Abstract: This regional study of East Africa’s (EA) poultry sector was commissioned by the Food and Business Knowledge platform in 2017 with deference to the growing interest of Dutch companies in East Africa. The poultry sector in EA has been growing rapidly for the past 5 years driven by: rapid urbanization; the growth of the middle class in EA; rise in number of quick services restaurants in urban areas in EA; and growing need for animal protein. Of the four EA economies, Kenya’s poultry sector is the most mature. However, all the other three economies have in the past five years made significant strides towards developing and growing their own poultry sector.In order to justify the case for regional approach to poultry development in EA 3 key issues were addressed. First the availability and production of good quality feed at competitive prices. Governments in the region have made conscious policy changes to incentivize the import of raw materials and ingredients for feed into the region. In addition to this certain countries in EA such as Tanzania and Rwanda have made poultry specific strategies to catalyse growth of their poultry sectors. Whereas collective initiatives are in principal good for sectoral development at a regional level, history shows that there are the significant challenges to overcome. For instance, clarity on cross border trade in maize, oil seeds and oil seed cake is necessary for a sound regional approach to feed. The disparity in terms of available land for maize cultivation, the cost price and eventual market price for maize differs significantly per country in EA. Each county in EA has a competitive advantage that could complement the others. However, finding these complementarities and capitalising them for the greater good of the region will give rise to significant benefits for each EA member state. Secondly, the availability of DOCs across EA is a challenge. Kenya trades with Uganda and Uganda trades with Rwanda when it comes to DOCs. There is a shortage of DOCs in EA and there is a seasonality both in availability and price that makes it difficult for farmers to plan ahead and manage their costs.Lastly, access to markets, the East African Community (EAC) is both an economic and political block. Citizens of the member states are in principal allowed to work, do business and trade with one another freely. Though the EAC is the most advanced regional economic block in Africa it still faces certain challenges to implementing certain policies collectively. For instance in February of 2018 all EA member states agreed to remove VAT on all raw materials imported for feed manufacturing. Of the four member states, three have already tabled this policy in parliament and one has not. Free access to a market of approximately 140 million people will drive investments in the sector across the entire value chain. Such initiatives should be given priority and expedited in order to catalyse investments and growth in the EA poultry sector.Complimentary to the three issues above is knowledge and training at vocational and tertiary levels in EA. There is need for better more specific training and education in the poultry sector. A case in point is in EA veterinary doctors are in principal experts for all livestock and poultry is one amongst many of the courses they would take during their 4 to 6 years study. Upon completion most are not equipped to immediately enter into the poultry sector. Most farms and companies in the sector have been forced to develop on the job training programs that allow high performers to learn poultry specific knowledge. In addition to knowledge and training collective investment in regulation and enforcement of good biosecurity and animal health practices would go a long way to reduce and or manage disease outbreaks in the region. In the context of this study, it is observed that in EA a majority of poultry farmers are either small or medium scale farmers. Collective investments in feed, DOCs, animal health, knowledge transfer, capacity building, training and access to markets will greatly assist them become better farmers. In recognition of the increased significance of the poultry sector, various financing and financial institutions have become interested in poultry farmers and other poultry sector value chain actors.6 | Wageningen Livestock Research Report 1121These developments coupled with increasing demand for animal protein make the sector very attractive not only for local actors but also for the Dutch private sector.
life sciences - university research - precision agriculture - nutrition and health - aquatic environment
Abstract: Our wardrobes have a massive environmental impact. Scientists and creatives are designing sustainable clothing and shoes, making them out of fruit waste, discarded fibres or fungi. ‘If we work with the big fashion labels, innovations can be fine-tuned and scaled up.’
