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    About

Journal of Nutrition

Oxford University Press

1928-

ISSN: 0022-3166 (1541-6100)
Nutrition & Dietetics - Nutrition and Dietetics - Medicine (miscellaneous)

Recent articles

1 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080786

Article URL: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/149/4/701/5452464?rss=1
Citation: Vol 149 No. 4 (2019) pp 701 701
Publication Date: Sat, 13 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
Journal: Journal of Nutrition
2 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080787

ABSTRACT
BackgroundHigh-fiber diets (HFDs) are recommended in the diet of persons with diabetes, yet such diets can impair macronutrient digestion and/or absorption, modify insulin sensitivity, and reset metabolism.ObjectivesWe studied the effects of a HFD on the kinetics of whole-body protein, a macronutrient that could be affected by dietary fiber, in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), under both basal-low insulinemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions.MethodsEight men with T1DM (body mass index range: 21.8–27.8 kg/m2) were studied twice - before and after the addition of guar gum (∼15 g/d) to their usual diet for ∼4 mo. Whole-body protein degradation (i.e., the rate of appearance [Ra] of endogenous leucine), leucine disposal to protein synthesis (PS), deamination, and reamination, were determined before and after the HFD, both in the postabsorptive state and following a euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperaminoacidemic clamp, using isotope dilution methods.ResultsAfter the HFD, mean values (± SEs) for postabsorptive leucine Ra decreased by ∼20%: from 2.52 (0.15) to 2.03 (0.16) μmol x kg−1 x min−1, P < 0.049, after vs. before the HFD respectively. PS also decreased, by ∼25%: from 2.03 (0.15) to 1.57 (0.15), P < 0.045. Leucine concentration (P = 0.1) and reamination (P = 0.095) decreased moderately, whereas deamination was unchanged. Following the clamp, plasma amino acid concentrations (P < 0.001), leucine deamination (+ ∼50%, P < 0.00002), reamination (+ ∼30%, P < 0.0007), and PS (+ ∼35%, P < 0.00001) were all increased compared with postabsorptive state values, whereas endogenous leucine Ra was suppressed (by 15%, P < 0.00001, and by 25%, P < 0.001, with the primary or the reciprocal pool models, respectively). No significant differences in these insulin effects before compared with after the HFD were observed. Metabolic control (glycated hemoglobin), daily insulin requirement, and insulin-mediated glucose disposal were unchanged after the HFD.ConclusionsA HFD downregulates postabsorptive protein turnover in men with T1DM, by decreasing both protein degradation and synthesis, possibly due to a subtle decrease and/or delay in amino acid absorption. It does not significantly affect the insulin (and amino acid sensitivity) to protein turnover, glucose disposal, and metabolic control.
3 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080788

Article URL: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/149/4/698/5452447?rss=1
Citation: Vol 149 No. 4 (2019) pp 698 698
Publication Date: Sat, 13 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
Journal: Journal of Nutrition
4 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080789

ABSTRACT
BackgroundConflicting findings on the effects of garlic supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers have been observed in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to summarize study results regarding the effects of garlic supplementation on serum inflammatory biomarkers in adults.MethodsWe searched Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane library databases for relevant papers published until April 2018, using keywords such as “garlic” and “inflammatory biomarker.” We included RCTs that 1) were conducted in adults, 2) examined the effects of garlic supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers compared to a control group, and 3) reported sufficient data on inflammatory biomarkers. Results were reported as weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% CI using random effects models. Cochrane's Q and I-squared (I2) tests were used to determine heterogeneity among studies. Funnel plots and Egger's regression test were used to assess publication bias.ResultsSixteen RCTs were included. Garlic doses ranged from 12 to 3600 mg/d, and intervention duration ranged from 2 to 52 wk. Garlic administration significantly reduced serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (n = 13) (WMD: −0.61 mg/L, 95% CI: −1.12, −0.11, P = 0.018, I2 = 76.9%), IL-6 (n = 5) (WMD: −0.73 ng/L, 95% CI: −1.06, −0.40, P < 0.001, I2 = 0%), and TNF (n = 7) (WMD: −0.26 ng/L, 95% CI: −0.41, −0.12, P < 0.001, I2 = 0.0%), compared to controls. However, the effect of garlic supplementation on serum adiponectin (n = 3) (WMD: 0.18 µg/L, 95% CI: −0.21, 0.57, P = 0.35, I2 = 60.7%) and leptin (n = 2) (WMD: −1.25 µg/L, 95% CI: −2.64, 0.14, P = 0.07, I2 = 0.0%) concentrations were not significant.ConclusionIn this meta-analysis of RCTs, we found that garlic supplementation reduced serum concentrations of CRP, TNF, IL-6, but did not affect serum adiponectin and leptin in adults. More RCTs are needed to test the effects of garlic supplementation on inflammation.
5 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080790

