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Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, NMVOC, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) - update 20199 [Monograph]
Lagerwerf, L.A. \ Bannink, A. \ Bruggen, C. van \ Groenestein, C.M. \ Huijsmans, J.F.M. \ Kolk, J.W.H. van der \ Luesink, H.H. \ Sluis, S.M. van der \ Velthof, G.L. \ Vonk, J. \ 2019

Abstract:
The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N compounds (NOx and N2O) are calculated for animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing using a flow model for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). Emissions from the application of inorganic N fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated as well. The NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, as well as for carbon dioxide (CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with the criteria of international guidelines and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report provides an outline of and describes the background to the calculation of emissions according to the NEMA.

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Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector in the Netherlands : methodological background, update 2019 [Monograph]
Arets, E.J.M.M. \ Kolk, J.W.H van der \ Hengeveld, G.M. \ Lesschen, J.P. \ Kramer, H. \ Kuikman, P.J. \ Schelhaas, M.J. \ 2019

Abstract:
This report provides a complete methodological description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse Gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector. It provides detailed description of the methodologies, activity data and emission factors that were used. Each of the reporting categories Forest Land, Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements, Other land and Harvested Wood Products are described in a separate chapter. Additionally it gives a table-by-table elaboration of the choices and motivations for filling the CRF tables for KP-LULUCF.

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Instrumentarium Kosten Natuurbeleid 2018 - Status A : IKN versie 3.0 [Monograph]
Michels, R. \ Diogo, V. \ Hennen, W.H.G.J. \ Puister, L.F.. \ 2018

Abstract:
The Cost of Nature Policies Tool (IKN) calculates the annual costs of the national ecological network under various scenarios. The tool is modularly constructed and in essence consists of several cost tables and a computational model. The purpose of the current report is to consolidate the model documentation and provide a quality assurance assessment. It contains a theoretical framework, a technical description of the computational model and cost tables, and a description of the operation of the model and of the data used. The quality of the calculations was evaluated by means of validation, verification, and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the model.

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Basisregistratie Ondergrond (BRO) - actualisatie bodemkaart : herkartering van de bodem in Flevoland [Monograph]
Brouwer, F \ Vries, F. de \ Walvoort, D.J.J. \ 2018

Abstract:
Since 2010 Wageningen Environmental Research (WENR) has been updating the soil map of the Netherlands, scale 1 : 50 000. The update focuses mainly on characteristics that can change over time under the influence of natural processes or as a result of interventions. This report describes the methods used to update the soil map and the results for areas in the province of Flevoland with a Pleistocene subsoil deeper than 0.8 metres below the surface.

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Basisregistratie Ondergrond-Gd-kartering Laag-Nederland 2018 : Provincie Flevoland [Monograph]
Stuyt, L.C.P.M. \ Knotters, M. \ Walvoort, D.J.J. \ Brouwer, F. \ Massop, H.T.L. \ 2018

Abstract:
In the coming years, a groundwater dynamics map (Gd map) of the low-lying western Netherlands will be compiled. After completion, a comprehensive, nationwide Gd map of the Netherlands will be available, in conjunction with the available Gd data for the higher grounds located in the eastern regions of the country. In 2018, the Gd information for the province of Flevoland was updated. This report describes the procedures followed and the results obtained.

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Selectie van inwinningstechnieken voor bodemdata : selecteren vanuit de (onderzoeks)vraag [Monograph]
Knotters, M. \ Egmond, F.M. van \ 2018

Abstract:
A procedure has been developed to establish whether or not area-wide soil information in the Key Register of the Subsurface (BRO) meets the requirements of the user with regard to accuracy and spatial detail, and to select the most efficient additional mapping method to meet these requirements. A trade-off between costs and accuracy appears to be easier in simple applications than in multiple applications. In the latter case, accuracy is often assumed to be 70% map purity. However, this criterion needs to be more accurately defined and substantiated and, if necessary, adjusted on the basis of the results of risk analyses. Furthermore, it is necessary to monitor where and for which soil characteristics the Soil Map of the Netherlands, scale 1 : 50,000, meets this quality criterion.

