Vonk, J. \ Sluis, S.M. van der \ Bannink, A. \ Bruggen, C. van \ Groenestein, C.M. \ Huijsmans, J.F.M. \ Kolk, J.W.H. van der \ Lagerwerf, L.A. \ Luesink, H.H. \ Oude Voshaar, S.V. \ Velthof, G.L. \ 2018
Abstract: The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) are calculated from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils and carbon dioxide (CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission calculations with NEMA
Environmentally induced diseases - Air Pollution - Environmentally induced diseases
Abstract: This book examines in detail the clinical implications of those diseases that either are primarily triggered by air pollution or represent direct consequences of air pollutants. The aim is to provide medical practitioners with practical solutions to issues in diagnosis and treatment while simultaneously furnishing other interested parties with crucial information on the field. The book introduces the concept that air pollution-related diseases constitute a new class of pathologies. A wide range of conditions mainly attributable to air pollution are discussed, covering different body systems and pollution impacts in subsets of the population. In addition to presenting state of the art overviews of clinical aspects, the book carefully examines the implications of current knowledge for social and public health strategies aimed at disease prevention and prophylaxis. The Clinical Handbook of Air Pollution-Related Diseases will greatly assist doctors and healthcare workers when dealing with the consequences of air pollution in their everyday practice and will provide researchers, industry, and policymakers with valuable facts and insights.
Abstract: This book systematically illustrates the underlying mechanisms of spatial variation in ecosystem carbon fluxes. It presents the regulation of climate pattern, together with its impacts on ecosystem traits, which yields new insights into the terrestrial carbon cycle and offers a theoretic basis for large-scale carbon pattern assessment. By means of integrated analysis, the clear spatial pattern of carbon fluxes (including gross primary production, ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem production) along latitudes is clarified, from regions to the entire Northern Hemisphere. Temperature and precipitation patterns play a vital role in carbon spatial pattern formation, which strongly supports the application of the climate-driven theory to the Northern Hemisphere. With regard to the spatial pattern, the book demonstrates the covariation between production and respiration, offering new information to promote current respiration model development. Moreover, it reveals the high carbon uptake of subtropical forests across the East Asian monsoon region, which challenges the view that only mid- to high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems are principal carbon sink regions, and improves our understanding of carbon budgets and distribution. .
Abstract: This Volume comprises 12 chapters in an attempt to bring available information on biology, social behavour and economic importance of termites. Chapters in this book dealing with termites identification provide a review on most updated information of their systematics. Ecologically, termites interact with living and non-living surroundings and deliver a wide range of behaviors. In a separate chapter termites ecology is examined and explored. Termites depend on their gut microbes for digestion of complex polysaccharides of wood into simpler molecules. Information provided on termite gut microbiome and lignocellulose degradation constitutes an important contribution. Termite biology and social behaviour have been addressed comprehensively. Trail pheromones are responsible for the orientation and recruitment of nestmates to the food sources. Once arriving at a potential food source, termites assess its quality using a different set of cues. A separate chapter on trail pheromones, cues used during foraging and food assessment, with preferences for foraging sites, contributes a wealth of information. Emphasis has been given on reviewing ecological benefits of termites in other chapters. The information with respect to termite species as an edible insect and the overall role it plays in food and nutrition security in Africa is quite informative. A separate chapter dealing with importance of termites and termitaria in mineral exploration constitutes a significant step in addressing the economic importance of this insect group.