ABSTRACT
BackgroundFatty liver is the leading cause of chronic liver diseases and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Besides alcohol consumption, energy-containing nonalcoholic beverages may contribute to liver fat accumulation.ObjectiveWe aimed to study the consumption of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages and their mutual replacement in relation to hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) in middle-aged men and women.MethodsIn this cross-sectional analysis, HTGC was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Habitual consumption of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. All beverages were converted to standard servings and to percentage of total energy intake (En%). We performed linear regression to examine the association of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages with HTGC, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, ethnicity, physical activity, total energy intake, and total body fat. We studied replacement of alcoholic beverages with nonalcoholic beverages per 1 serving/d and per 5 En%/d.ResultsAfter exclusion of individuals with missing values, 1966 participants (47% men) were analyzed, with a mean ± SD age of 55 ± 6 y, BMI of 26 ± 4 kg/m2, and HTGC of 5.7% ± 7.9%. Each extra alcoholic serving per day was associated with more liver fat (1.09 times; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.12). Replacing 5 En% of alcoholic beverages with milk was associated with less liver fat (0.89 times; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.98), whereas replacement with 5 En% of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with liver fat to an extent similar to alcoholic beverages (1.00 times; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.09).ConclusionIn a population-based cohort, consumption of each extra daily alcoholic beverage was associated with more liver fat. In isocaloric replacement of alcoholic beverages, milk was associated with less liver fat, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages were equally associated with liver fat. This suggests that intake of alcohol and sugars may contribute to liver fat accumulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03410316.
6 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080791

ABSTRACTDiet and nutrition contribute to both beneficial and harmful aspects of oxidative processes. The harmful processes, termed oxidative stress, occur with many human diseases. Major advances in understanding oxidative stress and nutrition have occurred with broad characterization of dietary oxidants and antioxidants, and with mechanistic studies showing antioxidant efficacy. However, randomized controlled trials in humans with free-radical-scavenging antioxidants and the glutathione precursor N-acetylcysteine have provided limited or inconsistent evidence for health benefits. This, combined with emerging redox theory, indicates that holistic models are needed to understand the interplay of nutrition and oxidative stress. The purpose of this article is to highlight how recent advances in redox theory and the development of new omics tools and data-driven approaches provide a framework for future nutrition and oxidative stress research. Here we describe why a holistic approach is needed to understand the impact of nutrition on oxidative stress and how recent advances in omics and data analysis methods are viable tools for systems nutrition approaches. Based on the extensive research on glutathione and related thiol antioxidant systems, we summarize the advancing framework for diet and oxidative stress in which antioxidant systems are a component of a larger redox network that serves as a responsive interface between the environment and an individual. The feasibility for redox network analysis has been established by experimental models in which dietary factors are systematically varied and oxidative stress markers are linked through integrated omics (metabolome, transcriptome, proteome). With this framework, integrated redox network models will support optimization of diet to protect against oxidative stress and disease.
7 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080792
Global population growth, increased lifespan, and improved economic stability are predicted to dramatically increase the amount of food required to support future generations. Coupled with the uncertainties associated with the impact of climate change on food production, there is an increasing consensus that novel sources of high-quality protein may be required (1). In general, protein of animal origin (meat, dairy, eggs, fish, and other aquatic animals) is regarded as the highest quality protein, both in terms of indispensable amino acid (IAA) content and digestibility. To date, improved national economic stability has led to increases in animal product consumption, which is seen clearly in China where consumption of meat has risen dramatically over the last two decades (2). In populations where protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are common, increased consumption of animal products can considerably improve health. Meat and milk not only provide energy and high-quality protein, but also a range of readily available micronutrients including iron, zinc, calcium, B-vitamins, and essential fatty acids (3, 4). However, excessive consumption of red meat, particularly processed meat, has been associated with a range of chronic diseases including colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes (5). Furthermore, diets rich in animal products tend to be energy dense, which may lead to obesity and associated metabolic disorders.
8 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080793

