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Theoretical and Applied Genetics



ISSN: 0040-5752 (1432-2242)
Agronomy - Horticulture - Plant Sciences - Genetics & Heredity - Agronomy and Crop Science - Biotechnology - Genetics - Genetics

Recent articles

1 show abstract

Key message
Elite wheat pollinators are critical for successful hybrid breeding. We identified Rht-B1 and Ppd-D1 loci affecting multiple pollinator traits and therefore represent major targets for improving hybrid seed production.

Hybrid breeding has a great potential to significantly boost wheat yields. Ideal male pollinators would be taller in stature, contain many spikelets well-spaced along the spike and exhibit high extrusion of large anthers. Most importantly, flowering time would match with that of the female parent. Available genetic resources for developing an elite wheat pollinator are limited, and the genetic basis for many of these traits is largely unknown. Here, we report on the genetic analysis of pollinator traits using biparental mapping populations. We identified two anther extrusion QTLs of medium effect, one on chromosome 1BL and the other on 4BS coinciding with the semi-dwarfing Rht-B1 locus. The effect of Rht-B1 alleles on anther extrusion is genotype dependent, while tall plant Rht-B1a allele is consistently associated with large anthers. Multiple QTLs were identified at the Ppd-D1 locus for anther length, spikelet number and spike length, with the photoperiod-sensitive Ppd-D1b allele associated with favourable pollinator traits in the populations studied. We also demonstrated that homeoloci, Rht-D1 and Ppd-B1, influence anther length among other traits. These results suggest that combinations of Rht-B1 and Ppd-D1 alleles control multiple pollinator traits and should be major targets of hybrid wheat breeding programs.
2 show abstract

Spot form net blotch (SFNB) caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. maculata (Ptm) is an important disease of barley worldwide including the major barley production regions of North America. To characterize SFNB resistance/susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTL), three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were developed from crosses between the malting barley cultivars, Tradition (six row) and Pinnacle (two row), and the two world barley core collection lines, PI67381 and PI84314. Tradition and Pinnacle were susceptible to many North American Ptm isolates, while PI67381 and PI84314 carry resistances to diverse Ptm isolates from across the globe. The RIL populations, Tradition/PI67381, Pinnacle/PI67381, and Pinnacle/PI84314 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-mediated genotype-by-sequencing single nucleotide polymorphism marker panels and phenotyped at the seedling stage with six geographically distinct Ptm isolates: FGOB10Ptm-1 (North Dakota, USA), Pin-A14 (Montana, USA), Cel-A17 (Montana, USA), SG1 (Australia), NZKF2 (New Zealand) and DEN2.6 (Denmark). The goal was to determine if the susceptible elite lines contained common susceptibility genes/QTL or if the resistant lines had common resistant genes/QTL effective against diverse Ptm isolates. The QTL analyses identified a total of 12 resistance and/or susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2H, 3H, 4H, 6H, and 7H of which three had not been previously reported. Common major QTL were detected on chromosome 2H (R
2 = 14–40%) and 7H (R
2 = 24–80%) in all three RIL populations, suggesting underlying genes with broad resistance specificity. The major 7H QTL was shown to be a dominant susceptibility gene in both susceptible malting barley varieties.
3 show abstract

Article URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00122-019-03321-4
Citation: (2019)
Publication Date: 2019-03-19
Journal: Theoretical and Applied Genetics
4 show abstract

Key message
A major QTL
was identified on chromosome 9, combined with GWAS, and co-expression network analysis showed that GRMZM2G110929 and GRMZM5G852704 are the potential candidates for association with maize kernel starch content.