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Ontwikkeling van de bodemdiergemeenschap in de geulen van referentiegebied Rottum : tussenrapportage twaalf jaar na sluiting (najaar 2017) [Monograph]
Glorius, S.T. \ 2018

Abstract:
Since November 2005 a small part of the Dutch Wadden Sea has been closed to bottom-disturbing anthropogenic activities. The area is situated just to the south of Rottumerplaat and Rottumeroog islands and covers about 7,400 hectares. The purpose of closing this area is to monitor the development of the marine fauna in the Wadden Sea when they are not disturbed by human activities. The monitoring programme focuses on the development of the benthic communities present in the gullies. The benthic fauna in two gullies in the closed area are being monitored and compared with the fauna in two control gullies outside the closed area, where they under the influence of bottom-disturbing activities. This report describes the interim results 12 years after the area was closed. In line with what has been established earlier, the benthic species composition in the samples from the gullies in the closed area is somewhat more diverse than in the samples from the control gullies. The benthic fauna in Boschwad differs from the other gullies by having a slightly higher abundance of shellfish (especially cockles, but also Baltic clams) and a different composition of annelid species. The species composition in Schild is more similar to that in the open gullies, possibly as a result of greater natural disturbance (influence of wind and waves on the sediments).

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Ontwikkeling van enkele droogvallende mosselbanken in de Nederlandse Waddenzee: situatie 2017 [Monograph]
Glorius, S.T. \ Meijboom, A. \ Wal, J.T. van der \ Cremer, J.S.M. \ 2018

Abstract:
Wageningen Marine Research is studying the long-term development of a number of individual intertidal mussel beds in the Dutch Wadden Sea to identify the characteristics that determine the survival of such beds. The study is being carried out as part of the WOT theme Nature Information Infrastructure. A large proportion of the mussel beds have been able to maintain themselves since the beginning of the study or the establishment of the bed. After formation of a new mussel bed they gradually decline in area, coverage and population density, and the proportion of empty shells, macroalgae and barnacles increase. The decline in size and coverage is occasionally reversed by a good mussel spatfall, after which the process begins again. Japanese oysters have settled in all beds, leading to higher coverage and a decline in mussel biomass.

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Mapping soil texture with a gamma-ray spectrometer: comparison between UAV and proximal measurements and traditional sampling : validation study [Monograph]
Egmond, F.M. van \ Veeke, S. van der \ Knotters, M. \ Koomans, R.I. \ Walvoort, D.J.J. \ Limburg, J. \ 2018

Abstract:
The need for up-to-date soil information for e.g. spatial planning, infrastructure, agriculture and nature conservation has resulted in the Dutch Key Registration of the Subsurface (BRO), which also contains the 1: 50,000 soil map of the Netherlands. Classifying properties for this map are a.o. related to soil texture. Therefore, methods are needed that efficiently and effectively measure these at the right scale level and with the required accuracy. This report describes a validation study into the possibility, accuracy and costs of mapping clay and loam content of the tillage layer (0 - 30 cm) by augering, by measuring gamma radiation from a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle or drone) or on foot. The research was carried out in an agricultural area of 40 ha in the Flevoland polder, the Netherlands. The results show that the accuracy and precision of the UAV and soil-bound measurements is largely comparable. A higher point density and smaller spatial support of the ground-bound sensor have a positive effect on capturing spatial patterns, accuracy and precision. After correction for the difference in point density, results are comparable. The difference in deployment costs is limited. The effect of the use of a national reference calibration set on costs and accuracy is a lot bigger and lowers both. However, when using national calibration scale accuracy could be increased with the inclusion of more soil geographic situations. We advise assessing similar questions by first assessing the required accuracy, measurement depth and resolution, then select possible platforms and choose calibration scale within budget limits. Gamma radiation measurements for mapping soil texture is potentially a scalable and cost-efficient technique for supporting actualisation of the Soil Map of the Netherlands and for applications with higher resolution such as precision agriculture and local spatial planning.

