Abstract: Nitrate loss from bioenergy crop fields has attracted considerable attention during the last few years because of its potential negative impact on aquatic and human health. Both controllable and uncontrollable factors for nitrate loss have been the subject of several previous studies. Due to differences in climate, biophysical dissimilarities and land management characteristics in different parts of the world the factors affecting nitrate loss are often inconsistent and hence difficult to generalize. Therefore, reanalyzing the experimental field or plot scale studies to understand the nitrate loss factors in crop fields is useful and necessary in developing management strategies for reducing nitrate loss. This research synthesized and investigated 36 peer reviewed scientific journal articles related to selected bioenergy crop fields that included: continuous corn, corn in rotation with soybean, switchgrass and Miscanthus to conduct a meta-analysis of the available research. In this study, factors such as drain tile spacing, tillage practices, type and timing of the fertilization rate, irrigation and various other factors, which are challenging to represent in regression equations, were also systematically analyzed. In addition, various other agronomic characteristics that are attributed too nitrate loss are caused by perennially planted bio energized crops such as Miscanthus and switchgrass. Results indicated that 49% of nitrate loss through surface runoff from corn fields is directly related to the annual precipitation and fertilization rate. Multiple linear regression equations were developed to estimate the annual subsurface nitrate loss for the continuous corn fields with a R2 value of 0.65, 0.58 and 0.26 for sandy loam, silty loam and clay loam, respectively. Our analysis resulted in the conclusion that corn has a 2 to 3 times higher nitrate loss in surface runoff compared to switchgrass. Likewise, continuous corn and corn in rotation with soybean contributed more than 9 times the subsurface loss of nitrate compared to the established subsurface loss attributed to the Miscanthus and switchgrass
Abstract: Dit proefschrift draagt bij tot een beter begrip van de interacties tussen de bodem-waterplant systemen en tot meer geavanceerde procesgerichte modelmatige benaderingen. Bovendien wordt antwoord gegeven op vier onderzoeksvragen: 1. Wat is de rol van de verticale waterstromen zoals capillaire opstijging en recirculerend percolatiewater op de gewasopbrengsten? 2. Hoe kunnen we droogte-, zout- en zuurstof-stress modelleren en wat is hun invloed op de gewasopbrengsten? 3. Kunnen we de impact van verschillende stress-vormen op de graslandproductie in Nederland voorspellen? 4. Wat is de invloed van veranderingen in grondwaterstanden en landgebruik op gewasopbrengsten en grondwateraanvulling?
Abstract: For this document, the fertigation sequence has been considered to consist of the following broad sections and sub-sections: Providing water; Optimising water quality (sub-sections: chemical composition, particle removal,control of algae, disinfection); Fertigation equipment (sub-sections: irrigation, nutrient addition, soilless systems); Fertigation management (sub-sections: irrigation, nutrients and salinity); Reducing environmental impact - nutrient removal and recovery.
water management - waste water - drinking water - governance - legislation - water policy - netherlands
Abstract: Like the Netherlands, Oman faces huge challenges in the field of water management. Therefore an intensified relationship and cooperation with the Netherlands has been started a year ago. A mutual Taskforce was established to solve the water problems by learning from each other. This article describes the water challenges of Oman and highlights the recent developments in the cooperation between Oman and the Netherlands. Oman, just as the Netherlands, has an old tradition on water management. The centuries old falaj system to this day provides for example date palm cultivation and villages with water. With a sundial the gates of a sophisticated irrigation system are opened or closed. It is possible to buy or sell water rights if necessary. But also Oman has an extensive modern drinking water system based on desalination, a system of recharge and retention dams and reuses most of its waste water. In Oman living with water is, like in the Netherlands, of the utmost importance. Due to Climate Change, economic growth and a growing population maintaining an adequate supply of water for agricultural and domestic use is one of Oman’s most pressing issues. The article shows that, although the water situation in both countries differs, there are many possibilities to exchange knowledge and ideas in the field of water governance and water management. At the same time the article shows how such a cooperation process can be set up.