ABSTRACT
BackgroundDespite its important role in cognitive development and regulation of nervous system function, vitamin B-6 has been under-studied in relation to cognitive aging.ObjectiveWe investigated whether plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B-6) concentrations were associated with cognitive function and subsequent cognitive decline.MethodsIn a longitudinal study of 949 participants (aged 45–75 y at baseline; 70% women) from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study cohort, we examined the association between baseline plasma PLP and baseline cognitive function and 2-y cognitive decline. Cognitive function was assessed with an in-person 7-test cognitive battery, at baseline and 2-y follow-up. We also used logistic regression to estimate the odds of major 2-y decline in global cognitive function (defined as decline ≥1 SD below the mean), as well as decline in executive function and memory. We also used multivariable linear regression to calculate adjusted mean differences in cognitive scores, and 95% CIs, across tertiles of plasma PLP at baseline, as well as cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with individual test scores.ResultsIn analyses adjusted for potential confounders, the OR of having a major 2-y decline in global cognitive function was 2.46 (95% CI: 1.49, 4.05; P-trend: 0.001) among participants in the lowest tertile of PLP compared with those in the top tertile of PLP. The association of PLP with cognition was stronger in participants older than 55 y at baseline (OR for bottom to top tertile: 4.58; 95% CI: 2.02, 10.35; P-interaction: 0.01) compared with those 55 y old or younger, as well as in ever smokers (OR for bottom to top tertile: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45, 6.19; P-interaction: 0.02) compared with never smokers.ConclusionsLower baseline plasma PLP was associated with increased odds of 2-y cognitive decline in a cohort of Boston area Puerto Ricans. The association was stronger among older participants and among ever smokers.
9 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080794
Authors: Fernandez M.
Article URL: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/149/4/551/5425732?rss=1
Citation: Vol 149 No. 4 (2019) pp 551 552
Publication Date: Tue, 02 Apr 2019 00:00:00 GMT
Journal: Journal of Nutrition
10 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080795

ABSTRACT
BackgroundA healthful plant-based diet is associated with lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, it is still unclear whether such benefits are due to its favorable effects on adiposity-associated biomarkers.ObjectiveWe investigated the associations between biomarkers and 3 plant-based diet indices: an overall plant-based diet index (PDI); a healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI); and an unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI).MethodsIn the Nurses’ Health Study II, 831 women [baseline mean age: 45 y; body mass index (BMI, kg/m2): 24.6] were randomly selected from those who provided 2 blood samples in 1996–1999 and 2010–2011 to measure plasma concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), insulin, retinol-binding protein-4, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Plant-based diet indices were derived from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires assessed at each blood collection. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate cross-sectional associations, and general linear models were used to evaluate longitudinal associations.ResultsIn cross-sectional analyses with multivariable adjustment including BMI, higher hPDI was associated with lower concentrations of leptin, insulin, and hsCRP, and higher adiponectin and sOB-R concentrations (biomarker differences per 10-point higher hPDI: −7.2%, −10.0%, −13.6%, 3.0%, and 1.9%, respectively; P ≤ 0.025). A higher uPDI was associated with higher concentrations of leptin and insulin (4.4% and 4.8%, respectively; P ≤ 0.048). In longitudinal analyses with multivariable adjustment including weight change, an increase in hPDI (improved plant-based diet quality) was inversely associated with changes in leptin and hsCRP (biomarker changes per 10-point hPDI increase: −7.7% and −17.8%, respectively; P ≤ 0.005), whereas an increase in uPDI (worsened plant-based diet quality) was positively associated with changes in leptin, hsCRP, and IL-6 (10.1%, 13.5%, and 12.4%, respectively; P ≤ 0.021).ConclusionsAdherence to a healthful plant-based diet is associated with favorable long-term changes in adiposity-associated biomarker concentrations in women.
11 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080796

