Abstract: The Azores archipelago consists of nine islands that emerge from the Azores Plateau in the Central Northern Atlantic, situated within the triple junction of the American, Eurasian and African lithosphere plates. Subaerial volcanic activity has been well known since the Pliocene and continues today, with several well-documented eruptions since the settlement of the islands in the fifteenth century. The origin of the Azores Plateau has been a matter of scientific debate and thus this book provides the first comprehensive overview of geological features in the Azores from volcanological, geochemical, petrological, paleontological, structural and hydrological perspectives.
Abstract: This book summarizes three years of extensive research conducted in Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Vietnam as part of the CECAR – Asia project, which was intended to enhance resilience to climate and ecosystem changes by developing mosaic systems to strengthen resilience of bio-production systems through the integration of large-scale modern agriculture systems with traditional, decentralized small-scale systems. The book starts with climate downscaling and impact assessment in rural Asia, and then explores various adaptation options and measures by utilizing modern science and traditional knowledge including home garden systems and ancient irrigation systems. The book subsequently examines the influence of climatic and ecological changes and the vulnerability of social economies from quantitative and qualitative standpoints, applying econometric and statistical models in agriculture communities of Asia to do so. The main goal of all chapters and case studies presented here is to identify the merits of applying organic methods to both commercial large-scale production and traditional production to strengthen social resilience and promote sustainable development. Especially at a time when modern agriculture systems are highly optimized but run the risk of failure due to changes in the climate and ecosystem, this book offers viable approaches to developing an integrated framework of modern and traditional systems to enhance productivity and total system resilience, as illustrated in various case studies.
Abstract: This thesis explores fluid distribution along the Nankai-Trough megathrust fault around the Kii Peninsula of Japan, where devastating earthquakes are expected to occur in the near future. Exploring fluid distribution along subduction zones is an important issue because the fluid is considered to control the occurrence of earthquakes. One of the effective strategies to estimate fluid content is retrieving receiver functions (RFs) from seismograms, but in the case of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs), noisy P-wave reverberations within the seawater column make such an analysis difficult. The author therefore developed a novel technique to suppress the water reverberations, which allows obtaining the fluid distribution data along a wide depth range on the plate interface. This thesis first presents the new technique, called the water layer filter method, and demonstrates its efficiency by using both synthetic and observation data. Then, using the method, a receiver function image of the Philippine Sea Plate is constructed to reveal dehydration processes of the subducting oceanic crust around the Kii Peninsula. Finally, the author performs high-frequency receiver function inversion analysis. The results indicate the presence of a thin fluid-rich sediment layer along the megathrust fault off the Kii Peninsula that acts as a pathway of fluid. Nowadays, the number of offshore observations is increasing worldwide. In this respect, the attempt to better analyze OBS data employing the new method will become more important in future studies.
Abstract: This book investigates different aspects of the relationship between “healthy cities” and “urban planning”, examining various best practices in Europe. It uses the above as a starting point and investigates different aspects of healthy cities, examining various best practices in Europe. Capitalizing on ongoing trials, the chapters identify the policies that underlie plans and projects that have caused positive changes in local communities in terms of the quality of life and safety of inhabitants. From these best practices, the book deduces criteria and guidelines for planning healthy and safe cities.
Clouds Remote sensing - Imaging systems in meteorology - Precipitation (Meteorology) Remote sensing
Abstract: This book presents current applications of remote sensing techniques for clouds and precipitation for the benefit of students, educators, and scientists. It covers ground-based systems such as weather radars and spaceborne instruments on satellites. Measurements and modeling of precipitation are at the core of weather forecasting, and long-term observations of the cloud system are vital to improving atmospheric models and climate projections. The first section of the book focuses on the use of ground-based weather radars to observe and measure precipitation and to detect and forecast storms, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. It also discusses the observation of clouds using ground-based millimeter radar. The second part of the book concentrates on spaceborne remote sensing of clouds and precipitation. It includes cases from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, using satellite radars to observe precipitation systems. Then, the focus is on global cloud observations from the ClaudSat, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), including a perspective on the Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) satellite. It also addresses global atmospheric water vapor profiling for clear and cloudy conditions using microwave observations. The final part of this volume provides a perspective into advances in cloud modeling using remote sensing observations.