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User manual for GeoPEARL : version 4.4.4 [Monograph]
Berg, F. van den \ Tiktak, A. \ Kraalingen, D.W.G. van \ Groenwold, J.G. \ Boesten, J.J.T.I. \ 2018

Abstract:
In the Dutch Decision Tree for for the evaluation of the leaching potential of pesticides, the GeoPEARL model is used to calculate the 90th spatial percentile of the median leaching concentration in time at a depth of 1.0 m. This user manual describes the use of the graphical user interface of this version. In addition a description of the input and output files is given which helps the user to use the GeoPEARL model without the interface.

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Broedsucces van kustbroedvogels in de Waddenzee in 2017 [Monograph]
Koffijberg, K. \ Cremer, J.S.M. \ Boer, P. de \ Nienhuis, J. \ Oosterbeek. K. \ Postma, J. \ 2018

Abstract:
Data have been collected on the breeding success of several characteristic coastal breeding birds in the Wadden Sea each year since 2005. Ten birds species considered representative of specific habitats and food groups are being monitored. The monitoring scheme on breeding success in coastal breeding birds is run as an ‘early warning system’ to follow the reproductive capacity of the bird populations in the Wadden Sea and understand the processes underlying fluctuations in populations. It is a valuable addition to the monitoring of population numbers and is carried out under a trilateral agreement with Germany and Denmark (TMAP). The data are also included in the OSPAR biodiversity indicator B3 under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The 2017 results indicate that there has been little improvement in breeding success compared with previous years and that most species, especially Eurasian Oystercatcher, Pied Avocet and Arctic Tern, raised far too few young to maintain a stable population.

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Ontwikkeling van de hamsterpopulatie in Limburg : stand van zaken voorjaar 2018 [Monograph]
Müskens, G.J.D.M. \ La Haye, M.J.J. \ Kats, R.J.M. van \ Kuiters, A.T. \ 2018

Abstract:
The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality requires that the Dutch population of European hamster is surveyed each year. This consists of a census of inhabited burrows in the various known habitats patches. The European hamster is present only in the southern part of the province of Limburg and has a preference for arable farmland where cereals or alfalfa are grown. In 2002 the hamster was reintroduced into areas with a specially adapted cropland management regime. In recent years attempts have been made to find new forms of hamster friendly land management practices which can be easily integrated into the farm management and are cheaper to carry out. The area of hamster friendly arable land with suitable habitat is currently more than 700 hectares. Monitoring of the hamster population by means of burrow counts and tagged animals shows that in practice hamsters struggle to survive long enough to produce sufficient litters to enable the population to grow. The latest censuses indicate that there are fewer than 200 inhabited burrows spread over approx. 20 kilometre grids. The hamster population is therefore still critically endangered and restocking remains necessary.

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HappyHier: hoe gelukkig is men waar?: gegevensverzameling en bepaling van de invloedvan het type grondgebruik, deel II [Monograph]
Vries, S. de \ Nieuwenhuizen, W. \ Meeuwsen, H.A.M. \ 2018

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to measure the influence the type of environment (land use) has on people’s reported happiness at a certain moment in time, with a view to formulating rules for quantifying the effect of spatial changes on wellbeing. The study focused on differences between built-up areas and more natural environments and between different types of natural environment. A smartphone app, called HappyHier, was developed for use by a broad sample population in the Netherlands, with push messages asking them to report how happy they felt at a certain moment. From 1 May to 28 July 2016, 4318 unique participants made use of the app, filling in at least one questionnaire on location. Part I of the report discussed the first part of the analysis, focusing mainly on differences in momentary happiness between different types of environment. Part II reports on the representativeness of the gathered data, the time spent in the diverse types of environment and the relationship between momentary happiness and life satisfaction.