ABSTRACT
BackgroundFood for education (FFE) programs that include school meals are widely used to improve school participation and performance, but evidence on nutritional benefits is limited.ObjectiveThis study tested whether food fortified with multiple micronutrients provided in FFE programs reduced anemia prevalence of primary-school-age adolescent girls, adult women, and preschool children.MethodsThrough the use of a cluster randomized controlled trial with individual-level repeated cross-sectional data, we measured impacts on anemia prevalence from 2 FFE programs, a school feeding program (SFP) providing multiple-micronutrient-fortified meals and a nutritionally equivalent take-home ration (THR). Camps for internally displaced people (IDP) (n = 31) in Northern Uganda were randomly assigned to SFP, THR, or a control group with no FFE. Rations were provided for 15 mo at SFP and THR schools. A survey of households (n = 627) with children aged 6–17 y was conducted (baseline and 18 mo later). Analyses used difference-in-differences by intent to treat.ResultsAdolescent girls aged 10–13 y in FFE schools experienced a significant (P < 0.05) 25.7 percentage point reduction (95% CI: −0.43, −0.08) in prevalence of any anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) <11.5 g/dL, age 10–11 y; Hb <12 g/dL, age 12–13 y] and a significant 19.5 percentage point reduction (95% CI: −0.35, −0.04) in moderate-to-severe anemia (Hb <11 g/dL) relative to the control group, with no difference in impact between SFP and THR. The THR reduced moderate-to-severe anemia prevalence (Hb <11g/dL) of adult women aged ≥18 y (12.8 percentage points, 95% CI: −0.24, −0.02). All IDP camps initially received micronutrient-fortified rations through a separate humanitarian program; in one district where most households stopped receiving these rations, SFP reduced moderate-to-severe anemia of children aged 6–59 mo by 22.1 percentage points (95% CI: −0.42, −0.02).ConclusionsFFE programs reduced any anemia and moderate-to-severe anemia in primary-school-age adolescent girls and reduced moderate-to-severe anemia for adult women and preschool children. This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01261182.
12 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080797
How much dietary DHA (22:6n–3) is needed to support tissue DHA' In a contribution in The Journal of Nutrition from Richard Bazinet's group at the University of Toronto, Metherel et al. (1) propose a novel solution with an eye toward sustainability. They demonstrate the method's efficacy in vivo in rats with an elegant, reliable, though rarely used method, that exploits differences in natural carbon isotope ratios to provide whole body synthesis rates. Supporting measurements with conventional gene expression analysis are consistent with the surprising biosynthesis rates. The overall implications, if confirmed in humans, are that the timing of DHA intake is as important as the overall intake over, say, 1 mo. Three to 4 meals/wk containing DHA may well produce tissue DHA concentrations similar to daily DHA intake (1).
13 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080798

ABSTRACT
BackgroundConsumption of green tea has been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. Hormonal modulation has been suggested as one of the potential underlying mechanisms; however, it has yet to be fully elucidated in large, long-term human clinical trials.ObjectiveWe investigated the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) on circulating sex hormones and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) proteins.MethodsWe conducted a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized clinical trial recruiting from 8 clinical centers in Minnesota. Participants were 538 healthy postmenopausal women randomly assigned to the GTE group (463 completed the study; mean age = 60.0 y) and 537 to the placebo group (474 completed; mean age = 59.7 y). Women in the GTE group orally took 4 decaffeinated capsules containing 1315 mg total catechins including 843 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate daily for 1 y, whereas women in the placebo group took similar capsules containing no tea catechins. Blood sex hormones (estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin) and IGF proteins (IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3) were quantified at baseline and months 6 (for IGF proteins only) and 12, and were assessed as secondary outcomes of the study using a mixed-effect repeated-measures ANOVA model.ResultsWomen in the GTE group had significantly higher blood total estradiol (16%; P = 0.02) and bioavailable estradiol (21%; P = 0.03) than in the placebo group at month 12. There was a statistically significant interaction between GTE supplementation and duration of treatment on estradiol and bioavailable estradiol (both Ps for interaction = 0.001). The catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype did not influence blood sex hormones before or after GTE supplementation. The circulating concentrations of IGF proteins were comparable between GTE and placebo groups at all 3 time points.ConclusionThese results suggest that a 12-mo GTE supplementation significantly increases circulating estradiol concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00917735.
14 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080799

