ocean observational techniques have seen rapid advances in the last few years and this book addresses the need for a single overview of present and future trends in near real time and real time. First the past, present and future scenarios of ocean observational tools and techniques are elucidated. Then this book divides into three modes of ocean observations: surface, upper ocean and deep ocean. This is followed by data quality and modelling. Collecting a summary of methods and applications, this book provides first-hand information for oceanographers and researchers looking for solutions to measurement problems. This book is also suitable for final year undergraduate students or beginning graduate students in ocean engineering, oceanography and various other engineering students (such as Mechanical, Civil, Electrical, and Bioengineering) who are interested in specializing their skills towards modern measurements of the ocean.
Leal Filho, Walter \ Manolas, Evangelos I.. \ Azul, Anabela Marisa \ Azeiteiro, Ulisses \ McGhie, Henry \ 2018
Climatic changes - Communication in climatology
Abstract: This comprehensive handbook provides a unique overview of the theory, methodologies and best practices in climate change communication from around the world. It fosters the exchange of information, ideas and experience gained in the execution of successful projects and initiatives, and discusses novel methodological approaches aimed at promoting a better understanding of climate change adaptation. Addressing a gap in the literature on climate change communication and pursuing an integrated approach, the handbook documents and disseminates the wealth of experience currently available in this field. Volume 2 of the handbook discusses novel methodological approaches aimed at promoting a better understanding of climate change adaptaion and exemplifies initiatives and best practices in climate change communication from around the world.
Geology, Structural Japan - Earthquakes - Geology, Structural
Abstract: This book shows the deformation characteristics of coseismic surface ruptures produced by the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and the relationship between the Aso volcano and active faults. In particular, the rupturing mechanisms and processes involved in the seismogenic faults related to the crustal structure under the Aso volcano caldera are covered. The book is intended to help bridge the gaps between seismology, seismic disaster prevention, volcanology, seismotectonics, and geology and to encourage further studies of earthquake mechanisms and seismic faulting processes.
Abstract: This book illustrates the main factors of vulnerability and gives a clear picture about the possible interventions to reduce disaster risks both in schools and communities in Azerbaijan. A new methodology for child centered vulnerability assessments both on school and community levels has been developed. This methodology can be used to assess the level of vulnerability of schools and communities. The book is a newly prepared training manual which will help practitioners conduct trainings for government and community organizations. While the book is focused on a specific region, the suggested approach is generic and can be used elsewhere.
Jafari, Mohammad \ Tavili, Ali \ Panahi, Fatemeh \ Zandi Esfahan, Ehsan \ Ghorbani, Majid \ 2018
Arid regions - Reclamation of land
Abstract: This book provides an overview of arid and semi-arid lands conditions, their general characteristics, methods of management, conservation, exploitation and reclamation. It also focuses on how to utilize the potential of arid lands with the minimum manipulation and alteration. Arid and semi-arid areas represent a major part of natural ecosystems not only in Iran, but around the world, and mismanagement and inappropriate exploitation of these areas may lead to further gradual degradation. As such, an understanding of the characteristics of these areas is vital if they are to be conserved and reclaimed.
Abstract: This book paints an intimate portrait of an overlooked kind of city that neither grows nor declines drastically. In fact, New Bedford, Massachusetts represents an entire category of cities that escape mainstream urban studies’ more customary attention to global cities (New York), booming cities (Atlanta), and shrinking cities (Flint). New Bedford-style ordinary cities are none of these, they neither grow nor decline drastically, but in their inconspicuousness, they account for a vast majority of all cities. Given the complexities of growth and decline, both temporarily and spatially, how does a city manage change and physically adapt to growth and decline? This book offers an answer through a detailed analysis of the politics, environment, planning strategies, and history of New Bedford. .