Abstract: This book presents a comprehensive collection of articles illustrating the importance of microbial community structure and function for ecosystem sustainability and environmental reclamation. It addresses a diverse range of topics, including microbial diversity, physiology, genomics, ecosystem function, interaction, metabolism, and the fruitful use of microbial communities for crop productivity and environmental remediation. In addition, the book explores issues ranging from general concepts on the diversity of microorganisms in soil, and ecosystem function to the evolution and taxonomy of soil microbiota, with future prospects. It covers cutting-edge methods in soil microbial ecological studies, rhizosphere microflora, the role of organic matter in plant productivity, biological nitrogen fixation and its genetics, microbial transformation of plant nutrients in soil, plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and organic matter transformation. The book also discusses the application of microbes in biodegradation of xenobiotic contaminants. It covers bio-fertilizers and their role in sustainable agriculture and soil health, biological control of insect pests and plant pathogens, and the latest tools of omics in soil microbiology, i.e. genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, which offer pioneering approaches to the exploration of microbial structure and function.
Abdul Karim, Zainal Ambri \ Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar Bin \ 2018
Fuel switching - Synthetic fuels
Abstract: This book examines the development and utilization of alternative fuels in order to reduce or control the environmental impact of internal combustion engine exhaust gases. Discussing alternative fuels such as dual fuel techniques, rubber seed/palm oil biodiesel, syngas dual-fuelling, water-in-diesel emulsions and gasification of date palm seeds, it is a valuable resource for researchers in the field of engine development and on alternative fuels.
Jana, B. B. \ Mandal, R. N. \ Jayasankar, P. \ 2018
Environment - Aquatic ecology - Environmental law - Environmental policy - Environmental management - Sustainable development - Water Pollution - Aquaculture Environmental aspects - Sewage disposal - Water conservation - Water quality management
Abstract: This volume provides state-of-the-art information on soil-water interactions in wastewater systems, characterization of wastewater, modes of treatment, safety of wastewater use, water conservation technologies involved in recycling of sewage in fish culture, biogeochemical cycling bacteria and nutrient dynamics, ecosystem resilient driven wastewater reclamation, bioremediation, aquaponics, ecological integrity, culture practices of fish farming, microbial food web phenomena, fish diseases, environmental economics of wastewater, environmental risk assessment, environmental law and regulations. Given its breadth of coverage, the book will be useful to researchers, teachers, students, administrators, planners, farmers and entrepreneurs interested in the profitable use of wastewater in the wastes-into-wealth framework of for the benefit of humanity, and in achieving the targets for sanitation and safe wastewater reuse by 2030, specified in the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. Concerns are growing about the quality and quantity of fresh water, as severe crises are expected in the near future. Climate change has further worsened the strain on inland water resources, with its major impacts on ecosystems and human life. It is most urgent to protect and conserve inland water resources to maintain vital ecosystem functions. Despite the immense nutrient potentials of wastewater in terms of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium and increasingly high rates of urbanization-based wastewater generation, wastewater has traditionally been overlooked as a resource. This produces a threefold loss – environmental degradation, monetary losses from fertilizers, and water. As a result, municipal wastewater offers a win-win strategy for water conservation and environmental protection, while also turning waste into wealth in the form of fish biomass and allied cash crops. Wastewater-fed aquaculture refers to a unique, integrated biosystem in which the wastes generated by the first system are used by the next subsystem. In wastewater-fed aquaculture biosystems, the organic wastes are recycled into fish biomass mediated through a complex microbial/autotrophic/heterotrophic food web mechanism. .