Increasing maize kernel starch content may not only lead to higher maize kernel yields and qualities, but also help meet industry demands. By using the intermated B73 × Mo17 population, QTLs were mapped for starch content in this study. A major QTL Qsta9.1 was detected in a 1.7 Mb interval on chromosome 9 and validated by allele frequency analysis in extreme tails of a newly constructed segregating population. According to genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on genotyping of a natural population, we identified a significant SNP for starch content within the ORF region of GRMZM5G852704_T01 colocalized with QTL Qsta9.1. Co-expression network analysis was also conducted, and 28 modules were constructed during six seed developmental stages. Functional enrichment was performed for each module, and one module showed the most possibility for the association with carbohydrate-related processes. In this module, one transcripts GRMZM2G110929_T01 located in the Qsta9.1 assigned 1.7 Mb interval encoding GLABRA2 expression modulator. Its expression level in B73 was lower than that in Mo17 across all seed developmental stages, implying the possibility for the candidate gene of Qsta9.1. Our studies combined GWAS, mRNA profiling, and traditional QTL analyses to identify a major locus for controlling seed starch content in maize.
5 show abstract

Key message
We demonstrated the effect of heading time genes on reproductive transition and yield components under an identical genetic background using CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing technology, and we propose that the elite allele will provide a new breeding strategy for rice breeding in high-latitude regions.

Heading date is a factor closely associated with grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L). In recent decades, a number of genes responsible for heading time have been identified, the variation of which contributes to the expansion of the rice cultivation area. However, it is difficult to compare the phenotypic effects of these genes due to the different genetic backgrounds. In this study, we generated 14 heading time mutants using CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing technology and marker-assisted selection with a japonica Sasanishiki wild-type (WT) genetic background. Photoperiod sensitivity, the relationship between days to heading (DTH), and yield components of mutants were investigated. We found that the yield increases with increases in DTH, but eventually plateaus at maximum and then began to decrease, whereas the biomass continued to increase. The mutants exerted distinctly different effects on DTH and yield components. The convergent double mutants had severe yield reduction compared with single mutants, even with a DTH that was similar to that of single mutants. We also found that an elite mutant of se14 achieved a yield equal to that of the WT, but with heading occurring 10 days earlier. A sequence analysis of 72 cultivars collected from the japonica cultivated zone shows that elite se14 mutants have not been applied to rice breeding. Our study demonstrates the effect of heading time genes on reproductive transition and yield components under an identical genetic background. These results may provide new insights into rice breeding using heading time mutants.
6 show abstract

Genomic selection offers several routes for increasing the genetic gain or efficiency of plant breeding programmes. In various species of livestock, there is empirical evidence of increased rates of genetic gain from the use of genomic selection to target different aspects of the breeder’s equation. Accurate predictions of genomic breeding value are central to this, and the design of training sets is in turn central to achieving sufficient levels of accuracy. In summary, small numbers of close relatives and very large numbers of distant relatives are expected to enable predictions with higher accuracy. To quantify the effect of some of the properties of training sets on the accuracy of genomic selection in crops, we performed an extensive field-based winter wheat trial. In summary, this trial involved the construction of 44 F2:4 bi- and tri-parental populations, from which 2992 lines were grown on four field locations and yield was measured. For each line, genotype data were generated for 25 K segregating SNP markers. The overall heritability of yield was estimated to 0.65, and estimates within individual families ranged between 0.10 and 0.85. Genomic prediction accuracies of yield BLUEs were 0.125–0.127 using two different cross-validation approaches and generally increased with training set size. Using related crosses in training and validation sets generally resulted in higher prediction accuracies than using unrelated crosses. The results of this study emphasise the importance of the training panel design in relation to the genetic material to which the resulting prediction model is to be applied.
7 show abstract

Key message
New QTL for important quality traits in durum were identified, but for most QTL their effect varies depending on the investigated germplasm.