Abstract: This interactive book presents comprehensive information on the fundamentals of landslide types and dynamics, while also providing a set of PPT, PDF, and text tools for education and capacity development. It is the second part of a two-volume work created as the core activity of the Sendai Partnerships, the International Consortium of Landslides. The book will be regularly updated and improved over the coming years, based on responses from users and lessons learned during its application.
Geography - Hydrology - Geographic information systems - Geomorphology - Civil engineering - Soil erosion prediction
Abstract: This book presents a novel computation of the topographic LS factor of the USLE model to estimate spatial soil erosion. In developing countries, soil erosion is one of the main concerns as it adversely affects agriculture and reduces food production. Therefore, the author presents a particularly relevant approach, as he demonstrates how the C++ programming allows us to identify important erosion stages like detachment and deposition. He does this by assessing the annual rate of soil erosion from the Shakkar River watershed in India using distributed information and applying RS and GIS techniques. He also discusses different approaches that have been proposed to work out the influence of topography on erosion. Simulated and observed data of sediment loss are compared for the period 1992 to 2006.This book provides an easy-to-understand basic piece of soil erosion and hydrological research and reaches out to young researchers and students at the graduate and undergraduate level as well as applicants of soil erosion models. .
Abstract: This volume presents a novel framework to understand urban climate co-benefits in India, that is, tackling climate change and achieving sustainable development goals in cities. It utilizes methods and tools from several assessment frameworks to scientifically evaluate sector co-benefits for informed decision making. The co-benefits approach can lead to significant improvements in the way societies use environmental resources and distribute their outputs. The volume discusses four main themes: (1) Concepts and theories on cities and climate co-benefits; (2) Contextualizing co-benefit issues across spatial scales and sectors; (3) Sectoral analyses of co-benefits in energy, transport, buildings, waste, and biodiversity, and (4) Innovations and reforms needed to promote co-benefits in cities. The discussions are based on empirical research conducted in Indian cities and aligned with the international discourse on the 2030 UN Development Agenda and New Urban Agenda created at the UN-Habitat III in 2016. The analyses and recommendations in this volume are of considerable interest to policy experts, scholars and researchers of urban and regional studies, geography, public policy, international development/law, economics, development planning, environmental planning, climate change, energy studies, and so on. How can India provide services and infrastructure to its rapidly urbanizing population and simultaneously reduce emissions? While answering such questions this book is a must read to understand India’s course in implementing the Habitat III agenda, as well as achieving relevant Sustainable Development Goals. -Professor Govindan Parayil, Dean of the Patel College of Global Sustainablility, University of South Florida, USA (Former Vice-Rector and Director, UNU-IAS, Japan).
Abstract: This book presents a detailed study of the structure and variability of internal tides and their geographical distribution in the ocean. Based on experimental analysis of oceanic measurements combined with numerical modeling, it offers a comprehensive overview of the internal wave processes around the globe. In particular, it is based on moored buoys observations in many regions in all oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Southern) that have been carried out by researchers from different countries for more than 40 years as part of various oceanographic programs, including WOCE and CLIVAR. However, a significant portion of the data was collected by the author, who is a field oceanographer. The data was processed and interpreted on the basis of the latest knowledge of internal wave motion. The properties of internal waves were analyzed in relation to the bottom topography and mean state of the ocean in specific regions. Internal waves play a major role in the formation of seawater stratification and are responsible for the main processes of ocean dynamics, such as energy transfer and mixing. One of the most significant ideas presented in this book is the generation of internal tides over submarine ridges. Energy fluxes from submarine ridges related to tidal internal waves greatly exceed the fluxes from continental slopes. Submarine ridges form an obstacle to the propagation of tidal currents, which can cause the creation of large amplitude internal tides. Energy fluxes from submarine ridges account for approximately one fourth of the total energy dissipation of the barotropic tides. Model simulations and moored measurements have been combined to generate a map of global distribution of internal tide amplitudes. This book is of interest to oceanographers, marine biologists, civil engineers, and scientists working in climate research, fluid mechanics, acoustics, and underwater navigation.
