WUR Journal browser

WUR Journal browser

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • The Journal Browser provides a list of more than 30,000 journals. It can be consulted by authors who wish to select a journal for publishing their manuscript Open Access. The information in this list is aggregated from several sources on a regular basis:

    • A list of journals for which the Association of Universities in the Netherlands (VSNU) has made deals with publishers, to make articles Open Access. Under these deals, corresponding authors of Dutch universities can publish their articles Open Access in the participating journals with discounts on the article processing charges (APCs).
    • A list of journals covered by the Journal Citation Reports.
    • A list of journals covered by Scopus.
    • Journals indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).
    • Lists of journals for which specific Dutch universities have made deals with publishers, to make articles Open Access. Under these deals, corresponding authors of these universities can publish their articles Open Access in the participating journals with discounts on the article processing charges (APCs). Depending on the university from which the Journal Browser is consulted, this information is shown.
    • Additional data on citations made to journals, in articles published by staff from a specific Dutch university, that are made available by that university. Depending on the university from which the Journal Browser is consulted, this information is shown.

    In the Journal Browser, a search box can be used to look up journals on certain subjects. The terms entered in this box are used to search the journal titles and other metadata (e.g. keywords).

    After having selected journals by subject, it is possible to apply additional filters. These concern no/full costs and discounts for Open Access publishing, support on Open Access publishing in journals, and the quartile to which the journal’s impact factor belongs.

    When one selects a journal in the Journal Browser, the following information may be presented:

    • General information about the selected journal such as title and ISSNs, together with a link to the journal’s website.
    • APC discount that holds for the selected journal if it is part of an Open Access deal.
    • Impact measures for the selected journal from Journal Citation Reports or Scopus. The impact measures that are shown may vary, depending on the university from which the Journal Browser is consulted. For some universities, the number of citations made to the selected journal (in articles published by staff from that university) is also shown.
    • Information from Sherpa/Romeo on the conditions under which articles from the selected journal may be made available via Green Open Access.
    • A listing of articles recently published in the selected journal.
    • For some universities, information is available on what journals have been co-cited most frequently together with the selected journal (in articles published by staff from these universities). When available, this information is presented under ‘similar journals’.
    About

Journal of Dairy Science

Elsevier

1917-

ISSN: 0022-0302 (1525-3198, 1529-9058, 1529-9066)
Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science - Food Science & Technology - Animal Science and Zoology - Food Science - Genetics
APC costs unknown

Recent articles

1 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699280
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): M. Rombach, K.-H. Südekum, A. Münger, F. Schori
ABSTRACT

Information about the individual herbage DMI (HDMI) of grazing dairy cows is important for an efficient use of pasture herbage as an animal feed with a range of benefits. Estimating HDMI, with its multifaceted influencing variables, is difficult but may be attempted using animal, performance, behavior, and feed variables. In our study, 2 types of approaches were explored: 1 for HDMI estimation under a global approach (GA), where all variables measured in the 4 underlying experiments were used for model development, and 1 for HDMI estimation in an approach without information about the amount of supplements fed in the barn (WSB). The accuracy of these models was assessed. The underlying data set was developed from 4 experiments with 52 GA and 50 WSB variables and one hundred thirty 7-d measurements. The experiments differed in pasture size, herbage allowance, pregrazing herbage mass, supplements fed in the barn, and sward composition. In all the experiments, cow behavioral characteristics were recorded using the RumiWatch system (Itin and Hoch GmbH, Liestal, Switzerland). Herbage intake was estimated by applying the n-alkane method. Finally, HDMI estimation models with a minimal relative prediction error of 11.1% for use under GA and 13.2% for use under WSB were developed. The variables retained for the GA model with the highest accuracy, determined through various selection steps, were herbage crude protein, chopped whole-plant corn silage intake in the barn, protein supplement or concentrate intake in the barn, body weight, milk yield, milk protein, milk lactose, lactation number, postgrazing herbage mass, and bite rate performed at pasture. Instead of the omitted amounts of feed intake in the barn and, due to the statistical procedure for model reduction, the unconsidered variables postgrazing herbage mass and bite rate performed at pasture, the WSB model with the highest accuracy retained additional variables. The additional variables were total eating chews performed at pasture and in the barn, total eating time performed at pasture, number of total prehension bites, number of prehension bites performed at pasture, and herbage ash concentration. Even though behavioral characteristics alone did not allow a sufficiently accurate individual HDMI estimation, their inclusion under WSB improved estimation accuracy and represented the most valid variables for the HDMI estimation under WSB. Under GA, the inclusion of behavioral characteristics in the HDMI estimation models did not reduce the root mean squared prediction error. Finally, further adaptation, as well as validation on a more comprehensive data set and the inclusion of variables excluded in this study such as body condition score or gestation, should be considered in the development of HDMI estimation models.
2 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699281
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): A. García-Ruiz, G.R. Wiggans, F.J. Ruiz-López
3 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699282
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Robert O. Gilbert
ABSTRACT