Most of the global durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) production is used for human consumption via pasta and to a lower extent couscous and bulgur. Therefore, durum wheat varieties have to fulfill high demands regarding quality traits. In this study, we evaluated the quality traits protein content, sedimentation volume, falling number, vitreousity and thousand kernel weight in a Central European (CP) and a Southern and Western European panel (SP) with 183 and 159 durum lines, respectively, and investigated their genetic architecture by genome-wide association mapping. Except for protein content, we identified QTL explaining a large proportion of the genotypic variance for different traits. However, most of them were identified only in one panel. Nevertheless, for sedimentation volume a genomic region on chromosome 1B appeared important in both durum panels and a BLAST search against the emmer and bread wheat reference genomes points toward the candidate gene Glu-B3. This was further supported by the protein subunit banding pattern via SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. For vitreousity, genomic regions on chromosome 7A explained a larger proportion of the genotypic variance in both panels, whereas one QTL, possibly related to the Pinb-2 locus, also slightly influenced the protein content. Within each panel, high prediction abilities for genomic selection were obtained, which, however, dropped considerably when predicting across both panels. Nevertheless, the across-panel prediction ability was still larger than 0.4 for protein content and sedimentation volume, underlining the potential for genomics-aided durum breeding, if laboratory and logistical facilities are available.
8 show abstract

Key message
A high-density linkage map of chickpea using 3430 SNPs was constructed and used to identify QTLs and candidate genes for ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea.

Chickpea cultivation in temperate conditions is highly vulnerable to ascochyta blight infection. Cultivation of resistant cultivars in combination with fungicide application within an informed disease management package is the most effective method to control ascochyta blight in chickpeas. Identifying new sources of resistance is critical for continued improvement in ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea. The objective of this study was to identify genetic loci and candidate genes controlling the resistance to ascochyta blight in recombinant inbred lines derived from crossing cultivars Amit and ICCV 96029. The RILs were genotyped using the genotyping-by-sequencing procedure and Illumina® GoldenGate array. The RILs were evaluated in the field over three site-years and in three independent greenhouse experiments. A genetic map with eight linkage groups was constructed using 3430 SNPs. Eight QTLs for resistance were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The QTLs individually explained 7–40% of the phenotypic variations. The QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 6 were associated with the resistance at vegetative stage only. The QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 4 that were previously reported to be conserved across diverse genetic backgrounds and against different isolates of Ascochyta rabiei were confirmed in this study. Candidate genes were identified within the QTL regions. Their co-localization with the underlying QTLs was confirmed by genetic mapping. The candidate gene-based SNP markers would lead to more efficient marker-assisted selection for ascochyta blight resistance and would provide a framework for fine mapping and subsequent cloning of the genes associated with the resistance.
9 show abstract

Key message
Selected doubled haploid lines averaged similar testcross performance as their original landraces, and the best of them approached the yields of elite inbreds, demonstrating their potential to broaden the narrow genetic diversity of the flint germplasm pool.

Maize landraces represent a rich source of genetic diversity that remains largely idle because the high genetic load and performance gap to elite germplasm hamper their use in modern breeding programs. Production of doubled haploid (DH) lines can mitigate problems associated with the use of landraces in pre-breeding. Our objective was to assess in comparison with modern materials the testcross performance (TP) of the best 89 out of 389 DH lines developed from six landraces and evaluated in previous studies for line per se performance (LP). TP with a dent tester was evaluated for the six original landraces, ~ 15 DH lines from each landrace selected for LP, and six elite flint inbreds together with nine commercial hybrids for grain and silage traits. Mean TP of the DH lines rarely differed significantly from TP of their corresponding landrace, which averaged in comparison with the mean TP of the elite flint inbreds ~ 20% lower grain yield and ~ 10% lower dry matter and methane yield. Trait correlations of DH lines closely agreed with the literature; correlation of TP with LP was zero for grain yield, underpinning the need to evaluate TP in addition to LP. For all traits, we observed substantial variation for TP among the DH lines and the best showed similar TP yields as the elite inbreds. Our results demonstrate the high potential of landraces for broadening the narrow genetic base of the flint heterotic pool and the usefulness of the DH technology for exploiting idle genetic resources from gene banks.
10 show abstract

Key message
The maternal and paternal parentage of 36 rootstocks was determined and verified. The results of this study indicate that existing grape rootstocks are closely related to each other and have a narrow genetic background.