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Genetische monitoring van de Nederlandse otterpopulatie : ontwikkeling van populatieomvang en genetische status 2017/2018 [Monograph]
Kuiters, A.T. \ Groot, G.A. de \ Lammertsma, D.R.. \ Jansman, H.A.H. \ Bovenschen, J. \ 2018

Abstract:
The Dutch otter population is surveyed each year for the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality to monitor its size, distribution and genetic status. DNA is isolated from spraints and tissue from dead individuals, and data is obtained on the demographic processes of reproduction, mortality, immigration and emigration. The resulting information is also used to detect changes in the spatial distribution and size of the population. Based on the DNA profiles identified during the monitoring of 2017/2018, the population is now estimated to consist of approx. 275 individuals. The population has therefore grown steadily. The success rate of DNA analysis of spraints was relatively high this year and confirmed further population growth. The number of traffic victims increased again in 2017, showing a continuing linear trend with the total population size of previous years. The total amount of genetic variation at the population level seems to be stabilising, as does the average genetic variation within individuals. This underlines the importance of immigration of otters from German populations near the Dutch-German border.

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Natuur en landschap in de Omgevingswet [Monograph]
Kistenkas, F.H. \ Nieuwenhuizen, W. \ Kamphorst, D.A. \ Broekmeyer, M.E.A. \ 2018

Abstract:
The new Environment and Planning Act comes into force in 2021. The exact consequences for nature conservation cannot yet be fully ascertained because the relevant documents have not all been completed. In addition, it is not clear whether or not the reform of environmental and planning law under the Environment and Planning Act will lead to better decision making on nature and landscape. One of the reasons for this is that there is no national framework for integrated appraisal. What is clear is that the transition from the old to the new legislation will not be entirely policy neutral. For one thing, the level of protection afforded the national ecological network will be reduced.

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Natuur 2.0 : het natuurdebat op social media [Monograph]
Breman, B.C. \ Mattijssen, T.J.M. \ Stevens, T.M. \ 2018

Abstract:
Social media spelen een groeiende rol van betekenis in het maatschappelijk debat. Het doel van deze analyse is om inzichtelijk te maken hoe het onderwerp natuur wordt gerepresenteerd op social media en hoe dit van invloed is op het maatschappelijk debat rondom de natuur in Nederland. Met behulp van diverse software is berichtgeving over natuur op social media verzameld. Deze berichten zijn vervolgens geanalyseerd via een combinatie van kwantitatieve en kwalitatieve methoden op verschillende niveaus (macro, meso, micro). De resultaten laten zien dat het onderwerp natuur online springlevend is en dat het overwegend positieve connotaties oproept. Tegelijkertijd leiden verschillende ideeën over wát natuur precies is bij tijd en wijle ook tot heftige discussies en een gepolariseerd debat. De invloed van dit digitale debat beperkt zich al lang niet meer tot het online-domein maar strekt zich ook uit tot de offline-praktijk van natuurbeheer en beleid.---Social media are playing an increasingly important role in public debate. The aim of this analysis is to get a clear picture of how the subject of nature is represented on social media and how this affects the public debate on nature in the Netherlands. A range of software was used to collect social media posts about nature. These posts were then analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods at different levels (macro, meso, micro). The results show that nature is a live issue online and that it generally has positive connotations. At the same time, the confluence of different ideas about what nature really is can sometimes lead to heated discussions and a polarised debate. For a long time now the influence of this digital debate has extended beyond the online domain into the world of practical conservation management and nature policy.