ABSTRACT
BackgroundEvidence suggests that iron deficiency (ID) affects cognitive performance, as measured in behavior. Although such effects must be mediated by changes in the brain, very few studies have included measures of brain activity to assess this relation.ObjectiveWe tested the hypothesis that provision of iron-biofortified beans would result in improvements in measures of iron status, brain dynamics, and behavior.MethodsA double-blind, randomized, intervention study was conducted in 55 women aged 18–27 y with low iron status (serum ferritin <20 µg/L). Women were randomly assigned to consume iron-biofortified (86.1 ppm iron) or comparison beans (50.1 ppm iron) daily for 18 wk. Iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and body iron; cognitive performance with 5 computerized tasks; and brain dynamics by concurrent electroencephalography (EEG). All measures were taken at baseline and endline.ResultsThe groups did not differ on any measures at baseline. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant (all P < 0.05) improvements in hemoglobin (partial effect size attributable to the independent variable, η2 = 0.16), ferritin (η2 = 0.17), and body iron (η2 = 0.10), speed of responding in attentional and mnemonic tasks (η2 = 0.04-0.29), sensitivity and efficiency of memory retrieval (η2 = 0.12-0.55), and measures of EEG amplitude and spectral power (η2 = 0.08 to 0.49). Mediation models provided evidence in support of the hypothesis that changes in iron status produce changes in behavior by way of changes in brain activity.ConclusionsBehavioral performance and brain activity, as measured by EEG, are sensitive to iron status, and the consumption of iron-biofortified beans for 18 wk resulted in improvements in measures of both, relative to what was obtained with a comparison bean, in a sample of female university students. Furthermore, the results support the conclusion that changes in brain activity resulting from consumption of biofortified beans mediate the relations between changes in iron biomarkers and changes in cognition. Clinical trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Reg No. NCT01594359.
15 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080800

ABSTRACT
BackgroundA healthful plant-based diet is associated with lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, it is still unclear whether such benefits are due to its favorable effects on adiposity-associated biomarkers.ObjectiveWe investigated the associations between biomarkers and 3 plant-based diet indices: an overall plant-based diet index (PDI); a healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI); and an unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI).MethodsIn the Nurses’ Health Study II, 831 women [baseline mean age: 45 y; body mass index (BMI, kg/m2): 24.6] were randomly selected from those who provided 2 blood samples in 1996–1999 and 2010–2011 to measure plasma concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), insulin, retinol-binding protein-4, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Plant-based diet indices were derived from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires assessed at each blood collection. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate cross-sectional associations, and general linear models were used to evaluate longitudinal associations.ResultsIn cross-sectional analyses with multivariable adjustment including BMI, higher hPDI was associated with lower concentrations of leptin, insulin, and hsCRP, and higher adiponectin and sOB-R concentrations (biomarker differences per 10-point higher hPDI: −7.2%, −10.0%, −13.6%, 3.0%, and 1.9%, respectively; P ≤ 0.025). A higher uPDI was associated with higher concentrations of leptin and insulin (4.4% and 4.8%, respectively; P ≤ 0.048). In longitudinal analyses with multivariable adjustment including weight change, an increase in hPDI (improved plant-based diet quality) was inversely associated with changes in leptin and hsCRP (biomarker changes per 10-point hPDI increase: −7.7% and −17.8%, respectively; P ≤ 0.005), whereas an increase in uPDI (worsened plant-based diet quality) was positively associated with changes in leptin, hsCRP, and IL-6 (10.1%, 13.5%, and 12.4%, respectively; P ≤ 0.021).ConclusionsAdherence to a healthful plant-based diet is associated with favorable long-term changes in adiposity-associated biomarker concentrations in women.
16 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080801
There have been many putative effects of the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), DHA and EPA, ranging from improving the developmental outcomes of children, to ameliorating symptoms in arthritis patients, and helping to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the effect that is least commonly appreciated yet stands the test of time is the ability of DHA and EPA supplementation to extend the duration of pregnancy.
17 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080802