Abstract: Recently, two studies were done that focussed on global and urban phosphorus (P) flows in the foodchain and land demand for food production: 1) a study aimed at exploring the possibilities of a localfood system and its effect on the phosphorus cycle for the urban region Almere and 2) a study inwhich the state of the global food system in 2010 was modelled with respect to land use, GHGemission, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling using the model BIOSPACS (Balancing Inputs and Outputsfor the Sustainable Production of Agricultural CommoditieS).In a separate study both models have now been applied to the Netherlands while focussing onphosphorus flows and land demand for the situation in which the Netherlands produces its own food(i.e. self-sufficient, except for exotic food products). In this report the assumptions and the results ofthe two new studies for the Netherlands are compared. We refer to these new studies by, respectively,Almere_NLD and BIOSPACS.Basis of the calculations for both approaches is the food intake and food supply (including foodwastage) to households. From that point the area demand for food production and associated P flowsare calculated based on crop and animal production data.For BIOSPACS the food intake and food supply data are derived from FAOSTAT (originating from CBS)and for Almere_NLD the food intake is based on data from the Dutch national food consumptionsurvey and, subsequently, food supply to households is calculated by assuming a wastage of 20%.Generally, in the analysis with BIOSPACS higher food supply rates are used for feeding the Dutchpopulation and more P needs to be ‘provided’, relative to Almere_NLD (average values for food: +27%and for P: +23%).Except for cereals and oil crops, the assumed crop yields used in Almere_NLD are higher than thosederived from BIOSPACS, especially for potatoes (+21%), pulses (+19%) and fruits (+59%). For theanimal production the feed requirement per unit animal product (FRR, feed requirement ratio)together with the crop yields determine the area and phosphorus demand. The FRR-values for pigmeat, poultry meat and egg production are comparable. For bovine meat and milk production theFRR-values calibrated in BIOSPACS are lower by using less roughages and concentrates.Despite different assumptions and data sources, the overall results are more or less comparable forthe two studies. This applies to the required area for agricultural production as well as the main Pflows. However, considerable differences in crop area demand between individual crops are calculated,and explained by differences in input values. BIOSPACS calculates a higher area demand for foodcrops while Almere-NLD calculates a higher area demand for animal production, resulting in a totalagricultural area demand that is comparable for the two studies. For a self-sufficient situation moreagricultural land would be needed compared to the amount currently in use for food production in theNetherlands. P flows in waste and P flows entering and leaving the city (households, retail, food processingindustry) were quite similar for both approaches. In agriculture larger differences are found due todifferent assumptions in the studies of BIOSPACS and Almere_NLD. In the latter most waste flowshave been assumed to be recycled towards agriculture, which has not been done for BIOSPACS.Furthermore, Almere_NLD assumes no P losses nor any accumulation of P in agricultural soils (crop Pdemand equals crop P offtake), contrary to the situation in BIOSPACS. However, when these twoconditions were also assumed for BIOSPACS, the required amounts of P fertiliser were more or lesscomparable
Sharma, Nikhil \ Agarwal, Avinash K. \ Eastwood, Peter \ Gupta, Tarun \ Singh, Akhilendra P.. \ 2018
Air quality management - Air Pollution - Air quality management
Abstract: This book focuses on various aspects related to air pollution, including major sources of air pollution, measurement techniques, modeling studies and solution approaches to control. The book also presents case studies on measuring air pollution in major urban areas, such as Delhi, India. The book examines vehicles as a source of air pollution and addresses the quantitative analysis of engine exhaust emissions. Subsequent chapters discuss particulate matter from engines and coal-fired power plants as a major pollutant, as well as emission control techniques using various after treatment systems. The book’s final chapter considers future perspectives and a way forward for sustainable development. It also discusses several emission control techniques that will gain relevance in the future, when stricter emission norms will be enforced for international combustion (IC) engines as well as power plants. Given its breadth of coverage, the book will benefit a wide variety of readers, including researchers, professionals, and policymakers.
Boer, M.A. de \ Hammerton, M. \ Slootweg, J.C. \ 2018
water pollution - water quality - water supply - waste water treatment - government policy - environmental policy - environmental legislation - air pollution - soil pollution - aquatic environment
Abstract: Struvite precipitation is a well-documented method for recovering up to 98% of phosphorus from urine, which is one of the main nutrients in fertilizers besides nitrogen and potassium. Shortcomings of this process, however, are the low nitrogen recovery ratio and the possible uptake of pharmaceuticals from urine. In this work, the NH4+ adsorbent materials biochar and zeolite are coupled with struvite precipitation to increase the N-recovery of struvite from 5.7% to 9.8%. Since nitrogen is one of the main nutrients in fertilisers, this increase is of significance for its potential commercial use. In addition, urine is spiked with pharmaceuticals to measure the consequential uptake in struvite-based fertilisers and crops afterwards. Five fertilisers are prepared by nutrient recovery from spiked urine using: (1) struvite crystallisation, (2) struvite crystallisation combined with N adsorption on zeolite, (3) struvite crystallisation combined with N adsorption on biochar, (4) N adsorption on zeolite without struvite crystallisation, and (5) N adsorption on biochar without struvite crystallisation. The fertiliser with the highest purity product and the lowest uptake of pharmaceuticals was struvite combined with zeolite. Next, the contaminated struvite-sorbent fertilisers are tested in a crop trial in which the bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals in edible plant tissue (tomatoes) is measured.