Rootstocks are used to protect grapevines from biotic and abiotic stresses including phylloxera, nematodes, viruses, limestone-based soils, salinity and drought. The most important rootstocks were developed from three grape species between the 1890s and the 1930s in European breeding programs. In this report, we developed nuclear and chloroplast SSR fingerprint data from rootstock selections maintained in germplasm collections, compared them to develop a reference dataset, and carried out parentage analysis to resolve previously reported, and determine new, breeding records. We refined and updated the parentage of 26 rootstocks based on 21 nuclear and 14 chloroplast markers. Results indicate that 39% of the genetic background of analyzed rootstocks originated from only three accessions of three grape species: Vitis berlandieri cv. Rességuier 2, V. rupestris cv. du Lot and V. riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier. Results determined that Rességuier 2 is the maternal parent for 14 commercial rootstocks, 9 of which are full-sibs with Gloire de Montpellier as the paternal parent. Similarly, du Lot is the paternal parent of nine rootstocks. The pedigree information for 28 rootstocks was determined or corrected in this study. The previously reported pedigree information for eight of the rootstocks was correct. The results found that the world’s existing rootstocks have a narrow genetic base derived from only a few American grape species. Future rootstock breeding efforts should use a more diverse array of species to combat a changing climate and pest pressure.
11 show abstract

Key message
QTL mapping for fiber-related traits and elucidation of a stable and novel QTL affecting seed lignin content, cellulose content and seed oil content.

Dissection of the genetic networks for fiber biosynthesis is important for improving the seed oil content and meal value of Brassica napus. In this study, the genetic basis of seed fiber biosynthesis in B. napus was investigated via quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a doubled haploid population derived from ‘KenC-8’ crossed with ‘N53-2.’ Seed lignin content (LC), cellulose content (CC) and hemicellulose content (HC) were significantly negatively correlated with seed oil content (OC). Co-localization QTLs among LC, CC, HC and OC on A09 were found with contributions ranging from 9.87 to 48.50%. Seven co-localization QTLs involved in the fiber component and OC were further verified by bulked segregant analysis (BSA). The unique QTL uqA9-12 might be a real and new QTL that was commonly identified by QTL mapping and BSA and simultaneously affected LC, CC and OC with opposite additive effects. A potential regulatory network controlling seed fiber biosynthesis was constructed to dissect the complex mechanism of seed fiber and oil accumulation, and numerous candidate genes were identified in the fiber-related QTL regions. These results provided an enrichment of QTLs and potential candidates for fiber biosynthesis, as well as useful new information for understanding the complex genetic mechanism underlying rapeseed seed fiber accumulation.
12 show abstract

Key message
The Mendelian locus conferring resistance to powdery mildew in soybean was precisely mapped using a combination of phenotypic screening, genetic analyses, and high-throughput genome-wide sequencing.

Powdery mildew (PMD), caused by the fungus Microsphaera diffusa Cooke & Peck, leads to considerable yield losses in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] under favourable environmental conditions and can be controlled by identifying germplasm resources with resistance genes. In this study, resistance to M. diffusa among resistant varieties B3, Fudou234, and B13 is mapped as a single Mendelian locus using three mapping populations derived from crossing susceptible with resistant cultivars. The position of the PMD resistance locus in B3 is located between simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers GMES6959 and Satt_393 on chromosome 16, at genetic distances of 7.1 cM and 4.6 cM, respectively. To more finely map the PMD resistance gene, a high-density genetic map was constructed using 248 F8 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross of Guizao1 × B13. The final map includes 3748 bins and is 3031.9 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.81 cM between adjacent markers. This genotypic analysis resulted in the precise delineation of the B13 PMD resistance locus to a 188.06-kb genomic region on chromosome 16 that harbours 28 genes, including 17 disease resistance (R)-like genes in the reference Williams 82 genome. Quantitative real-time PCR assays of possible candidate genes revealed differences in the expression levels of 9 R-like genes between the resistant and susceptible parents. These results provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMD resistance.
13 show abstract

Key message
We isolated a novel allele associated with grain length and grain weight in wheat, TaGL3-5A-G. The TaGL3-5A-G allele frequency is low in wheat, so it has potential for breeding.