Abstract: Are you aware of the sheer size and rapid development of tourism? And do you like to engage in meaningful debates about these developments as they appear today and/or tomorrow? If so, this course is for you! Learn more about different social science perspectives to tourism. Implement these perspectives to a tourism case , and share your insights in a professional team environment including practitioners, visionaries, and/or tourism entrepreneurs joining this course. Learn and work on promising and new tourism developments, including Digital Nomadism, Urban Overtourism, Accessible Tourism, or Ecotourism. . In this course, you'll explore these and other inspiring developments currently observed in the tourism industry. You'll make use of interdisciplinary insights to rethink the status quo of tourism. Alternatives can only become real if we allow for an open space for continuous discussion and the generation of new tourism narratives. Not only do we provide space to connect ideas into new narratives for change, we will also challenge you to remain engaged after completion of the course
Abstract: Don’t throw away your old shoes before you get new ones – that’s an adage the Dutch sweet pepper grower Stephan Persoon firmly believes in. Now he and his cultivation manager Roel Klapwijk are putting out feelers in the direction of Next Generation Growing, and instead of replacing the old screen fabric they decided to install a second climate screen under it. It took a while to work out how best to install it.
water management - waste water - drinking water - governance - legislation - water policy - netherlands
Abstract: If we look at the Earth from space, it is clear to see: the planet is literally covered in water. Yet, there is never enough of it – and often too much. In recent decades, water-related disasters have affected increasing numbers of people, animals and businesses. We can make a greater contribution to finding solutions to these problems if we work together better and more often in the Netherlands, too. The Dutch water authorities and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and of Infrastructure and Water Management are therefore joining forces to launch a new international programme. The new programme, known as the Blue Deal, will run until 2030.
Abstract: The research presented in this thesis supports the hypothesis that wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach can be used as an alternative and non-intrusive technique that provides information about a population's health and lifestyle habits. The focus is in the essential role of analytical chemistry in the development of advanced methodology for the reliable determination of illicit drugs, and also other licit and illicit substances, in the aquatic environment. To this end, liquid chromatography hyphenated to different mass spectrometers, employing both low and high resolution, and using target and suspect acquisition strategies, have been investigated. The results obtained in chapter 2 tackled different analytical challenges affecting the monitoring of illicit drugs, such as the inclusion of cannabis or new psychoactive substances in WBE studies, or the lack of WBE data from different world regions. In chapters 3 and 4, the aim was to go a little further and extrapolate the WBE approach to including other pharmaceuticals with potential for abuse, such as counterfeit medicines, and (il)licit substances used in the sport doping context. To this aim, two new analytical methods were developed, validated and applied to wastewater samples. This work contributed to the maturation of WBE as a complimentary epidemiological source of information, so that authorities can have a better picture of the prevalence of illicit drugs or other known compounds in a specified area or group, albeit at the (averaged) group level. In addition, the approach appeared to be successful for tracking the use of rogue pharmacies and counterfeit medication.
Abstract: In this work, the acoustic performance of building ele ments including natural sustainable fibrous materials is evaluated. The physical parameters of the considered biobased fibrous material s have been characterized in CEREMA laboratory; these characteristics at the material level are mainly obtained from Kund t tube measurements, following the three microphones method. These parameters can then be injected into a prediction software in order to predict the acoustic performance of a building element. In the present case, the CSTB software AcouSYS based on a tran sfer matrix approach and integrating a spatial filtering method to take into account the finite size of building systems and a coupling with a SEA approach to take into account structural paths, is mainly used. Several types of biobased materials are consi dered, as for example flax and hemp wools. Different types of boards are also taken into account. Wood and metallic frame are as well evaluated with regards to the final acoustic performance. The acoustic performance of building elements including biobased fibrous materials are compared to similar ones including more standardly used material such as mineral wool. Measurement results evaluated in a laboratory are also compared to those predicted. The effect of the biobased fibrous materials characteristics variability is finally discussed.
