Abstract: To achieve a more sustainable way of living, more plant - based protein instead of animal protein should be consumed. A good alternative for animal protein is soy protein. Soy beans have a high protein content, has a lot of micronutrients and an amino acid profile close to the human needs. Soy protein is already applied in different food products and the objective of this study was to find potential to apply soy protein as a food product to replace animal - based protein. Commercial soy protein isolate (SPI), commercial soy protein concentrate (SPC) and soy protein fraction (SPF) obtained via a mild aqueous fractionation that is more sustainable than commercial protein extraction methods. These powders were analysed with the shear rate sweep, time sweep and temperature sweep. Dispersions of 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 12%, 15% and 18% mass concentration were used to perform the shear rat e sweep, time sweep and temperature sweep. The same measurements were performed using 12% dispersions of pH 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5. The results of the shear rate sweep showed that an increase in mass concentration of soy protein powder resulted in an increase in viscosity. The quantitative height of the viscosity of SPI was the highest, then SPC and lastly SPF. From the shear rate sweep, it was determined that a 12 wt% concentration was suitable to apply as a soy yoghurt based on the viscosity, physical appearance and shear thinning behaviour. The SPI showed a viscosity - decreasing regime in the beginning of the time sweep, whereas SPC and SPF showed a constant viscosity in the beginning. The temperature sweep reached higher viscosities for SPF compared to SPI and SPC, as these samples reached comparable, but lower viscosities. The results of measurements of 12% dispersions at different pH values showed the influence of the pH on viscosity and physical appearance. The nitrogen solubility index and the wat er holding capacity were taken into account by explaining the results. The results indicated that the SPF at pH 7.5 had the most potential to be applied as a soy drink yoghurt, based on the viscosity, shear thinning behaviour, solubility and the physical appearance. However, more research should be done to determine how suitable SPF is for this application based on other requirements
Abstract: During the 20th century, the strong deterioration of the quality and the biodiversity of Dutch nature and woodlands slowly became eminent. At that time, the country was already densely populated and industrialized. This deterioration also occurred in the 162 Natura 2000 sites, in which many species and habitat types still have an unfavora - ble conservation status. Consequently, in 1989 the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Conservation and Fisheries (currently: Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality) started the ‘Survival Plan of Dutch Nature’, that included a budget for nature restoration measures. In the early nineties, this plan lead to a knowledge network that focused on the supervision and monitoring of these measures, and that slowly developed into the current OBN Knowledge Network. Until 2006, these measures solely focused on the reduction of the impact of desiccation, eutrophication, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and acidification. Nowadays, a much wider focus has been established.
Abstract: In de regel wordt aangenomen dat in luchtwassers met een biologische behandelingsstap ammoniak uit stallucht wordt omgezet in nitraat en nitriet, dat vervolgens met het spuiwater wordt afgevoerd. Er zijn echter aanwijzingen dat onder bepaalde condities (grote) hoeveelheden andere gasvormige stikstofverbindingen kunnen ontstaan en emitteren. Uit de steekproef die is uitgevoerd, blijkt dat bij biologische luchtwassers met een lage pH (< 6,5) grote hoeveelheden stikstofoxyden (NOy) kunnen ontwijken naar de lucht. Voor dergelijk luchtwassers is de netto stikstofverwijdering veel lager dan de ammoniakverwijdering---In a biotrickling filter treating animal house exhaust air, ammonia is usually converted to dissolved nitrite and nitrate and subsequently removed with the discharge water. However, under certain operating conditions other types of gaseous nitrogen compounds may be emitted to the air. From the survey that was conducted it follows that at low pH values (< 6.5) large amounts of gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOy) may be emitted from biotrickling filters. As a result, the net nitrogen removal of these scrubbers is much lower than the ammonia removal efficiency
public green areas - non-crop weed control - landscape architecture - management of urban green areas - custom hiring - green roofs - green walls - urban areas
Abstract: De gemeente Sittard-Geleen bruist van ambitie en innovatiekracht. Het nieuwbouwproject Ligne in het centrum is daar een voorbeeld van. Hoewel de gemeente graag wijst naar de aanwezigheid van bedrijven zoals DSM, SABIC en OIC Nitrogen om haar claim op ambitie en innovatiekracht te ondersteunen, was het Nophadrain uit het naburige Kerkrade dat dit in het nieuwbouwproject Ligne ten uitvoer bracht.