Soil remediation China - Soil pollution - Soil remediation
Abstract: This book reviews the progresses and achievements made in the past 20 years of research on soil pollution and remediation in China, and presents 50 review and research articles from all over China, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. The authors include scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and managers from 26 universities, 18 institutes, 4 leading enterprises and 2 government environmental protection departments. The contents cover fundamental research on soil pollution and remediation, technical development, project demonstration, policy and governance. The polluted soil/site types include farmland, industrial sites, mining areas and oilfields, with heavy metals (cadmium, arsenic, copper, chromium, mercury, lead, zinc, nickel, etc.), organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, phthalate esters, halogenated hydrocarbons, etc.), and metal–organic mixed pollutants. The remediation techniques mainly include physical and chemical remediation (thermal desorption, soil vapor extraction, in situ advanced chemical oxidation, solidification and stabilization), phytoremediation (phytostabilization, phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators, phyto-prevention by low accumulation plants), bioremediation (microbial adsorption and immobilization, microbial degradation, microbe-enhanced phytoremediation), and combined remediation merging multiple technologies. The governance and policy section mainly explores laws and regulations, criteria and standards, financial guarantees and the industrial market for soil environment and pollution prevention.
Panpatte, Deepak G. \ Jhala, Yogeshvari K. \ Shelat, Harsha N. \ Vyas, Rajababu V. \ 2018
Agriculture - Life sciences - Microbial ecology - Oxidative stress - Soil conservation - Soil science - Sustainable development
Abstract: This book explores basic and applied aspects of microorganisms, which have a unique ability to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and changing climate, as well as biodegrader microorganisms and their functional roles. Further, readers will find detailed information on all aspects that are required to make a microbe ?agriculturally beneficial.? The book?s primary focus is on microbes that are essentially ?hidden miniature packages of nature? that influence agro-ecosystems. Inviting papers by prominent national and international scientists working in the field of agricultural microbiology, it addresses the biogdegrader group of microbial inoculants. Each chapter covers the respective mechanism of action and recent advances in agricultural microbiology. In addition, the book especially highlights innovations involving agriculturally beneficial microorganisms, including strategies for coping with a changing climate, and methods for developing microbial inoculants and promoting climate-smart agriculture. The information presented here is based on the authors? extensive experience in the subject area, gathered in the course of their careers in the field of agricultural microbiology. The book offers a valuable resource for all readers who are actively involved in research on agriculturally beneficial microorganisms. In addition, it will help prepare readers for the future challenges that climate change will pose for agriculture and will help to bridge the current gaps between different scientific communities.
Abstract: This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.
Medina, Carlos \ Lopez-Baena, Francisco Javier \ 2018
Abstract: This detailed volume explores numerous multidisciplinary approaches employed to analyze the role of different molecules or strategies used by different guests to survive inside hosts. Divided into several sections, the book delves into animal-pathogen interaction, microbe-microbe interaction, as well as plant-pathogen interaction. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include brief introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.uthoritative and practical, Host-Pathogen Interactions: Methods and Protocols provides many molecular and bioinformatics techniques currently in use at reputed laboratories in countries all around the world, vital for many kinds of host-pathogen interactions studies.
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