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A measurement tool on food losses and waste : applied in a tomato value chain in Nigeria [Monograph]
Kok, Melanie G. \ Groot, Jim, J. \ Dastoum, Sara \ Plaisier, Christine \ Dijkxhoorn, Youri \ Wagenberg, Coen P.A. \ 2019
Peer review Nederlandse beschikbaarheid en vraag naar voedsel, veevoer en biomassa voor non-food in 2030 en 2050 [Monograph]
Broeze, Jan \ Elbersen, Wolter \ 2019
nutrition - biobased economy - biomass - animal nutrition - biobased materials
Agrologistic Roadmaps Ghana : phase 2: development of a roadmap methodology applied to the tomato and mango supply chains in Ghana [Monograph]
Snels, Joost \ Soethoudt, Han \ Kok, Melanie \ Diaz, Jerome \ 2018
Biorefinery concepts for Amsterdam Metropolitan Region : part of MEBICO project (Metropolitan Biorefinery Concepts) [Monograph] - Public version
Groenestijn, Johan van \ 2018
biorefinery - residual streams - biobased economy - anaerobic conditions - agricultural wastes - composting
Production of butanol and hydrogen by fermentation techniques using steam treated municipal solid wastes : EU BESTF2 MSWBH [Monograph]
Vrije, Truus de \ Claassen, Pieternel A.M. \ 2018
biobased economy - bioenergy - biomass - biobutanol - bioethanol - renewable energy - biofuels
Inventory report: Dutch Smart Chains for transport of perishable products [Monograph]
Guo, Xuezhen \ 2018

There is a strategic collaboration between RDA from South Korea and Wageningen University & Research (WUR) from the Netherlands. RDA is a similar organisation to Stichting Wageningen. RDA has a Liaison in WUR, who is Dr. Suntay Choi. He is responsible for the bilateral collaboration between RDA and Wageningen. At present 12 RDA-WUR projects are being implemented, all financed by RDA. Dr. Choi would like to set up a small project on “smart chains” applications in Dutch postharvest fresh produce chains. Together with a delegation from the RDA Export supporting centre, he visited Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (FBR) on 14 May 2018. In that visit he has asked for an inventory (desk study) of available postharvest technologies and management experience in this field in the Netherlands, and possible applications in South-Korea. A similar study has been done for smart farming in pig production and greenhouse horticulture by Wageningen Economic Research (WEcR). The Netherlands as the fresh/logistic hub in Western Europe is the leading player in the global agroproduct market. The Netherlands have developed advanced postharvest technologies to reduce postharvest losses by improving the storage and transport conditions of fresh products in the fresh produce chains. They are also engaged in establishing the so called “smart chain” to achieve better chain efficiency and coordination. Such experience has placed the Netherlands as worldwide leading in fresh produce supply chain solutions. Part of this experience can be learned by South Korea. This project elaborates the recent developments of postharvest technologies and management in Europe, especially in the Netherlands. The main message this report wants to convey to the readers is that smart/advanced technologies do not work by themselves; they need other factors specific to certain conditions to result in significant improvements. Therefore, the essence of “smart chain” is in fact optimally using the technologies and resources at hand to deliver products that satisfy the market demands and create the largest chain values

Future Food Basket : methodology for the forecasting of the future food demand [Monograph]
Bartels, P. \ Rijgersberg, H. \ Groot, J. \ Bos-Brouwers, H. \ Gogh, B. van \ 2018