Abstract: This book offers a unique introduction to the application of data science for transport professionals and students of transport studies. Based on a course taught by the Leeds Institute for Transport Studies, the world’s leading center for training transport professionals, it represents the first textbook in this new area. As transportation planning has become increasingly data-driven, all graduate students and transport professionals urgently need to update their skills to include databases, machine learning, Bayesian statistics, geographic information system (GIS), and big data tools. Similarly, transport professionals including national and local government planners, transport consultants, and car company engineers are called upon to integrate these disparate areas with a specific focus on transportation issues, such as maps. The textbook also features a downloadable software package with all of the open source tools and libraries used in code examples throughout the book, including Python, Spyder, PostGIS, PyMC and GPy installations. As such, it offers a unique resource for graduate/advanced undergraduate students and instructors in transportation studies, urban and regional planning, engineering and geography, as well as transportation professionals.
Renewable energy sources Galapagos Islands - Sustainable development Galapagos Islands - Energy development - Renewable energy sources - Sustainable development
Abstract: The purpose of this book is to present a range of cases and comparison of the issues, insights and cases emerging from the Sustainable Energy Mix Summit in the Galapagos that offer a better understanding of energy mix in fragile environments from a variety of International locations and contexts including the Galapagos. .
Abstract: This book investigates a shared experience of time and space in the post-civil-war city of Beirut: ?the suspended now.? Based on the close analysis of a large corpus of cultural objects; including visual art, literature, architecture and cinema; the book argues that last decades have witnessed a gradual shift in understanding this temporality from being a transitional phase to a more durable experience of precariousness. The theoretically rich analyses take us on a journey through Beirut?s real and imagined geographies, from garbage dumps to real estate advertisements, and from subterranean spaces to martyr?s posters. For scholars of cultural analysis, urban studies, cultural geography and critical theory, the case of post-1990 Beirut offers a fascinating case of neoliberal urban renewal, which challenges existing theories. For scholars of Lebanon and Beirut, this study complements existing work on post-civil-war Lebanese cultural production rooted in trauma studies by its focus on the city?s continual exposure to violence.
Discoveries in geography International cooperation - Space law - Space law International cooperation
Abstract: On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Outer Space Treaty this book gives a first insight into where the next generation considers room for further improvement of the Outer Space Treaty in order to cope with upcoming aspects such as providing solutions for the emerging commercial, economic, environmental and social questions.t the time of the adoption of the Outer Space Treaty in 1967 the purpose of this treaty was to avoid conflicting military situations in space. However, 50 years later the Outer Space Treaty is n demand to meet the ever increasing space activities and the different actors involved such as the rise of the private sector players.
Abstract: This authoritative and comprehensive edited volume presents current research on how demography can contribute to generating scientific knowledge and evidence concerning refugees and forced migration, developing evidence based policy recommendations on protection for forced migrants and reception of refugees, and revealing the determinants and consequences of migration for origin and destination regions and communities. Refugee and other forced migrations have increased substantially in scale, complexity and diversity in recent decades. These changes challenge traditional approaches in response to refugee and other forced migration situations, and protection of refugees. Demography has an important contribution to make in this analytic space. While other disciplines (especially anthropology, law, geography, political science and international relations) have made major contributions to refugee and forced migration studies, demography has been less present with most research focusing on issues of refugee mortality and morbidity. This book specifies the range of topics for which a demographic approach is highly appropriate, and identifies findings of demographic research which can contribute to ever more effective policy making in this important arena of human welfare and international policy.