Social sciences - Cultural studies - Religion and culture - Human geography - Public spaces - Urbanization
Abstract: This book offers a theoretical intervention into the normative ideals of public space that are deeply rooted in Western urbanism. It disrupts the binaries of presence/absence, inclusion/exclusion by presenting a series of case studies that vividly convey the complexity and vicissitude of grassroots spatial practices. It engages powerfully with the question of what constitutes the “urban public” in our everyday cities. Moreover, it provides a fresh perspective on the proliferating scholarship on Chinese urbanism in the reform era by seriously considering the ways in which ordinary urban inhabitants respond to and negotiate the impacts of rapid social change and the reshuffling of the systems of values and ideologies. The urban public, therefore, is analyzed as an important field in which identities and cultural differences are formed and performed. This book is a worthwhile read for anyone interested in theories of urban public space in general or urban transformation of post-reform China in particular.
Abstract: This book explores the moving qualities of mountains by utilising theories, ideas and processes which contribute to a larger understanding of these geological forms. In highlighting the fluid attributes of mountains the authors offer an alternative to the traditional approach of the sciences and the humanities, which address mountains as static geological or geographical features. The essays in this collection posit that movement impacts the relationship between society and mountains – travelling landscape objects, constructing design and artistic translations, climbing and experiencing changing atmospheres and the different ways of seeing from mountain peaks – and that physical, intellectual and spiritual motion is integral to their understanding. This innovative collection will be of great interest to scholars of geography, art, architecture, history, theology and philosophy.
Abstract: This book seeks to understand the coast as a place that has deep significance both historically and sociologically. Using several case studies in Australia, the author uses Max Weber’s approach to rationalisation to understand the different ways coasts have been interpreted throughout modern history. While today, coastal places are known for their aspects of lifestyle or adventure, their histories, underpinned by colonialism and industrialization, are vastly different. The author examines the delicate dichotomy between the alternative experiences the coast provides today, versus the ideals and values imposed upon it in times gone by. The author makes an ethical argument about the ways in which we use and experience the coast today will adversely affect the lives of future generations in an attempt to generate further discussion amongst students and scholars of the sociology of place, as well as coastal managers and stakeholders. .--
Agriculture Economic aspects - Capitalism - Environmental sociology - Food Economic aspects - Human ecology - Political ecology
Abstract: This book asks how we are to understand the relationship between capitalism and the environment, capitalism and food, and capitalism and social resistance. These questions come together to form a study of food regimes and the means by which capitalism organises both the environment and people to provision its distinctive system of ever-expanding consumption with food. Political Ecology, Food Regimes, and Food Sovereignty explores whether there are environmental limits to capitalism and its economic growth by addressing the ongoing and inter-linked crises of food, fossil fuels, and finance. It also considers its political limits, as the globally burgeoning 'precariat', peasants and indigenous people resist the further commodification of their livelihoods. This book draws from the field of Political Ecology to approach new ways of analysing capitalism, the environment and resistance, and also to propose new solutions to the current agro-ecological-economic crisis. It will be of particular interest to students and academics of Environmental Sociology, Human Geography, and Environmental Geography. .
Abstract: As scholars have by now long contended, global neoliberalism and the violence associated with state restructuring provide key frameworks for understanding flows of people across national boundaries and, eventually, into the treacherous terrains of the United States borderlands. The proposed volume builds on this tradition of situating migration and migrant death within broad, systems-level frameworks of analysis, but contends that there is another, perhaps somewhat less tidy, but no less important sociopolitical story to be told here. Through examination of how forensic scientists define, navigate, and enact their work at the frontiers of US policy and economics, this book joins a robust body of literature dedicated to bridging social theory with bioarchaeological applications to modern day problems. This volume is based on deeply and critically reflective analyses, submitted by individual scholars, wherein they navigate and position themselves as social actors embedded within and, perhaps partially constituted by, relations of power, cultural ideologies, and the social structures characterizing this moment in history. Each contribution addresses a different variation on themes of power relations, production of knowledge, and reflexivity in practice. In sum, however, the chapters of this book trace relationships between institutions, entities, and individuals comprising the landscapes of migrant death and repatriation and considers their articulation with sociopolitical dynamics of the neoliberal state.