Research by Wageningen University & Research (WUR) on global food and nutrition security focuses on the question how to achieve transitions to a food system that will be adequately equipped to nourish the growing world population. One of the challenges of this transition is to evolve to a food system that will be sustainable (resource-efficient and with minimal impact on climate change and global warming), yielding affordable, trustworthy (safe), high-quality food products. This particular report is part of a study on the redesign of food value chains from linear value chains into circular adaptive value chain networks for nutrition and food security (Redesign or Adaptive Value Chain Networks for food and nutrition security (AdVaNs)). In view of the global trends of world population growth, urbanization, the efficient use of natural resources, mitigation of the impact of food production on climate change and global warming, this research addresses global food and nutrition security by developing a forecast model for the content and composition of local food baskets. Enablers of changes in these future food baskets are the growing economic welfare, advancing information technologies and sustainability issues that affect regional and global value chains. Knowledge about these trends in this future demand on food is searched for by policy makers and governments that are in need of accurate and reliable quantitative information for strategic decision-making. By developing forecasting models that are dedicated to human nutritional needs and consumption patterns, historic quantitative data can be transferred into future trends and predictions regarding food demand in specific regions. A methodology, using autonomous time based linear regression, was developed by the authors to predict a future food basket in terms of energy, composition and products for the near future in 2030 based on available historical data. The methodology was used for 4 regions in Mexico (Mexico City, North-, South- and Central Mexico). Also the amount of micro-nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, in the food was estimated. The forecasted results were also categorised by two demographic characteristics: income class (low income vs. high income) and the residential environment (urban vs. rural environment). The forecasting is based on FAO data in combination with national data for the prediction of the specific regional food baskets in Mexico. The results show that the urban region obtains more energy and vegetables, fruit and meat, having also the more wealthy class of the population. Also in Mexico most proteins and carbohydrates are consumed as part of staple foods. In this research validation of the methodology was carried out by using data from the past to predict the situation in 2011 of the composition of the food basket. This comparison of the present data with the forecasted data shows that this linear regression method can be used to forecast the food basket in 2030 for a majority of product groups, but to a smaller extent for milk and pulses in particular

Haiti technical cold chain dry run : applying distributed ledger technology to connect Haitian mango and avocado producers toforeign markets [Monograph]
Oostewechel, Rene \ Régis, Yves-Laurent \ Brouwers, Jan \ Vogels, Jan \ Smeenk, Anton \ Ren, Xin-Ying \ 2018

This report provides the technical results of a dry run transporting mangoes and avocados from Haiti to the US, Canada and The Netherlands. For both fruits, temperature has been registered from the moment of harvest till arrival at all destinations. Also logistical data related to the planning and preparation of the test, time needed for each step, and quality of fruits has been analysed. After the introduction chapter, technical data are provided for both mango and avocado in the next two chapters, with a concluding last chapter afterwards that provides overall analysis, lessons learned and recommendations. Use of the QR codes has allowed a transparent and digital process where all chain partners have open access to all information. The report presents a block chain test at limited level and actual implementation and scaling of block chain procedures might still need refinement like the longer ripening and/or storage before retail distribution

Sorting protocol for packaging wastes [Monograph]
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. \ Brouwer, M.T. \ Huremovic, D. \ 2018

This sorting protocol describes a method to analyse post-consumer packaging waste samples in a relatively large detail. This detailed description of these lightweight packaging (LWP) wastes is required to provide compositional data which is required input data in material flow analysis. The protocol starts with describing the general requirements needed to study LWP in detail. Subsequently the method is described. This methodology is relative complex and laborious for LWP that contains plastic packages and is composed of three steps: sorting to main material by visual recognition, sorting into main polymer type with NIR and finally sorting into packaging type

Verbeteropties voor de recycling van kunststofverpakkingen : industriële beleidsopties voor verbetering van de kwaliteit en kwantiteit van het gewassen maalgoed uit de recyclingketen voor huishoudelijke kunststofverpakkingen [Monograph]
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. \ Brouwer, M.T. \ Picuno, C. \ 2018
Levensmiddelenverpakkingen gemaakt van oud-papier en karton: migratie van minerale oliën : rapportage vanuit het additioneel onderzoek-pakket binnen TiFN SD002 in opdracht van KIDV [Monograph]
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. \ Leeman \ Krul, L. \ 2018
recycling - minerals - oils - chemistry - food process engineering - food packaging

This report gives an overview of the scientific literature on the migration of undesired substances from packages made from recycled paper & board to foodstuffs with a focus on mineral oils . The knowledge is placed into an independent scientific perspective with regard to analysis, technology, legislation and sources by W ageningen Food & Biobased Research (W FBR ) and with regard to exposure, toxicology and risk assessment by TNO (organisation for applied scientific research) .