Herppich, W. B.. \ Zude-Sasse, M. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ International Society for Horticultural Science. \ 2018
Abstract: Het doel van het Ventilation Jet (VJ) systeem bij Dekker Chrysanten is om de temperatuur van de groeibuis te kunnen verlagen om zo energie te besparen. Dekker Chrysanten heeft in veel teeltrondes in 2016 en 2017 problemen ondervonden met cirkels in het gewas in de VJ afdeling. In deze cirkels vond vroegbloei plaats wat af en toe resulteerde in mindere kwaliteit en kortere stengels. Door deze teeltproblemen heeft Dekker Chrysanten de minimum groeibuis in de Ventilation Jet afdeling nog niet veel willen verlagen. Door de inzet van de telers en door het monitoren zijn potentiele oorzaken geïdentificeerd en opgelost zoals (1) het voorkomen van droge plekken in de bodem door: de VJ uit te sturen als er beregend wordt, de VJ later in de korte dag in te zetten en door meer te irrigeren (wordt bedrijf breed toegepast); (2) de RV in de VJ afdeling ’s nachts lager in te stellen waardoor een hogere verdamping bewerkstelligd wordt; (3) het uitblaasprofiel van de onderventilator te verbeteren en (4) de klimaatcomputer software aan te passen wat resulteerde in een veel stabielere temperatuur en RV in de VJ afdeling. Bovenstaande leerervaringen worden nu toegepast wat geresulteerd heeft in een goede kwaliteit chrysant in de afgelopen teelt periode (oogst Januari 2018)---The purpose of the Ventilation Jet (VJ) system at Dekker Chrysanten is to reduce the temperature of the grow pipe in order to save energy. Dekker Chrysanten encountered problems with circles in the crop in the VJ compartment in many cultivation rounds in 2016 and 2017. Early flowering took place at these circles, which occasionally resulted in poorer quality and shorter stems. Due to these cultivation problems, Dekker Chrysanten did not want to reduce yet the minimum grow pipe in the Ventilation Jet compartment. Due to the efforts of the growers and the monitoring project, potential causes have been identified and solved such as (1) the prevention of dry spots in the soil by: switching off the VJ when there is irrigation, switching on the VJ later in the short day period and by irrigating more (this is done companywide); (2) lowering the relative humidity setpoint in the VJ compartment at night so that a higher night evaporation is achieved; (3) improving the air flow profile of the bottom fan and (4) adjusting the climate computer software, resulting in a much more stable temperature and RH in the VJ compartment. The above learning experiences are now applied which has resulted in a good quality chrysanthemum in the past cultivation period (harvest January 2018).
Abstract: This book summarizes three years of extensive research conducted in Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Vietnam as part of the CECAR – Asia project, which was intended to enhance resilience to climate and ecosystem changes by developing mosaic systems to strengthen resilience of bio-production systems through the integration of large-scale modern agriculture systems with traditional, decentralized small-scale systems. The book starts with climate downscaling and impact assessment in rural Asia, and then explores various adaptation options and measures by utilizing modern science and traditional knowledge including home garden systems and ancient irrigation systems. The book subsequently examines the influence of climatic and ecological changes and the vulnerability of social economies from quantitative and qualitative standpoints, applying econometric and statistical models in agriculture communities of Asia to do so. The main goal of all chapters and case studies presented here is to identify the merits of applying organic methods to both commercial large-scale production and traditional production to strengthen social resilience and promote sustainable development. Especially at a time when modern agriculture systems are highly optimized but run the risk of failure due to changes in the climate and ecosystem, this book offers viable approaches to developing an integrated framework of modern and traditional systems to enhance productivity and total system resilience, as illustrated in various case studies.
Abstract: This book highlights the relationship between the water sector and various other sectors in order to establish an improved understanding of the importance of water resources as an essential cross-cutting vector of socio-economic development. The book is both policy and practice oriented and is not constrained by existing definitions on water security. It includes actual experiences of policy, management, development and governance decisions taken within the water sector, and examples on how these have affected the energy and agricultural sectors as well as impacted the environment, and vice versa, as appropriate. It also discusses trade-offs, short and long-term implications, lessons learnt, and the way forward. The book includes case studies on cities, countries and regions such as Australia, China, Singapore, Central Asia, Morocco, Southern Africa, France, Latin America, Brazil and California.