Abstract: This focused case study analyses the roots of super-diversity in a place where immigration is an emerging phenomenon, Northwestern Spain (Galicia). It is characterized by a mostly rural population, an aging demographic, and a historically depressed economy. Yet the region has recently experienced a significant increase in immigration - a reversal of the region's historically pronounced trend of emigration. To understand immigration in its early stages, this book takes a historical approach that focuses on diversities that go beyond nationality. It explores local yet international phenomena such as different patterns of return migration, transnational community and familial relationships, and niche labour markets. The book takes a broad interdisciplinary perspective, drawing on sociology, anthropology, history, sociolinguistics, literature, and education, to provide a detailed case study analysis. While the case is specific, many other geographic regions will share some of the factors the book explores. Understanding how these factors interact will provide a useful point of contrast for analysing them in a range of other international contexts.
Abstract: This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. This collected volume represents the final outcome of the COST Action IS1104 “The EU in the new complex geography of economic systems: models, tools and policy evaluation”. Visualizing the EU as a complex and multi-layered network, the book is organized in three parts, each of them dealing with a different level of analysis: At the macro-level, Part I considers the interactions within large economic systems (regions or countries) involving trade, workers migration, and other factor movements. At the meso-level, Part II discusses interactions within specific but wide-ranging markets, with a focus on financial markets and banking systems. Lastly, at the micro-level, Part III explores the decision-making of single firms, especially in the context of location decisions.
Abstract: This book gathers more than 150 peer-reviewed papers presented at the 5th INTBAU International Annual Event, held in Milan, Italy, in July 2017. The book represents an invaluable and up-to-date international exchange of research, case studies and best practice to confront the challenges of designing places, building cultural landscapes and enabling the development of communities. The papers investigate methodologies of representation, communication and valorization of historic urban landscapes and cultural heritage, monitoring conservation management, cultural issues in heritage assessment, placemaking and local identity enhancement, as well as reconstruction of settlements affected by disasters. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals and policy makers, the book addresses all who seek to understand and address the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the heritage that has been created.
Cefalo, Raffaela \ Zieliński, Janusz \ Barbarella, Maurizio \ 2018
Global Positioning System
Abstract: This book provides the latest research on and applications of advanced GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and 3D spatial techniques in the fields of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Geophysics, Architecture, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. It offers an updated reference guide on the above-mentioned topics for undergraduate and graduate students, PhDs, researchers, professionals and practitioners alike.
Abstract: This book presents investigations on the Earth's seismic structure using both active-source and natural earthquake records. It discusses the ground-truth data obtained from the TAiwan Integrated GEodynamics Research (TAIGER) active-source experiments that provides excellent and unique insights into the shallow crustal structures beneath Taiwan. It also explores the full-wave sensitivity kernels, which account for the effects of all possible wave interferences involved in shear-wave splitting and therefore loosen the restrictions on source-receiver geometry amenable to shear-wave splitting analysis. Moreover, it describes the 3D Fréchet kernels, which enable us to resolve the vertical and lateral variations in seismic anisotropy and obtain 3D images of the Earth's anisotropic structure, as well as the practice in Southern California that enables us to infer the state of the stress and strain in the lithosphere and the dynamics of the asthenospheric mantle flow for a better understanding of the strength and deformation in the upper mantle beneath the San Andreas Fault system.
Abstract: This book provides a comparative analysis of policy instruments responding to climate change, drought and flood in relation to agricultural producers and their communities in four case study areas: Alberta, Canada, Saskatchewan, Canada, Coquimbo, Chile, and Mendoza, Argentina. Assessed through a lens of effectiveness, and adaptive governance, instruments advancing livelihood capitals of agricultural producers and identified and recommendations made to improve the suite of policy instruments are made.