Literatuurstudie effect hoge CO2-concentratie op pootgoedkwaliteit [Monograph]
Oostewechel, R.J.A. \ Woltering, E.J. \ Montsma, P.M. \ 2018

Dit rapport is opgesteld op verzoek van en gefinancierd door brancheorganisatie akkerbouw (bo) Financiering heeft plaatsgevonden uit overgedragen middelen van het voormalig Productschap Akkerbouw.Deze literatuurstudie is onafhankelijk uitgevoerd en heeft plaats gevonden om te onderzoeken in hoeverre de invloed van CO2-gehaltes (oplopende ppm-waarden en tijd van blootstelling) op de kwaliteit (met name kiemkracht) van pootaardappelen is onderzocht en welke conclusies hieruit kunnen worden getrokken om daarmee een bijdrage leveren aan de formulering van onderzoek wensen ten aanzien van oplossingen voor collectieve vraagstukken voor Nederlandse akkerbouw ketens. De resultaten van deze studie zullen vrij te verspreiden zijn.Algemeen is er een hypothese dat een hoog CO2-gehalte tijdens de bewaring van pootgoed, nadelige gevolgen zou kunnen hebben in de nateelt (opkomst, stengelaantal, opbrengst).Uit literatuuronderzoek lijkt dit niet het geval te zijn bij CO2-waarden tijdens de bewaring tot 4.300 ppm (bij veel rassen zelfs niet tot 10.000 ppm).Er kan echter ook worden gekeken naar mogelijke positieve effecten van een verhoogd CO2-gehalte tijdens (de laatste fase van) bewaring op het verbreken van de kiemrust of het verbeteren van kieming.Voor de Nederlandse primaire akkerbouwsector en gerelateerde ketenpartijen is kennis over het effect van CO2-waarden van belang om mogelijk de kwaliteit van pootgoed te beïnvloeden via het beïnvloeden van het tijdstip van kieming (zowel vervroeging als verlating) en mogelijk dekiemkracht en vitaliteit van pootgoed.Dit biedt kansen voor exporteurs naar gebieden waar geplant moet worden op het moment dat kiemrust van veel rassen die in Nederland zijn geteeld nog nauwelijks is gebroken (bijvoorbeeld de Sahel zone in Afrika). Mogelijk biedt het tevens kansen voor een verbeterde prestatie van geleverd pootgoed in de consumptieteelt indien via CO2 toediening in bepaalde concentraties en tijdsduur, gestuurd kan worden op aantal kiemen en/of de kracht van kiemen op het moment van poten.

Milieu-impact van twee verwerkingsroutes voor warme drankenbekers : vergisting en papierrecycling van karton-PLA koffiebekers [Monograph]
Lighthart, Tom \ Oever, Martien van den \ 2018
biobased economy - residual streams - recycling - composting - biogas