Selection of large-grain wheat showing big grain sink potential and strong sink activity is becoming an important objective in breeding programs. Here, we cloned a wheat TaGL3-5A gene that was orthologous to rice GL3 and was phylogenetically clustered with both monocot PPKL1 and its expression pattern was similar to grain size change at early and middle stages of seed development. The isolated TaGL3-5A genomic sequence was 10,227 bp long and included 21 exons and 20 introns. Alignment of the TaGL3-5A sequences in Beinong 6 and Yanda 1817 showed a G/A substitution in the 11th exon (position 5946) that would lead to an amino acid change (Met/Ile). Subsequently, a KASP marker was designed based on this SNP. Genotyping of RILs showed that TaGL3-5A was located on the wheat 5AL chromosome and was colocated with a significant grain length QTL in three independent environments and mean value. Association analysis revealed that the TaGL3-5A-G allele was significantly correlated with longer grains and higher thousand-kernel weight. Haplotype association analysis indicated that TaGL3-5A-G could enhance grain traits in combination with TaGS5-3A and TaGW2-6B. The frequency of TaGL3-5A-G was higher in modern cultivars than in landraces but was still low in major Chinese wheat production areas. Additionally, the frequency of the TaGL3-5A-G allele in hexaploid wheat was slightly lower than in Triticum dicoccoides and much lower than in Triticum turgidum. Hence, T. dicoccoides and T. turgidum represent valuable resources for transferring the TaGL3-5A-G allele into common wheat, which should lead to longer grain length.
14 show abstract

Key message
The integration of new technologies into public plant breeding programs can make a powerful step change in agricultural productivity when aligned with principles of quantitative and Mendelian genetics.

The breeder’s equation is the foundational application of quantitative genetics to crop improvement. Guided by the variables that describe response to selection, emerging breeding technologies can make a powerful step change in the effectiveness of public breeding programs. The most promising innovations for increasing the rate of genetic gain without greatly increasing program size appear to be related to reducing breeding cycle time, which is likely to require the implementation of parent selection on non-inbred progeny, rapid generation advance, and genomic selection. These are complex processes and will require breeding organizations to adopt a culture of continuous optimization and improvement. To enable this, research managers will need to consider and proactively manage the, accountability, strategy, and resource allocations of breeding teams. This must be combined with thoughtful management of elite genetic variation and a clear separation between the parental selection process and product development and advancement process. With an abundance of new technologies available, breeding teams need to evaluate carefully the impact of any new technology on selection intensity, selection accuracy, and breeding cycle length relative to its cost of deployment. Finally breeding data management systems need to be well designed to support selection decisions and novel approaches to accelerate breeding cycles need to be routinely evaluated and deployed.
15 show abstract

Key message
A novel rare allele of the barley host factor gene eIF4E for BaMMV/BaYMV infection was identified in an Iranian landrace that showed broad resistance to barley yellow mosaic virus disease, and molecular markers facilitating efficient selection were developed.

The soil-borne yellow mosaic virus disease caused by different strains of barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV) is a major threat to winter barley (Hordeum vulgare) production in Europe and East Asia. However, the exploration of resistant germplasm or casual genes for barley breeding is rather limited in relation to the rapid diversification of viral strains. Here, we identified an Iranian barley landrace ‘HOR3298,’ which represented complete resistance to BaYMV and BaMMV. In contrast to rym4 and rym5, which act as the predominant source in Europe and East Asia for breeding resistant cultivars over decades and which have been overcome by several virulent isolates, this landrace showed broad-spectrum resistance to multiple isolates of BaYMV/BaMMV in the fields of Germany and China. By employment of bulked segregant RNA sequencing, test for allelism, and haplotype analysis, a recessive resistance gene in ‘HOR3298’ was genetically mapped coincident with the host factor eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E, causal gene of rym4 and rym5). The eIF4E