Siart, Christoph \ Forbriger, Markus \ Bubenzer, Olaf \ 2018
Abstract: Modern archaeology can be considered as an interdisciplinary approach that increasingly combines different methods and datasets to answer questions about ancient cultures and their remains. Having its major focus on new technologies and multi-method research approaches, the book promotes interdisciplinary studies between different disciplines such as archaeology, computer sciences, geography, geoinformatics, geodesy, history, etc. Common fields of work as well as future challenges are identified and discussed from different scientific perspectives. Each chapter starts with a general introduction to the topic followed by case studies. By stimulating knowledge transfer and collaboration, Digital Geoarchaeology contributes to an effective protection of cultural heritage and a better understanding of ancient landscapes along with their forming processes. This book includes topics and applications such as geographic and archaeological information systems, remote sensing, e.g. satellite imagery, aerial photographs, terrestrial and airborne laser scanning, digital image processing and pattern recognition, digital elevation models, 3D and 4D visualization and landscape reconstruction, geophysical prospecting, e.g. ERT, SRT, GPR as well as spatiotemporal analysis.
Abstract: This book evaluates the consequences of economic, social, environmental and cultural change on people living and working within Teesside in the North-East of England. It assesses the lived experiences, working lives, health and cultural perspectives of residents and key stakeholders in the wake of serious de-industralisation in the region. The narrative is embedded within the long-term industrial history of Stockton: an area once dominated by steel, coal and chemical industries. This past still continues to shape its future and influences the ways in which that future is conceived and envisioned. The author explores a ?biography of place? analytical framework to offer a holistic view of the area, which considers the interaction between the social, economic, cultural, visual and environmental legacy of the community, which is firmly grounded in the past, present and future prospects of those who live and work there.
Abstract: This book is dedicated to the study of the islands and their role in a globalised world. Beside Coastal or Oceanic/Marine Geography, there is little comprehensive material about the speciality of small island geography so far. It aims to bridge natural, social and cultural science perspectives. In Geography of Small Islands readers learn about the physical development of islands, their cultural and political importance, as well as their economic particularities. This book appeals to researchers, students and scholars with an interest in the special characteristics in spatialities of islands.
Zhang, Yongxian \ Goebel, Thomas \ Peng, Zhigang \ Willia, Charles A.. \ Yoder, Mark \ Rundle, John B.. \ 2018
Natural disasters Pacific Area - Earthquakes - Natural disasters
Abstract: This is the first of two volumes devoted to earthquakes and multi-hazards around the Pacific Rim. The circum-Pacific seismic belt is home to roughly 80% of the world?s largest earthquakes, making it the ideal location for investigating earthquakes and related hazards such as tsunamis and landslides. Gathering 16 papers that cover a range of topics related to multi-hazards, the book is divided into three sections: earthquake physics, earthquake simulation and data assimilation, and multi-hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting models. The first section includes papers on laboratory-derived rheological parameters as well as seismic studies in the Gulf of California and China. In turn, the second section includes papers on improvements in earthquake simulators as well as the statistical methods used to evaluate their performance, automated methods for determining fault slip using near-field interferometric data, variabilities in earthquake stress drops in California, and the use of social media data to supplement physical sensor data when estimating local earthquake intensity. The final section includes a paper on probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, several papers on time-dependent seismic hazard analysis around the Pacific Rim, and a paper on induced and triggered seismicity at the Geysers geothermal field in California. Rapid advances are being made in our understanding of multi-hazards, as well as the range of tools used to investigate them. This volume provides a representative cross-section of how state-of-the-art knowledge and tools are currently being applied to multi-hazards around the Pacific Rim. The material here should be of interest to scientists involved in all areas of multi-hazards, particularly seismic and tsunami hazards. In addition, it offers a valuable resource for students in the geosciences, covering a broad spectrum of topics related to hazard research.
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