De Rijksoverheid gebruikt op dit moment warmedrankenbekers gemaakt uit papiervezels met een coating van PLA. Tot begin 2017 werden deze bekertjes na gebruik nog in de afvalenergiecentrale (AEC) verwerkt. Maar per 1 mei 2017 is er een pilot gestart met twee verschillende manieren van afvalverwerking:1. Collect a cup, waarbij de warmedrankenbekers door de firma Renewi (voorheen Van Gansewinkel) worden ingezameld en door papierfabriek WEPA Nederland B.V. (voorheen Van Houtum B.V.) worden verwerkt tot toiletpapier en tissues.2. Vergisting en compostering, waarbij de warme drankenbekers door Attero worden vergist, waarbij biogas ontstaat en de rest wordt gecomposteerd tot compost.De overheid wil inzicht in de duurzaamheid van deze beide verwerkingsroutes om een keuze te kunnen maken voor de meest duurzame. Wageningen Food and Biobased Research (WFBR) en TNO als onderaannemer hebben de opdracht gekregen om een studie uit te voeren waarin de milieu-impact van deze twee verwerkingsroutes voor warme drankenbekers worden vergeleken.De milieu-evaluatie omvat voor alle alternatieven dezelfde vergelijkingsbasis, die de functionele eenheid wordt genoemd. Aangezien deze eenheid voor alle onderscheiden systemen gelijk is, waarborgt het zo een gelijkwaardige vergelijking. De functionele eenheid is hierna gedefinieerd.Functionele eenheidDe inzameling, verwerking en recycling van 1000 door consumenten afgedankte koffiebekers, inclusief aanhangend vocht en vuil.De functionele eenheid bevat dus 1000 schone koffiebekers met daarnaast het aanhangende vocht en vuil, zoals productresten.Voor de milieu-evaluatie is de een veel gebruikte effectbeoordelingsmethode gebruikt: ReCiPe midpoints. Door deze methode te combineren met schaduwprijzen, die een milieueffect vertalen naar schade- ofwel schaduwkosten, kunnen alle milieueffectcategorieën worden uitgedrukt in een monetaire eenheid en daardoor kunnen de milieuprofielen van de alternatieven eenduidig met elkaar worden vergeleken. Vergeleken met ReCiPe endpoints, dat ook een geaggregeerde milieubelasting oplevert, is het voordeel dat deze methode waardevrij is en niet gebaseerd is op een waardeoordeel van een panel zoals voor de endpoints het geval is. Als alternatieve beoordelingsmethode is in dit rapport de Carbon footprint genomen vanwege de relevantie voor het beleid. Uit de resultaten van de milieu-analyse blijkt dat bij evaluatie van het volledige milieuprofiel de recyclingroute het beste presteert met €1,22 vermeden milieukosten per 1000 bekers. Dit mede dankzij dat 89% van de ingezamelde koffiebekers geschikt wordt bevonden voor recycling. De bekers met teveel verontreiniging worden in de afvalenergiecentrale verwerkt, waar energie wordt teruggewonnen. De vergistingsroute neemt met een milieuprestatie van €0,45 vermeden milieukosten de tweede plaats in en presteert beter dan verwerking van afgedankte bekers in de AEC (€0,28 vermeden milieukosten).Wanneer alleen naar het effect van klimaatverandering (CO2 uitstoot) wordt gekeken presteert de vergistingsroute het beste met een vermijding van 5,4 kg CO2-eq. per 1000 ingezamelde bekers. Dit alternatief wordt gevolgd door achtereenvolgens de AEC en daarna de recyclingroute. De recyclingroute presteert bij de Carbon footprint het minst, omdat het vermijden van primaire papierpulp een relatief geringe winst voor klimaatverandering oplevert.De komende (± 3) jaren zijn voor gecoate kartonnen koffiebekers geen andere verwerkingsroutes op industriële schaal te verwachten dan de nu toegepaste en onderzochte: vergisten tot biogas en recyclen tot papier, naast verbranden in een AEC. Eveneens worden geen significante verbeteringen in de technologieën verwacht. Wel zijn er andere bio-based warmedrankenbekers op de markt waarvan de milieuimpact tijdens productie en in de afvalverwerkingsfase mogelijk concurrerend is.