Abstract: Bradyrhizobium spp. are well known for their capacity to initiate a beneficial relationship with a large variety of legume species and the non-legume Parasponia. Through initiation of nodulogenesis in plants, Bradyrhizobium spp. are able to utilize organic molecules derived from photosynthesis in exchange for fixed nitrogen. The genes essential for the nitrogen-fixation and nodulation trait are clustered chromosomally on so called symbiotic islands, which are wildly accepted to be of foreign origin. However, previously published Bradyrhizobium ecotypes have been shown to be non-symbiotic. These non-symbionts were found to be highly abundant in soils lacking legumes and do not harbour the nitrogen fixation and nodulation gene clusters. Recently, a study showed that a multitude of Bradyrhizobium strains are highly abundant in the root endophytic compartment of eight different plant species originating from the same ecological test field. From a single Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) root, four genetically and functionally highly diverse Bradyrhizobium strains were isolated. These isolates, designated Bradyrhizobium sp. MOS001 to MOS004, were shown to be nonsymbiotic. However, the nature of the interaction between these non-symbiotic Bradyrhizobium isolates and the root endophytic compartment remained elusive. In this study, we show the first step to identify the nature of this host-microbe interaction through localization of these non-symbionts on roots of model species Arabidopsis. Moreover, we show the construction of strain specific plasmids which become stably integrated at a uniform locus in the chromosome of MOS001, MOS004 and type strain Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110 (USDA110). These constructs enable expression of a single copy gene for a Bradyrhizobium optimized green fluorescent protein. Here, we reportsuccessful construction of green fluorescent protein-expressing USDA110, MOS001 and MOS004 strains. In our experimental setup, we were unable to detect these labelled strains in the root endophytic compartment of Arabidopsis.
Bruggen, C. van \ Bannink, A \ Groenestein, C.M. \ Huijsmans, J.F.M. \ Luesink, H.H. \ Sluis, S.M. van der \ Velthof, G.L. \ Vonk, J. \ 2018
Abstract: Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions in 2016 were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). Some figures in the time series 1990-2015 were revised. The method calculates the NH3 emission from livestock manure based on the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. In 2016 NH3 emissions from livestock manure, fertilizer and other sources in agriculture, from hobby farms, private parties and manure disposal in nature areas amounted to 116.8 million kg NH3, 1.3 million kg more than in 2015. Nitrogen excretion increased due to expansion of the dairy herd, but because of a larger share of low emission housing and more manure exports outside agriculture, the increase in NH3 emission remained limited. N2O emissions in 2016 were 21.1 million kg at virtually the same level as in 2015 (21.2). NO emissions in 2016 totaled 22.8 million kg compared to 22.6 million kg in 2015. CH4 emissions increased from 496 to 512 million kg due to the expansion of the dairy herd. Emissions of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5, 6.5 and 0.6 million kg respectively, did not change compared to 2015. NH3 emissions from livestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by almost two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretion rates by livestock and lowemission manure application. Emissions of N2O and NO also decreased over the same period, but less strongly(38% and 31% respectively), due to higher emissions from manure injection into the soil and the shift from poultry housing systems with liquid manure towards solid manure systems. CH4 emissions reduced by 13% between 1990 and 2016 caused by a decreasein livestock numbers and increased feed efficiency of dairy cattle.
Vasilaki, V. \ Volcke, E.I.P. \ Nandi, A.K. \ Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van \ Katsou, E. \ 2018
water pollution - water quality - water supply - waste water treatment - government policy - environmental policy - environmental legislation - air pollution - soil pollution - aquatic environment
Abstract: Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to investigate the dependencies and underlying patterns between N2O emissions and online operational variables (dissolved oxygen and nitrogen component concentrations, temperature and influent flow-rate) during biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. The system under study was a full-scale reactor, for which hourly sensor data were available. The 15-month long monitoring campaign was divided into 10 sub-periods based on the profile of N2O emissions, using Binary Segmentation.