Abstract: This textbook presents a comprehensive process-oriented approach to biogeochemistry that is intended to appeal to readers who want to go beyond a general exposure to topics in biogeochemistry, and instead are seeking a holistic understanding of the interplay of biotic and environmental drivers in the cycling of elements in forested watersheds. The book is organized around a core set of ecosystem processes and attributes that collectively help to generate the whole-system structure and function of a terrestrial ecosystem. In the first nine chapters, a conceptual framework is developed based on distinct soil, microbial, plant, atmospheric, hydrologic, and geochemical processes that are integrated in the element cycling behavior of watershed ecosystems. With that conceptual foundation in place, students then proceed to the final three chapters where they are challenged to think critically about integrated element cycling patterns; roles for biogeochemical models; the likely impacts of disturbance, stress, and management on watershed biogeochemistry; and linkages among patterns and processes in watersheds experiencing novel environmental changes. Included with the text are figures, tables of comparative data, extensive literature citations, a glossary of terms, an index, and a set of 24 biogeochemical problems with answers. The problems are intended to support chapter concepts and to demonstrate how critical thinking skills, simple algebra, and thoughtful human logic can be used to solve applied problems in biogeochemistry that might be encountered by a research scientist or a resource manager. Using this book as an introduction to biogeochemistry, students will achieve a level of subject mastery and disciplinary perspective that will permit them to see and to interpret the individual components, interactions, and synergies that are represented in the dynamic element cycling patterns of watershed ecosystems. Provides a unified emphasis on forested watershed ecosystems that is more process-oriented, comprehensive, and pedagogical than existing single watershed case studies; Delivers a coherent synthesis of biogeochemistry at the watershed ecosystem scale - the most common landscape unit for current research and resource management; Enables students to interpret the individual components, interactions, and synergies represented in the dynamic element cycling patterns of watershed ecosystem; Presents an operational manual that examines how forested watersheds work with respect to fundamental parts, processes, interrelationships, whole-system behavior, and responses to changing conditions.
Calvache, Maria Luisa \ Duque, Carlos \ Pulido-Velazquez, David \ 2018
Groundwater Mediterranean Region - Climatic changes - Groundwater
Abstract: This book is a compilation of papers examining the impacts of global change (GC) on water resources systems. Mainly focusing on groundwater resources in Western Mediterranean countries, it shows that this topic is one of the most important challenges facing society. The papers explore developments in both Southern Europe and North Africa, where major impacts on the sustainability, quantity, quality, and management of water resources are expected to emerge. Although most global change publications focus on surface water, the number of research papers addressing global change and groundwater has grown rapidly in recent years. Continuing that welcome trend, this book gathers the main findings presented at the “Congress on Groundwater and Global Change in the Western Mediterranean” (Granada, Spain, November 6?9, 2017), which brought together researchers and technicians interested in groundwater issues affecting this geographic area.
Abstract: This book presents the proceedings of the 8th international Symposium “Information Fusion and Intelligent Geographic Information Systems 2017” (IF&ICIS'2017), which took place at Shanghai Maritime University, China, from May 10 to 12, 2017. The goal of the symposium was to bring together leading global experts in the field of spatial information integration and intelligent GIS (IGIS) to exchange cutting-edge research ideas and experiences, to discuss perspectives on the fast-paced development of geospatial information theory, methods and models in order to demonstrate the latest advances in IGIS and discover new ways of collaboration. The topics focus on IGIS fundamentals, models, technologies and services in maritime research, such as underwater acoustics, radiolocation, navigation, marine energy, logistics, environmental management, seafood, safety of maritime navigation and others. In addition the book discusses the integration of IGIS technologies in the emerging field of digital humanities research.
Abstract: This book discusses the latest advances and applications in geospatial technologies and earth resources for mine surveying and civil engineering. It also discusses mineral resources management and assesses many techniques such as unmanned aerial vehicles/drones, ground-penetrating radar, geographic information system (GIS) and GIS-based machine learning. The book gathers the proceedings of the International Conference on Geo-Spatial Technologies and Earth Resources (GTER 2017), which was co-organized by the Hanoi University of Mining and Geology (HUMG) and the International Society for Mine Surveying (ISM) and held in Hanoi, Vietnam, on October 5?6, 2017. GTER 2017 is technically co-sponsored by the Vietnam Mining Science and Technology Association (VMST), Vietnam Association of Geodesy, Cartography and Remote Sensing (VGCR), Vietnam National Coal-Mineral Industries Holding Corporation Limited (VINACOMIN), and the Dong Bac Corporation (NECO). The event is intended to bring together experts, researchers, engineers, and policymakers to discuss and exchange their knowledges and experiences with modern geospatial technologies, recent advances in mining and tunneling, and the geological and earth sciences. Given its breadth of coverage, the book will appeal to scientists in the field as well as professionals interested in related technological applications.