Haiti Start-Up mission design cold chain mango-avocado : technical and financial evaluation for a logistics service for the control of the cold chain in the export of fresh products between Haiti and the United States [Monograph]
Oostewechel, René \ Régis, Yves-Laurent \ Brouwers, Jan \ 2018

This report shares the findings of the first start-up mission to Haiti, exploring all relevant elements pertaining to the design of the mango and avocado cold chain for fruit export to the USA, with the possibility to extend logistics services to other fruits like pineapple. Findings of the mission will be used to produce a report on the technical design of the cold chain from tree harvest till arrival in Miami. The mission was exposed to the current realities and experiences of fruit production and export in Haiti and will factor these into the design of the proposal. Basic data and information on the two value chains are presented in chapter 2. During the mission a number of ideas and suggestions to improve the value chain have been discussed and explored, including logistical, economic and social elements. These are presented in the chapters 3 and 4 of the report

Opwaarderen: borgen van publieke waarden in de digitale samenleving [Monograph]
Kool, Linda \ Timmer, Jelle \ Royakkers, Lambèr \ Est, Rinie van \ 2017
Sustainable protein technology : an evaluation on the STW Protein programme and an outlook for the future [Monograph]
Voudouris, Panagiotis \ Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica \ Lesschen, Jan Peter \ Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina \ Sanders, Johan P.M. \ Goot, Atze Jan van der \ Bruins, Marieke E. \ 2017
nutrition - proteins - plant protein - biomass - biorefinery - agro-industrial chains

In 2013 a new STW research programme was started on sustainable protein recovery. This STW Protein Programme consisted of five sustainable protein technology projects, which aimed at developing innovative methods to extract proteins from plant leaves, microalgae and insects to meet the increasing demand for food proteins for humans and livestock. The aim of the additional STW-project ‘Meer en Beter Eiwit’ was to summarize and evaluate the main results and conclusions of these five projects. Besides, some more recent additional insight on protein extraction was supplemented. Project partners including WUR, knowledge institutes and industry were interviewed to obtain their opinion on the project performed and future research needs.This has led to a vision document that gives direction to future research in the field of protein and technology.The approach of this project was to study the topic from start (biomass) via technology to finish (product). It was further put into a larger perspective, looking at the entire chain. When relevant, additional aspects such a soil quality and global protein demands were included.Biomass choice. When choosing a particular protein-recovery technology,biomass selection is the first requirement. Much research is being done on new biomass. However, the use of existing raw materials and residual flows should not be neglected.By building on existing processes and chains, fast(er)implementation is possible. Traditional crops like grain are relatively dry, and the proteins are present in protein bodies. Therefore, they are more easily extracted and give high yields and purities. New, green crops still require a lot of development.Protein streams in the world Protein-rich sources, like soybeans, rapeseed, maize and wheat are being consumed by both humans and animals.The crop with the largest production volume in Europe is is wheat, followed by potato, maize and barley. Together these four crops cover about 85% of the production of protein crops. Worldwide, maize is the largest crop. By far, the largest amount of proteins is being used in feed (>75%),followed by food consumption. Only a limited amount of proteins is isolated for specific use, for example as emulsifiers in different food formulations. An even smaller amount is used for application in chemicals or materials.Protein purity and functionality. Much research from the past focused on obtaining pure protein, e.g. RuBisCo from green leaves or protein from potato juice. Such processes can be economically feasible if the protein produced has a specific functionality, which allows for use as a high-quality food ingredient. However,high purity is not always required to obtain a certain functionality. In such cases the use of less refined,functional fractions is an interesting alternative.Mild separation and fractionation. When purified components are replaced by functional fractions, less intensive separation conditions can be used.Dry separation of proteins yielding a concentrate could bean alternative to wet separation yielding an isolate. Energy consumption is less, and a more native protein can be obtained. Fractionation can also lead to more complete use of biomass, generating little to no side streams.Chain approach for economy and sustainability. Next, it is also important to include the possibility of complete utilization of the raw material and closing cycles.These latter aspects can make or break economic feasibility and sustainability in a process. Efficient and effective use of protein and nitrogen, while maintaining biodiversity, is the most important development point for sustaining life on this earth. Modern agriculture should further improve nitrogen and feed use efficiencies to increase sustainability. Program evaluation. Next to conclusions on the content of the five projects, the evaluation also provides conclusions on the set-up of the STW/EZ programme on sustainable protein. Both academic and industrial participants acknowledged the added value of the link between fundamental research by a PhD and applied research by research institutes that was made in the project set-up. They also partly attributed the project successes to the multidisciplinary approach in the projects. The possibility within the projects to look at all aspects, and the ability to think anew on existing processes and develop new concepts of biorefinery greatly added to current scientific knowledge on protein extraction.