Velthof, G.L. \ Kistenkas, F.H. \ Groenendijk, P. \ Boekel, E.M.P.M. van \ Oenema, O. \ 2018
Abstract: De doelstellingen voor stikstof- en fosforconcentraties in grond- en oppervlaktewater uit de Kaderrichtlijn Water en Nitraatrichtlijn worden in bepaalde regio’s in Nederland op dit moment nog niet gehaald. Op basis van afspraken in de Stuurgroep Water en in opdracht van het Bestuurlijk Overleg Delta-aanpak Waterkwaliteit en Zoetwater is onderzocht of er voldoende inzetbaar juridisch instrumentarium is en of er aanvullend instrumentarium nodig is om aanvullende maatregelen te nemen om de waterkwaliteit te verbeteren. De Commissie Deskundigen Meststoffenwet (CDM) heeft het project uitgevoerd, onder begeleiding van een ambtelijke projectgroep bestaande uit vertegenwoordigers van de Regionaal Bestuurlijke Overleggen (RBO-en), Interprovinciaal Overleg (IPO), Unie van Waterschappen (UvW) alsook de ministeries van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat (IenW) en Landbouw, Natuur en Voedsel-kwaliteit (LNV). Het generieke spoor om nutriëntenuitspoeling te reguleren loopt via gebruiksnormen en –voorschriften in de Meststoffenwet en het Besluit gebruik meststoffen (Wet bodembescherming). Mits deze wetgeving wordt aangepast, kan het Rijk alle in deze studie geïnventariseerde maatregelen regionaal inzetten. Het generieke spoor biedt zonder aanpassing geen delegatiemogelijkheid naar decentrale overheden. In het gebied-specifieke spoor heeft de provincie via de provinciale milieuverordening mogelijkheden tot het nemen van enkele maatregelen in grondwaterbeschermingsgebieden en kunnen waterschappen teeltvrije (mestvrije) zones langs waterlopen via maatwerkvoorschriften voorschrijven in specifieke gebieden. Deze mogelijkheden voor regionale overheden kunnen alleen in specifieke situaties worden gebruikt. Met de komst van het nieuwe stelsel van het omgevingsrecht (de Omgevingswet) zullen deze mogelijkheden worden verruimd. Nader jurisprudentie-onderzoek is nodig om de mogelijkheden na te gaan om nutriënten-uitspoeling te beperken via het ruimtelijke ordeningsspoor, het natuurbeschermingsrechtelijke spoor en het privaatrechtelijke spoor. Er zou nader onderzoek moeten worden uitgevoerd om te bepalen of het wenselijk is om de mogelijkheden voor provincies en/of waterschappen uit te breiden om gebiedsgericht aanvullende maatregelen te nemen---The targets for nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in groundwater and surface water under the Water Framework Directive and the Nitrates Directive are currently not being met in certain regions of the Netherlands. The Scientific Committee on the Nutrient Management Policy (CDM) has studied the relevant legal instruments to determine whether or not these provide sufficient means to introduce the additional measures required to improve water quality. The generic approach to controlling nutrient leaching involves the application of use standards and conditions under the Act on Manures and Fertilisers and the Decree on Fertiliser Use (Soil Protection Act). If this legislation is amended, the national government will be able to deploy all the measures examined in this study on a regional scale. Without any legislative amendment, it will not be possible to delegate powers to subnational authorities for the application of generic measures. In the place-based approach the provincial authorities can deploy certain measures in groundwater protection areas via the provincial environmental regulation. Water authorities can issue individual regulations declaring crop-free zones (no fertiliser use) along watercourses in specified areas. These possibilities available to regional authorities can only be used in specific situations. When the Environment and Planning Act comes into force these powers will be expanded. Further research will be needed to determine whether or not it will be necessary to extend the powers available to provincial and/or water authorities to include the imposition of supplementary place-based measures
Burgt, Geert-Jan van der \ Rietema, Carina \ Bus, Michiel \ 2018
Abstract: In the Planty Organic experimental field, located at the SPNA location ‘Kollumerwaard’, an organic arable farming system is developed based on three principles: 1) Nitrogen input fully based on leguminous crops. 2) Use of farm-produced cut-and-carry fertilizers. 3) Reduced tillage; no ploughing. The results of this research will be available for improvements in both organic and conventional arable farming.
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