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Maatschappelijke initiatieven voor natuur en biodiversiteit : een schets van de reikwijdte en ecologische effecten en potenties van maatschappelijke initiatieven voor natuur in feiten en cijfers [Monograph]
Sanders, M.E. \ Langers, F. \ Henkens, R.J.H.G. \ Donders, J.L.M. \ Dam, R.I. van \ Mattijssen, T.J.M. \ Buijs, A.E. \ 2018

Abstract:
For the Assessment of the Dutch Human Environment we want to review what is known about social activities, initiatives and combination of functions for nature and biodiversity and what they contribute to enhancing biodiversity. In this study we collected data from the available literature and websites. These facts and figures show that most people are involved with nature in one way or another and that the involvement of individuals and businesses in some activities is even increasing. Most green citizens' initiatives are focused on amenity green space, but sometimes important natural values that support international biodiversity targets are also created. In addition, citizens play a vital role in monitoring plant and animal species. These facts and figures show also that in all current forms of land use there are possibilities and initiatives for nature combinations or for increasing biodiversity.

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Developments in benthos and fish in gullies in an area closed for human use in the Wadden Sea : 2002-2016 [Monograph]
Glorius, S.T. \ Tulp, I.Y.M. \ Meijboom, A. \ Bolle, L.J. \ Chen, C. \ 2018

Abstract:
In the eastern Dutch Wadden Sea an area was closed for anthropogenic bottom-disturbing activities in 2005. The ‘natural’ development of the fauna in gullies located within this area was monitored and compared with the development in gullies outside the closed area. Emphasis was put on sampling the benthic fauna (every autumn). Eleven years after closure (2016) the fish population was sampled again and additional benthic samples were taken, the sea floor was mapped and the fishing pressures were calculated. Preliminary results show that throughout the investigated period the open gullies were subject to moderate shrimp fishing pressures and that the closed gullies were not fished. Closure of the gullies has not yet led to the formation of biogenic structures on the seafloor, but has led to an increase in the species richness of small benthic fauna and to subtle changes in benthic species composition. Due to the limited availability of data it was not possible to detect statistically significant differences in the fish population.

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Voortgang realisatie natuurnetwerk : technische achtergronden bij de digitale Balans van de Leefomgeving 2018 [Monograph]
Sanders, M.E. \ 2018

Abstract:
The Dutch government and its partners are taking measures to create a coherent network of protected areas in order to halt the decline in biodiversity and in the area of natural habitat and semi-natural habitat, and to improve the conservation status of these areas. The government wants to stay informed of the progress being made. The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) has selected indicators that should provide answers to the question: ‘What progress is being made with the measures being taken to establish the national ecological network?’ The selected indicators have been updated and analysed in order to assess this progress. This report describes the results of the policy measures taken on the basis of the indicators, the technical background of the data used, the methods used to bring these indicators up to date, and the reliability and plausibility of the results.

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Instrumenten voor maatschappelijke betrokkenheid : overzicht en analyse van vier cases [Monograph]
Gerritsen, A.L. \ Kamphorst, D.A. \ Nieuwenhuizen, W. \ 2018

Abstract:
This technical report describes a study of the ways in which government authorities promote social engagement in support of public objectives. The research focused on how government policy instruments promote social engagement in support of public objectives. A long list of instruments was drawn up and four cases studies on the use of such instruments were carried out and analysed. The instruments are Green Deals, the Dutch National Fund for Green Investments (Groenfonds), the ‘Acceleration Agenda for the Do- Democracy’ (Versnellingsagenda Doe-democratie) and the ‘Social Participation Code’ (Code Maatschappelijke Participatie). Each of these can be seen as a different ‘flavour’ of the promotion of social engagement and of practices to learn from. The conclusions are that: 1) mobilising social engagement is not restricted to nature policy; 2) each instrument is part of a wider approach and has its own contexts and specific focus on social engagement, which can also shift over time; 3) the instruments investigated create an interface between national government and society; 4) as a result, social capital accumulates between parties and this can be used to give practical shape to social engagement; and 5) it is plausible that this actually takes place. Social engagement in support of public objectives is not yet standard practice, but is part of an emerging approach by a networking and responsive government in which society and government participate in each other’s initiatives. For government authorities it is important to develop the capacity to do this and to take a systematic and learning-based approach in which attention is given to performance and legitimacy.

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