Recycling of beverage cartons in the Netherlands 2016 : technical report [Monograph]
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. \ Huremović, D. \ Keijsers, E.R.P. \ Kamp, R. op den \ Brouwer, M.T. \ 2017
Circular food chains and cascading of biomass in metropolitan regions : vision on metropolitan biorefinery concepts in relation to resource-efficient cities [Monograph]
Annevelink, E. \ Gogh, J.B. \ Groot, J.J. \ 2017
biomass - bioenergy - residual streams - refining - biofuels - biobased economy - biogas

Expectations are that 80 percent of the global population will reside in urban areas by the year 2050. As urbanisation levels increase so do ecological footprint sizes in these areas, as it is in the cities that income levels are higher, and where higher levels of disposable incomes exist. Whereas the circular economy is gaining ground as a concept for increasing sustainability by the efficient use of available materials and resources, urban areas are often recognised as attractive starting points for making the transition towards a circular economy. The paper “Circular food chains and cascading of biomass in metropolitan regions” contains the description of a vision on how biorefinery concepts in current and future metropoles may contribute to the increased efficiency in the use of resources for biomass production. As such this vision forms the interpretation of the principles of the circular economy within the context of biomass value chains and within the geographic boundaries of a metropolitan region. This is also referred to as the circular metropolitan system. With this paper researchers from Wageningen Food & Biobased Research intend to contribute to a scientific basis for increasing resource use efficiency in metropolitan regions through developing appropriate and sustainable biorefinery concepts

The effect of date marking terminology of products with a long shelf life on food discarding behaviour of consumers [Monograph]
Holthuysen, Nancy \ Kremer, Stefanie \ Bos-Brouwers, Hilke \ 2017
keeping quality - food - food wastage - nutrition labeling - terminology - consumer behaviour
Recyclebaarheid van verpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt : huishoudelijke kunststof verpakkingen in sorteerproducten onderzocht op recyclebaarheid en hoeveelheid [Monograph]
Brouwer, M.T. \ Thoden van Velzen, E.U. \ 2017
recycling - plastics - containers - waste treatment - household behaviour - sorting