allele encoded for a novel haplotype that contained an exclusive nucleotide mutation (G565A) in the coding sequence. The easily handled markers were developed based on the exclusively rare variation, providing precise selection of this allele. Thus, this work provided a novel reliable resistance source and the feasible marker-assisted selection assays that can be used in breeding for barley yellow mosaic virus disease resistance in cultivated barley.
16 show abstract

Key message
Large genetic improvement can be achieved by simultaneous genomic selection for grain yield and protein content when combining different breeding strategies in the form of selection indices.

Genomic selection has been implemented in many national and international breeding programmes in recent years. Numerous studies have shown the potential of this new breeding tool; few have, however, taken the simultaneous selection for multiple traits into account that is though common practice in breeding programmes. The simultaneous improvement in grain yield and protein content is thereby a major challenge in wheat breeding due to a severe negative trade-off. Accordingly, the potential and limits of multi-trait selection for this particular trait complex utilizing the vast phenotypic and genomic data collected in an applied wheat breeding programme were investigated in this study. Two breeding strategies based on various genomic-selection indices were compared, which (1) aimed to select high-protein genotypes with acceptable yield potential and (2) develop high-yielding varieties, while maintaining protein content. The prediction accuracy of preliminary yield trials could be strongly improved when combining phenotypic and genomic information in a genomics-assisted selection approach, which surpassed both genomics-based and classical phenotypic selection methods both for single trait predictions and in genomic index selection across years. The employed genomic selection indices mitigated furthermore the negative trade-off between grain yield and protein content leading to a substantial selection response for protein yield, i.e. total seed nitrogen content, which suggested that it is feasible to develop varieties that combine a superior yield potential with comparably high protein content, thus utilizing available nitrogen resources more efficiently.
17 show abstract

Key message
A major QTL QSpl.nau-7D, named HL2, was validated for its effects on head length and kernel number per spike using NIL, and mapped to a 0.2 cM interval using recombinants.

Improvement in wheat inflorescence traits such as spike or head length and spikelet number provides an important avenue to increase grain yield potential. In a previous study, QSpl.nau-7D, the major QTL for head length on chromosome 7D, was identified in the recombinant inbred lines derived from Nanda2419 and Wangshuibai. To validate and precisely map this QTL, the Wangshuibai allele was transferred to elite cultivar Yangmai15 through marker-assisted selection. Compared with the recurrent parent, the resultant near-isogenic line (NIL) yielded not only 28% longer spikes on the average but also more spikelets and kernels per spike. Moreover, the NIL had a lower spikelet density and did not show significant kernel weight change. In the F2 population derived from the NIL, QSpl.nau-7D acted like a single semi-dominant gene controlling head length and was therefore designated as Head Length 2 (HL2). With this population, a high-density genetic map was constructed mainly using newly developed markers, and 100 homozygous recombinants including 17 genotypes were obtained. Field experiments showed that the recombinants carrying the 0.2-cM interval flanked by Xwgrb1588 and Xwgrb1902 from Wangshuibai produced longer spikes than those without this Wangshuibai allele. Comparative mapping of this interval revealed a conserved synteny among cereal grasses. HL2 is beneficial to wheat breeding for more kernels per spike at a lower spikelet density, which is a favored morphological trait for Fusarium head blight resistance.
18 show abstract

Key message
Genomic regions associated with seed protein, oil and amino acid contents were identified by genome-wide association analyses. Geographic distributions of haplotypes indicate scope of improvement of these traits.