Abstract: This comprehensive textbook covers all major topics related to the utilization of mineral resources for human activities. It begins with general concepts like definitions of mineral resources, mineral resources and humans, recycling mineral resources, distribution of minerals resources across Earth, and international standards in mining, among others. Then it turns to a classification of mineral resources, covering the main types from a geological standpoint. The exploration of mineral resources is also treated, including geophysical methods of exploration, borehole geophysical logging, geochemical methods, drilling methods, and mineral deposit models in exploration. Further, the book addresses the evaluation of mineral resources, from sampling techniques to the economic evaluation of mining projects (i.e. types and density of sampling, mean grade definition and calculation, Sichel’s estimator, evaluation methods – classical and geostatistical, economic evaluation – NPV, IRR, and PP, estimation of risk, and software for evaluating mineral resources). It subsequently describes key mineral resource exploitation methods (open pit and underground mining) and the mineral processing required to obtain saleable products (crushing, grinding, sizing, ore separation, and concentrate dewatering, also with some text devoted to tailings dams). Lastly, the book discusses the environmental impact of mining, covering all the aspects of this very important topic, from the description of diverse impacts to the environmental impact assessment (EIA), which is essential in modern mining projects.
Abstract: This book presents the first compilation of scientific research on the island of Nisyros, involving various geoscientific disciplines. Presenting a wealth of illustrations and maps, including a geological map of the volcano, it also provides valuable insights into the geothermal potential of Greece. The island of Nisyros is a Quaternary volcano located at the easternmost end of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc. The island is nearly circular, with an average diameter of 8 km, and covers an area of approximately 42 km2. It lies above a base of Mesozoic limestone and a thin crust, with the mantle-crust transition located at a depth of approximately 27 km. The volcanic edifice of Nisyros comprises a succession of calc-alkaline lavas and pyroclastic rocks, as well as a summit caldera with an average diameter of 4 km.&nbs p; Nisyros marks the most recent volcano in the large prehistoric volcanic field between Kos-Yali-Strongyli-Pyrgousa-Pachia-Nisyros, where the largest eruption ("Kos Plateau Tuff") in the history of the eastern Mediterranean devastated the Dodecanese islands 161,000 years ago. Although the last volcanic activity on Nisyros dates back at least 20,000 to 25,000 years, it encompasses an active hydrothermal system underneath the volcano with temperatures of roughly 100°C at the Lakki plain, the present-day caldera floor and 350°C at a depth of 1,550 m. A high level of seismic unrest, thermal waters and fumarolic gases bear testament to its continuous activity, which is due to a large volume of hot rocks and magma batches at greater depths, be tween 3,000 and 8,000 m. Violent hydrothermal eruptions accompanied by major earthquakes occurred in 1873 and 1888 and left behind large, "world-wide unique" explosion craters in the old caldera. Through diffuse soil degassing, the discharge of all hydrothermal craters in the Lakki plain releases 68 tons of hydrothermal-volcanic derived CO2 and 42 MW of thermal energy per day. This unique volcanic and hydrothermal environment is visited daily by hundreds of tourists.
Abstract: This book analyzes the issues associated with climate change in the Himalayas. The purpose of choosing the Himalayas as a focus is because it is a particularly fragile mountain system, highly sensitive to climate change impacts, and it contains one of the largest human populations affected by climate change. The book provides extensive data and information regarding the climate history of the Himalayas, and the current effects of climate change on Himalayan weather systems, and on human and animal populations in the region. The book begins with an overview of global climate change with discussions of data trends and international initiatives, then segues into a history of climate changes and weather trends in the Himalayas. Weather systems of the Himalayas, both past and current, are analyzed and detailed through climate models, seasonal observations of weather fronts, and overviews of various climate scenarios. The book then discusses climate change impacts and signatures specific to the Central Himalayan region, where the largest effects of impacts are observed. Readers will discover analysis presented on water resources, meteorological changes, biodiversity, agriculture and human health along with perspectives of management and policy. This book will appeal to researchers studying climate science, climatology, environmental scientists and policymakers.
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