ABSTRACT
BackgroundDietary acid load is a clinically important aspect of the diet that reflects the balance between acid-producing foods, for example, meat and cheese, and base-producing foods, for example, fruits and vegetables.MethodsWe used metabolomics to identify blood biomarkers of dietary acid load in 2 independent studies of chronic kidney disease patients: the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK, n = 689) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, n = 356) study. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the cross-sectional association between serum metabolites whose identity was known (outcome) and dietary acid load (exposure), estimated with net endogenous acid production (NEAP) based on 24-h urine urea nitrogen and potassium, and adjusted for age, sex, race, randomization group, measured glomerular filtration rate, log-transformed urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, history of cardiovascular disease, BMI, and smoking status.ResultsOut of the 757 known, nondrug metabolites identified in AASK, 26 were significantly associated with NEAP at the Bonferroni threshold for significance (P < 6.6 × 10−5). Twenty-three of the 26 metabolites were also identified in the MDRD study, and 13 of the 23 (57%) were significantly associated with NEAP (P < 2.2 × 10−3), including 5 amino acids (S-methylmethionine, indolepropionylglycine, indolepropionate, N-methylproline, N-δ-acetylornithine), 2 cofactors and vitamins (threonate, oxalate), 1 lipid (chiro-inositol), and 5 xenobiotics (methyl glucopyranoside, stachydrine, catechol sulfate, hippurate, and tartronate). Higher levels of all 13 replicated metabolites were associated with lower NEAP in both AASK and the MDRD study.ConclusionMetabolomic profiling of serum specimens from kidney disease patients in 2 study populations identified 13 replicated metabolites associated with dietary acid load. Additional studies are needed to validate these compounds in healthy populations. These 13 compounds may potentially be used as objective markers of dietary acid load in future nutrition research studies.
18 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080803

ABSTRACT
BackgroundAs an adjuvant for medication, dietary changes focused on specific nutrients have been proposed to prevent or reduce attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, whether an overall healthy dietary pattern is associated with ADHD symptom severity during childhood remains unclear. Furthermore, it is not clear what the direction of this association is.ObjectivesWe aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns and ADHD symptoms in school-aged children. In addition, we aimed to identify the temporal direction of this association—that is, whether dietary patterns predict ADHD symptoms or vice versa.MethodsWe analyzed data from 3680 children participating in the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ADHD symptoms were assessed with parent-report questionnaires at ages 6 and 10 y using the Child Behavior Checklist. Dietary intake was assessed at the age of 8 y with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We computed a diet quality score reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. We examined bidirectional associations of diet quality with ADHD symptom scores using multivariable linear regression analysis and cross-lagged modeling.ResultsLinear regressions showed that more ADHD symptoms at age 6 y were associated with a lower diet quality score at age 8 y (SD score = −0.08; 95% CI: −0.11, −0.05) but that diet quality at age 8 y was not associated with ADHD symptoms at age 10 y. Cross-lagged models confirmed a unidirectional relation from ADHD symptoms to diet quality but not vice versa. Associations did not differ by overweight status or between boys and girls.ConclusionOur study suggests that children with more ADHD symptoms may be at higher risk of an unhealthy diet but that overall diet quality does not affect ADHD risk.
19 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080804

ABSTRACT
BackgroundDifferences in food composition, nutrient intake, and various health outcomes have been reported for vegetarians and non-vegetarians in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort.ObjectiveWe sought to determine whether biomarkers of dietary intake also differed between individuals classified as vegetarian (vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) and non-vegetarians based on patterns of consumption of meat, dairy, and eggs.MethodsFasting plasma, overnight urine, and adipose tissue samples were collected from a representative subset of AHS-2 participants classified into 5 diet groups (vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, non-vegetarian) who also completed food-frequency questionnaires. Diet-related biomarkers including carotenoids, isoflavones, enterolactone, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamins were analyzed in 840 male and female participants. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between diet pattern and biomarker abundance, comparing each of 4 vegetarian dietary groups to non-vegetarians, and adjusted mean values were calculated. Bonferroni correction was applied to control for multiple testing.ResultsVegans had higher plasma total carotenoid concentrations (1.6-fold, P < 0.0001), and higher excretion of urinary isoflavones (6-fold, P < 0.0001) and enterolactone (4.4-fold) compared with non-vegetarians. Vegans had lower relative abundance of saturated fatty acids including myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, and stearic acids (P < 0.0001). Vegans had higher linoleic acid (18:2ω-6) relative to non-vegetarians (23.3% compared with 19.1%) (P < 0.0001), and a higher proportion of total ω-3 fatty acids (2.1% compared with 1.6%) (P < 0.0001). Results overall were similar but less robust for lacto-ovo- and pesco-vegetarians. 1-Methylhistidine was 92% lower in vegans, and lower in lacto-ovo- and pesco-vegetarians by 90% and 80%, respectively, relative to non-vegetarians (P < 0.0001).ConclusionAHS-2 participants following vegan, and lacto-ovo- or pesco-vegetarian diet patterns have significant differences in plasma, urine, and adipose tissue biomarkers associated with dietary intakes compared with those who consume a non-vegetarian diet. These findings provide some validation for the prior classification of dietary groups within the AHS-2 cohort.
20 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080805

