Abstract: This thesis describes the analysis of the impact the implementation of the EU floods Directive has on policy. The analysis was done by researching the implementation of the Directive in the German and Dutch part of the river Rhine with a focus on the border area, namely: North Rhine Westphalia and Gelderland. The study was done on seven main themes derived from the Directive: 1) Collaboration in flood risk management, 2) Risk assessment, 3) Maps, Flood risk management plans approach, 4) Scenario approach, 5) Public involvement and 6) Feedback in the Directive. The theoretical lenses conformance, performance and performativity were respectively used to research how conform implemented flood risk management policies are to the Directive, where policy making was performance based and how performativity played a role in this implementation.
climate - biobased economy - energy policy - renewable energy - biomass - sustainability - biodiversity
Abstract: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) sets an ambitious agenda to achieve a prosperous, socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable future for people and the planet (UN, 2015). It calls on governments to translate the SDGs’ global ambitions into national targets and policies. However, many SDG targets that address global environmental challenges (e.g. climate change, nutrient pollution, biodiversity loss) are defined at the global level and phrased in non - quantitative terms. Furthermore, the 2030 Agenda provides little guidance on how to translate those global ambitions in to national targets. The SDGs thus require further operationalisation, both globally and nationally (Lucas et al., 2016). In this policy brief, we discuss the normative choices in setting national policy targets that are in line with SDG ambition s related to global environmental challenges, as well as the role scientific knowledge can play. 1 We conclude that setting national policy targets in line with global SDG ambitions involves normative political decisions about: 1) setting global quantitative targets where they currently do not exist; 2) deriving national policy targets based on fair and equitable distribution of global resource budgets or reduction objectives defined by the global targets; and 3) determining the environmental pressures that are taken into account when designing national target and policies, either with respect to national territory or across the whole value chain, including pressures abroad (footprint). Science can help setting global quantitative targets by providing insights in to societal risks of various levels of global environmental change. Furthermore, it may help in translating these targets in to national policy targets by systematically analysing the implications of alternative allocation approaches based on various interpretations of fair and equitable distribution. To make an analysis for the Netherlands, we use d global quantitative targets based on Earth System Science (planetary boundaries) and various allocation approaches from the climate change literature. Dutch environmental footprints, including those for CO 2, land use, nutrient pollution (N and P) and biodiversity loss, were found to be much larger than the global average. These footprints are also larger than what could be considered fair under the various approaches analysed. This suggests that the Netherlands, currently, is not living within its safe operating space.
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