describes the recyclability of Dutch post-consumer plastic packages. It focusses on the recyclability of the packages at the Dutch households and those present in the sorting products (mainly Mix and Sorting Residue). The objective of this study was to comprehend which packages are currently not being recycled in the Dutch recycling system of plastic packaging waste. The research question answered in this report is:What is the recyclability of the post-consumer plastic packages on the Dutch market, especially the plastic packages at the households and in the sorting residue and Mix sorting product?This study has been performed in the period of June until September 2017 by researchers of Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (WFBR) and is commissioned and financed by the Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging voor Afval- en Reinigingsmanagement (NVRD). Other participants in the study were Midwaste, HVC and Omrin by delivering samples and additional information. The research has concisely been performed, making maximally use of an existing model of WFBR. The research was done objectively and independently.The main conclusion is that 56% of the packages on the Dutch market are recyclable. 6% of the packages can be recycled into utensils, but are not ideal as they disturb the recycling of other packages in more circular applications, such as coloured PET bottles and PP film. PET trays are not recyclable at the moment, but are potentially recyclable in the future. These packages are now being sorted in a separate sorting product and stored until a recycling process is available. The PET trays amount to 10% of the plastic packages. 28% of the packages on the Dutch market are not recyclable, these are mainly PS and PVC packages, laminated packages and blisters.There are still significant amounts of potentially well recyclable plastic packages present in the Mix sorting product, which would rather belong to the PE and PP sorting product. The sorting residue still contains some well recyclable packages, which gets lost via this route. Additionally, the sorting residue consist of large amounts of non-recyclable packaging, non-packages and residual waste, which are intentionally added to of the sorting residue.The Dutch recycling system for post-consumer plastic packages and their recyclability can be improved in three ways:- Better sorting; produce less Mix sorting product and sort more packages in the intended sorting category.- Design for recycling; packages that are non-recyclable can be changed or replaced by packages that are recyclable. For instance PS and PVC flasks can be replaced by PE or PP flasks. Design from recycling; packages that cannot be changed or replaced should be recycled by new or adjusted recycling technologies. For instance a part of the laminates and blisters.---Dit rapport is het resultaat van een studie naar de recyclebaarheid van kunststofverpakkingen, in het bijzonder de huishoudelijke kunststofverpakkingen. Hierbij is gekeken naar de recyclebaarheid van de verpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt en in de sorteerproducten (specifiek de Mix en sorteerrest). Het doel van deze studie is inzicht krijgen welke verpakkingen nu nog niet worden gerecycleerd in het huidige recyclingsysteem in Nederland.De onderzoeksvraag die in dit rapport beantwoord is:Wat is de recyclebaarheid van huishoudelijke kunststofverpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt, in het bijzonder de kunststofverpakkingen aanwezig bij de huishoudens en in de sorteerrest en de mengkunststoffen (Mix)?Deze studie is uitgevoerd in de periode van juni tot en met september 2017 door onderzoekers van Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (WFBR) in opdracht van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging voor Afval- en Reinigingsmanagement (NVRD), die tevens deze studie heeft gefinancierd. Daarnaast zijn Midwaste, HVC en Omrin participant geweest in de studie door het leveren van monsters en informatie. Het onderzoek is kort en krachtig uitgevoerd, waarbij gebruik is gemaakt van een bestaand basismodel ontwikkeld door WFBR. De onderzoekers hebben een objectief en onafhankelijk onderzoek uitgevoerd om deze vraag te beantwoorden.Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat 56% van de verpakkingen op de Nederlandse markt goed recyclebaar zijn. 6% van de verpakkingen is in principe goed recyclebaar naar toepassingen als gebruiksartikelen, maar niet ideaal omdat deze verpakkingen de recycling van andere verpakkingen richting meer circulaire toepassingen kunnen verstoren, zoals gekleurde PET flessen en PP folie. PET trays zijn nu nog niet recyclebaar, maar mogelijk wel recyclebaar in de toekomst. Deze verpakkingen worden nu wel in een aparte categorie gesorteerd, maar er moet nog een recyclingroute voor deze verpakkingen worden ontwikkeld. De PET trays bedragen 10% van de kunststofverpakkingen. 28% van de verpakkingen zijn slecht recyclebaar, dit zijn voornamelijk PS en PVC verpakkingen, laminaten en doordrukstrips.In het Mix sorteerproduct is nog een hoog aandeel goed recyclebare verpakkingen aanwezig, dit betreft voornamelijk verpakkingen die eigenlijk in het PE of PP sorteerproduct thuishoren. De sorteerrest bevat nog een deel goed recyclebare verpakkingen, die via deze route verloren gaan. Daarnaast bevat de sorteerrest een groot aandeel slecht recyclebare verpakkingen, niet-verpakkingen en restafval, zoals de bedoeling is voor de sorteerrest.Het Nederlandse recyclingsysteem kan op het gebied van recyclebaarheid van verpakkingen op een drietal punten verbeterd worden: - Beter sorteren; minder Mix produceren en meer verpakkingen in de gewenste sorteercategorie sorteren.- Design for recycling; slecht recyclebare verpakkingen die goed vervangen of verbeterd kunnen worden voor een recyclebare verpakkingen. Bijvoorbeeld PS en PVC flacons vervangen voor een PE of PP flacon.- Design from recycling; voor verpakkingen die niet vervangen of verbeterd kunnen worden, bijvoorbeeld een deel van de laminaten en doordrukstrips, nieuwe of aangepaste recycling technologieën ontwikkelen

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