ABSTRACT
BackgroundSpecific dietary proteins exert strong health-related effects compared with casein.ObjectiveHerein, the hypothesis was tested using screening and conventional biochemical and molecular biological techniques that protein-rich insect meal compared with casein influences metabolic health in hyperlipidemic rats.MethodsA 4-wk feeding trial with male, 8-wk-old homozygous obese Zucker rats (n = 36) and male, 8-wk-old heterozygous lean Zucker rats (n = 12) was performed. Obese rats were randomly divided into 3 obese groups (OC, OI50, and OI100) of 12 rats each and lean rats served as a lean control group (LC). LC and OC were fed a control diet with 20% casein as protein source, whereas in OI50 and OI100 50% and 100% of the casein, respectively, was replaced isonitrogenously by insect meal from Tenebrio molitor L. All data were analyzed by 1-factor ANOVA, except transcriptomic data which were analyzed by groupwise comparisons with the OC group.ResultsTranscript profiling revealed a coordinated inhibition by −17% to −521% and −37% to −859% of genes involved in fatty acid, triacylglycerol (TG), and cholesterol biosynthesis in the livers of OI100 and OI50, respectively, compared with OC (P < 0.05). Enzyme activities of fatty acid synthase, glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase in the liver were 100–150% greater in OC compared with LC, but reduced by 50–60% in OI100 compared with OC (P < 0.05), to the same level as in LC. Liver and plasma concentrations of TG and cholesterol were 250–1000%, 30–800%, and 40–600% higher in OC, OI50, and OI100, respectively, than in LC (P < 0.05), but 40–60% and 20–60% lower in OI100 and OI50, respectively, than in group OC (P < 0.05). Plasma and liver concentrations of homocysteine were 20–30% lower in group OI100 than in group OC (P < 0.05).ConclusionInsect meal exerts pronounced lipid-lowering effects in hyperlipidemic rats and, thus, might be useful for hyperlipidemic individuals.
21 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080806

ABSTRACT
BackgroundEicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) recommendations are frequently stated at 500 mg/d; however, adherence to these recommendations would result in a large global commercial EPA/DHA production deficit. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that acute DHA intake in rats can increase the capacity for synthesis-secretion of n–3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).ObjectiveWe aimed to investigate the utility of a dietary DHA cycling strategy that employs 2 wk of repeated DHA feeding for a total of 3 cycles over 12 wk.MethodsMale Long–Evans rats were fed a 10% fat diet by weight comprised of either 1) a 2-wk, 2% α-linolenic acid (ALA, DHA-ALA group 18:3n–3) diet followed by a 2-wk, 2% DHA + 2% ALA diet over 3 consecutive 4-wk periods (“DHA cycling,” DHA-ALA group); 2) a 2% DHA + 2% ALA diet (DHA group) for 12 wk; or 3) a 2% ALA-only diet (ALA group) for 12 wk. At 15 wk old, blood and tissue fatty acid concentrations and liver mRNA expression and 13C-DHA natural abundances were determined.ResultsDHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood between the DHA-ALA group and the DHA groups were not different (P ≥ 0.05), but were 72–110% higher (P < 0.05) than in the ALA group. Similarly, DHA concentrations in liver, heart, adipose, and brain were not different (P ≥ 0.05) between the DHA-fed groups, but were at least 62%, 72%, 320%, and 68% higher (P < 0.05) than in the ALA group in liver, heart, adipose, and skeletal muscle, respectively. Compound-specific isotope analysis indicated that 310% more liver DHA in the DHA-ALA group compared with the DHA group is derived from dietary ALA, and this was accompanied by a 123% and 93% higher expression of elongation of very long-chain (Elovl)2 and Elovl5, respectively, in the DHA-ALA group compared with the ALA group.ConclusionsDHA cycling requires half the dietary DHA while achieving equal blood and tissue DHA concentrations in rats. Implementation of such dietary strategies in humans could reduce the gap between global dietary n–3 PUFA recommendations and commercial production.
22 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080807