Abstract: Stichting Heideboerderij Nederland werkt aan de ontwikkeling van het concept van de Heideboerderij. Op een vijftiental locaties in Nederland wordt samen met boeren, schaapherders, natuurorganisaties, burgers, ondernemers en lokale en provinciale overheden gewerkt aan de realisatie van Heideboerderijen. De stichting Heideboerderij Nederland (SHN) heeft de Wetenschapswinkel gevraagd om Wageningen University & Research een verkenning te laten doen naar de mogelijkheden voor realisatie van het door hen ontwikkelde concept van de Heideboerderij op diverse plaatsen in Nederland. In het concept van de Heideboerderij wordt de samenwerking vormgegeven tussen natuurbeheerders, schaapherders, boeren, streekgebonden bedrijven en bewoners als onderdeel van een common en met wortels in een eeuwenoud heidelandbouwsysteem. Het woord ‘commons’ is de gebruikelijke Engelse term voor het gemeenschappelijk bezit van natuurlijke hulpbronnen. Verwante Nederlandse benamingen zijn onder andere Meent, Gemeynt, Boermarke en Marke. De term Marke werd (en wordt) gebruikt in Salland. Op de Sallandse Heuvelrug ging het om bossen en heidevelden (outfields) vanwaar nutriënten werden verzameld in een potstal voor gebruik op de akkers (infields). In de huidige tijd komen daar talrijke nieuwe ‘commons’ bij zoals het korhoen (biodiversiteit) en bijna verloren gegane ambachten (cultuurhistorie). Het antwoord op de gestelde vragen aan de Wetenschapswinkel wordt gegeven door een fictieve samenwerkingsovereenkomst voor de Marke op te stellen met voorwaarden waaraan de business modellen van de diverse samenwerkingspartners moeten voldoen. De acht principes van Elinor Ostrom voor het ontwerp van een ‘common’ zijn daarbij als leidraad genomen. Het concept van de Heideboerderij kan verbetering brengen wat betreft de natuur op en vooral rond de Sallandse Heuvelrug mits aan een aantal randvoorwaarden wordt voldaan. Randvoorwaarden waaraan met prioriteit moet worden gewerkt zijn een samenwerking tussen actoren in het gebied gericht op een gemeenschappelijke business case die aanvullend is op individuele verdienmodellen van ondernemers en de instelling van een Markefonds. Dit Markefonds is noodzakelijk voor het overbruggen van het gat in verdiencapaciteit tussen bedrijven die zich primair richten op productie voor de wereldmarkt en bedrijven met een nadruk op maatschappelijke waarden en ook voor het borgen van een langetermijnzekerheid daarbij---Stichting Heideboerderij Nederland (SHN, The Dutch Heath Farm Foundation) works on the development of the heath farm concept in The Netherlands. At fifteen locations farmers, shepherds, nature organisations, citizens, entrepreneurs and the local and provincial governments work together on the realisation of heath farms. The SHN asked the Wetenschapswinkel (Science Shop) at Wageningen University & Research to explore the possibility of realising the Heath Farm concept at various locations in The Netherlands. The concept of the SHN gives form to the collaboration between nature conservationists, shepherds, farmers, regional businesses and residents, who together make use of the common, this has an historical context. The word “commons” is the English term for the common ownership of natural resources. Related Dutch names are Meent, Gemeynt, Boermarke en Marke. The term Marke is used in Salland. On the Sallandse Heuvelrug it describes the forest and heather fields. These fields were farmers outfields, which were used for grazing animals, who later brought nutrients (manure) back to the stable and this was used to enrich the crop fields. In the present time we find many new ‘commons’, where we find new uses, such as for the conservation of black grouse (and other biodiversity) and almost forgotten crafts (cultural history). The answer to the questions the Science shop received was to draw up a fictitious cooperation agreement for the Marke (commons) with conditions that the various partners must meet. The eight principles of Elinor Ostrom, for the design of a common, were taken as a guideline. The concept of the Heathfarm can provide improvements to nature, both on and around the Sallandse Heuvelrug, provided that certain preconditions are met. The precondition with the highest priority is that the different actors cooperate and develop a common business case, that is complementary to the individual business models of the entrepreneurs. Additionally, they have to establish a Markefund (common fund). This is necessary to bridge the gap between the earning capacity of companies focused primarily on production for the world market and companies which focus on social values and long term sustainability
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