García-Tejero, Iván Francisco \ Durán Zuazo, Víctor Hugo \ 2018
Abstract: Water Scarcity and Sustainable Agriculture in Semiarid Environment: Tools, Strategies and Challenges for Woody Crops explores the complex relationship between water scarcity and climate change, agricultural water-use efficiency, crop-water stress management and modeling water scarcity in woody crops. Understanding these cause- and effect relationships and identifying the most appropriate responses are critical for sustainable crop production. The book focuses on Mediterranean environments to explain how to determine the most appropriate strategy and implement an effective plan; however, core concepts are translational to other regions. Informative for those working in agricultural water management, irrigation and drainage, crop physiology and sustainable agriculture.
Abstract: The increase in scale that has been taking place over the past ten years calls for a different way of watering. Including on the technical side – after all, how do you make sure all the plants in those long rows are getting enough water? Can you even get it all the way round? Systems are being designed for pressure loss and pumping capacities are being ramped up. What’s more, growers are opting for drip hoses with a smaller diameter. And all with the aim of getting the water and the nutrient solution to the plants faster.
Leal Filho, Walter \ Gomez, Josep de Trincheria \ 2018
Abstract: This book introduces state-of-the-art approaches, methods and research, focusing on smart management of rainwater. In addition, it provides an overview of projects from across the world, illustrating how rainwater-smart management has been implemented in drylands. Focusing on the scientific perspective it demonstrates how rural dryland agriculture can be improved. It also documents the wealth of rainwater-smart know-how available today, and replicates and transfers results to other countries and regions, to encourage cross-sector interactions among various stakeholders, such as practitioners from governmental and public organisations, policy- and decision-makers, and teaching staff from academic scientific institutions. The contributors showcase vital lessons learned from research, field projects and best-practice examples. They address the integrated use of rainwater harvesting management with landscape restoration practices and water-, and climate-smart agriculture for food security and poverty alleviation in arid and semi-arid areas. Original research, combined with the contributors? synthetic approach, lays a foundation for new concepts and ideas. Through case studies and research reports, the book discusses all the relevant issues necessary for the comprehensive analysis and successful implementation of the technologies in rainwater management. Highlighting the working principles and technical recommendations with regard to cost-efficient rainwater-smart solutions, it is of interest to practitioners. It is also a valuable resource for academic specialists, professionals and students, since many development agencies are funding rainwater harvesting for irrigation purposes.
Biswas, Asit K. \ Tortajada, Cecilia \ Rohner, Philippe \ 2018
Abstract: This book highlights what are likely to be the future megatrends in the water sector and why and how they should be incorporated to improve water governance in the coming decades. In this first ever book on megatrends for the water sector, 22 leading world experts from different disciplines representing academia, business, government, national and international organisations discuss what the major megatrends of the future are and how they will radically change water governance in the coming decades.
Abstract: Chapters outline up-to-date strategies regarding breeding, chemical and biological control, cultural and environmental manipulation, diagnosis, nutrition, and sanitation and how these approaches directly influence ornamental plant health. This book is a presentation of the latest techniques for disease management by a global team of experts. The book addresses the major diseases of economically important ornamentals with the goal of capturing the latest disease management strategies along with diagnostic photographs. Florists? crops production has evolved considerably through new technological advances in irrigation, environmental control, along with the appearance of new centers of large scale production of plant material. These changes have necessitated the development of newer and innovative ways of suppressing pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes.#xE000;
Abstract: This volume identifies existing statist approaches and political economies of river management in South Asia. These rivers are heavily suffering from millions of people who in contrast consider them as holy and worship them. Edited by Professor Imtiaz Ahmed, the contributors of this book from India, Nepal and Pakistan are leading readers on a journey through the transboundary rivers of South Asia where rivers are vital for the life and living. The book explains why the region needs a framework for cooperation on the wellbeing of these rivers. River management is the key to sustaining healthy river systems. The authors stress that right of the rivers must be codified and guaranteed by the state and the people in South Asia. However, the statist approach to the transboundary rivers in South Asia actually conceives them as national rivers. This volume contributes to the current campaign of overcoming the water dystopias in South Asia.
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