ABSTRACT
BackgroundRandomized trials have reported that supplementation with n–3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in pregnancy can prolong pregnancy and thereby increase birth weight.ObjectiveWe aimed to examine the relations of n–3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy with duration of pregnancy, birth weight, and size for gestational age (GA).MethodsThis was a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in 736 pregnant women and their offspring, from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010cohort. They were recruited between weeks 22 and 26 in pregnancy and randomly assigned to either of 2.4 g n–3 LCPUFA or control (olive oil) daily until 1 wk after birth. Exclusion criteria were endocrine, cardiovascular, or nephrologic disorders and vitamin D supplementation intake >600 IU/d. In this study we analyzed secondary outcomes, and further excluded twin pregnancies and extrauterine death. The primary outcome for the trial was persistent wheeze or asthma.ResultsThe random assignment ran between 2008 and 2010. Six hundred and ninety-nine mother-infant pairs were included in the analysis. n–3 LCPUFA compared with control was associated with a 2-d prolongation of pregnancy [median (IQR): 282 (275–288) d compared with 280 (273–286) d, P = 0.02], a 97-g higher birth weight (mean ± SD: 3601 ± 534 g compared with 3504 ± 528 g, P = 0.02), and an increased size for GA according to the Norwegian population-based growth curves-Skjærven (mean ± SD: 49.9 ± 28.3 percentiles compared with 44.5 ± 27.6 percentiles, P = 0.01).ConclusionSupplementing pregnant women with n–3 LCPUFAs during the third trimester is associated with prolonged gestation and increased size for GA, leading to a higher birth weight in this randomized controlled trial. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00798226.
23 show abstract
0022-3166 * 1541-6100 * 30080808

ABSTRACT
BackgroundRandomized trials have reported that supplementation with n–3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in pregnancy can prolong pregnancy and thereby increase birth weight.ObjectiveWe aimed to examine the relations of n–3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy with duration of pregnancy, birth weight, and size for gestational age (GA).MethodsThis was a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in 736 pregnant women and their offspring, from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010cohort. They were recruited between weeks 22 and 26 in pregnancy and randomly assigned to either of 2.4 g n–3 LCPUFA or control (olive oil) daily until 1 wk after birth. Exclusion criteria were endocrine, cardiovascular, or nephrologic disorders and vitamin D supplementation intake >600 IU/d. In this study we analyzed secondary outcomes, and further excluded twin pregnancies and extrauterine death. The primary outcome for the trial was persistent wheeze or asthma.ResultsThe random assignment ran between 2008 and 2010. Six hundred and ninety-nine mother-infant pairs were included in the analysis. n–3 LCPUFA compared with control was associated with a 2-d prolongation of pregnancy [median (IQR): 282 (275–288) d compared with 280 (273–286) d, P = 0.02], a 97-g higher birth weight (mean ± SD: 3601 ± 534 g compared with 3504 ± 528 g, P = 0.02), and an increased size for GA according to the Norwegian population-based growth curves-Skjærven (mean ± SD: 49.9 ± 28.3 percentiles compared with 44.5 ± 27.6 percentiles, P = 0.01).ConclusionSupplementing pregnant women with n–3 LCPUFAs during the third trimester is associated with prolonged gestation and increased size for GA, leading to a higher birth weight in this randomized controlled trial. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00798226.

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Journal Citation Reports (2017)

Impact factor: 4.398
Q1 (Nutrition & Dietetics (16/81))

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SJR: 2.191
SNIP: 1.395
Impact (Scopus CiteScore): 0.424
Quartile: Q1
CiteScore percentile: 90%
CiteScore rank: 11 out of 112
Cited by WUR staff: 1098 times. (2014-2016)

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