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] protein and oil are used worldwide in feed, food and industrial materials. Increasing seed protein and oil contents is important; however, protein content is generally negatively correlated with oil content. We conducted a genome-wide association study using phenotypic data collected from five environments for 621 accessions in maturity groups I–IV and 34,014 markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed content of protein, oil and several essential amino acids. Three and five genomic regions were associated with seed protein and oil contents, respectively. One, three, one and four genomic regions were associated with cysteine, methionine, lysine and threonine content (g kg−1 crude protein), respectively. As previously shown, QTL on chromosomes 15 and 20 were associated with seed protein and oil contents, with both exhibiting opposite effects on the two traits, and the chromosome 20 QTL having the most significant effect. A multi-trait mixed model identified trait-specific QTL. A QTL on chromosome 5 increased oil with no effect on protein content, and a QTL on chromosome 10 increased protein content with little effect on oil content. The chromosome 10 QTL co-localized with maturity gene E2/GmGIa. Identification of trait-specific QTL indicates feasibility to reduce the negative correlation between protein and oil contents. Haplotype blocks were defined at the QTL identified on chromosomes 5, 10, 15 and 20. Frequencies of positive effect haplotypes varied across maturity groups and geographic regions, providing guidance on which alleles have potential to contribute to soybean improvement for specific regions.
19 show abstract

Maize has for many decades been both one of the most important crops worldwide and one of the primary genetic model organisms. More recently, maize breeding has been impacted by rapid technological advances in sequencing and genotyping technology, transformation including genome editing, doubled haploid technology, parallelled by progress in data sciences and the development of novel breeding approaches utilizing genomic information. Herein, we report on past, current and future developments relevant for maize breeding with regard to (1) genome analysis, (2) germplasm diversity characterization and utilization, (3) manipulation of genetic diversity by transformation and genome editing, (4) inbred line development and hybrid seed production, (5) understanding and prediction of hybrid performance, (6) breeding methodology and (7) synthesis of opportunities and challenges for future maize breeding.
20 show abstract

Key message
This study determined the effects of growth stage and temperature on expression of high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust, mapped six QTL for durable resistance in winter wheat Skiles using a doubled haploid population, and selected breeding lines with different combinations of the QTL using marker-assisted selection.

The winter wheat cultivar Skiles has a high level of high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). The Skiles HTAP resistance was highly effective at the adult-plant stage even under low temperatures, but high temperatures induced earlier expression and increased levels of resistance. To map resistance genes, Skiles was crossed with the susceptible cultivar Avocet S and a doubled haploid (DH) population was developed. The DH population was tested in fields at Pullman, WA, in 2016, 2017 and 2018, Mount Vernon, WA, in 2017 and 2018 under natural infection, and an environmentally controlled greenhouse at the adult-plant stage with the currently predominant race PSTv-37. The population was genotyped using the 90 K Illumina iSelect wheat SNP chip and selected SSR markers on specific chromosomes. In total, 2526 polymorphic markers were used for QTL mapping and six QTL were detected. Two of the six QTL had major effects across all environments, with one mapped on chromosome 3BS, explaining up to 28.2% of the phenotypic variation and the other on chromosome 4BL, explaining up to 41.8%. Minor QTL were mapped on chromosomes 1BL, 5AL, 6B and 7DL. Genotyping 140 wheat cultivars from the US Pacific Northwest revealed high polymorphism of markers for five of the QTL, and five highly resistant lines with the five QTL were selected from Skiles-derived breeding lines using the markers. This study demonstrated that multiple QTL with mostly additive effects contributed to the high-level HTAP resistance in Skiles.

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Journal Citation Reports (2017)

Impact factor: 3.930
Q1 (Agronomy (5/87))
Q1 (Horticulture (1/37))
Q1 (Plant Sciences (19/222))
Q2 (Genetics & Heredity (43/171))

Scopus Journal Metrics (2017)

SJR: 2.148
SNIP: 1.552
Impact (Scopus CiteScore): 0.442
Quartile: Q1
CiteScore percentile: 97%
CiteScore rank: 7 out of 309
Cited by WUR staff: 1047 times. (2014-2016)

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