Diseases of postpartum dairy cows impair reproductive processes, resulting in prolonged anestrus, reduced conception, and increased pregnancy attrition, regardless of whether the initial disease precedes insemination (even by many weeks), occurs close to insemination, or follows fertilization. Bacteria and their products activate pattern recognition receptors that respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP). These receptors include toll-like receptors (TLR), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors and others, and their activation culminates in upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-α. These may have direct effects on the uterus and conceptus. Importantly, however, these inflammatory mediators, as well as the bacterial products, make their way to the ovary via the general circulation (even from distant sites) or possibly by using the countercurrent vascular mechanism that normally transports endometrial prostaglandin to the ipsilateral ovary. Endotoxin reaches concentrations in follicular fluid that exceed those found in the circulation or even in the infected uterus. Ovarian follicular cells also express TLR and can respond directly to bacterial products including endotoxin, impairing their function. Inflammation is accompanied by increased oxidative stress. The process of oocyte development from activation of primordial oocytes to potential ovulation spans 4 mo. Competence by an oocyte encompasses the ability to undergo not only fertilization but also a complex cytoplasmic maturation that lays the foundation for completion of meiosis at the appropriate time, the transition to mitosis in the zygote, and further development of the conceptus. Oocyte maturation relies on intimate association between cumulus cells and the oocyte, characterized by gap junctions through which molecules of various sizes pass. Signaling also occurs in the oocyte-to-cumulus cell direction. Because both granulosa and theca interna cells are capable of responding to inflammatory mediators, with observed alterations in some functions, it seems likely that disturbed ovarian follicular function may contribute to failure of oocytes to become fully competent, even if the insult occurs well before ovulation. Therefore, interruption of normal fertility by uterine infections may be mediated at the level of the uterine environment but the effect on the ovary and oocyte is likely to be even more important.
4 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699283
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): H. Khatib, N. Gross
ABSTRACT

The majority of embryonic loss in cattle occurs within the first 3 to 4 wk of pregnancy, and there are currently no accurate predictors of pregnancy outcome. Existing embryo quality assessment methods include morphological evaluation and embryo biopsy. These methods are not accurate and carry some health risks to the developing embryo, respectively. Therefore, there is need to identify noninvasive biomarkers such as microRNA that can predict embryo quality and pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, researchers need a better understanding of the dynamic interaction between the mother and the embryo. The transcriptome of the uterus shows plasticity that depends on the embryo type so that the expression level of some genes for in vivo embryos would be different from that of in vitro-produced embryos. Similarly, the embryonic transcriptome and epigenome change in response to different environmental factors such as stress, diet, disease, and physiological status of the mother. This embryo–mother crosstalk could be better understood by investigating the molecular signaling that occurs at different stages of embryonic development. Although transcriptomics is a useful tool to assess the roles of genes and pathways in embryo quality and maternal receptivity, it does not provide the exact functions of these genes, and it shows correlation rather than causality. Therefore, an in-depth functional genomic analysis is needed for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling embryo development. In this review, we discuss recent genomic technologies such as RNA interference, gapmer technology, and genome editing techniques used in humans and livestock to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of genes affecting embryo development.
5 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699284
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): L. Ma, J.B. Cole, Y. Da, P.M. VanRaden
ABSTRACT

Before fertility traits were incorporated into selection, dairy cattle breeding primarily focused on production traits, which resulted in an unfavorable decline in the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. This reduced fertility is constantly challenging the dairy industry on the efficiency and sustainability of dairy production. Recent development of genomic selection on fertility traits has stabilized and even reversed the decreasing trend, showing the effectiveness of genomic selection. Meanwhile, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes associated with dairy fertility, providing a better understanding of the genetic architecture of fertility traits. In this review, we provide an overview of the genetics of fertility traits, summarize the findings from existing GWAS of female fertility in dairy cattle, and update the recent research progress in US dairy cattle. Because of the polygenic nature of fertility traits, many GWAS of dairy fertility tended to be underpowered. Only 1 major QTL, on BTA18, was identified across multiple studies. This QTL was associated with a range of fertility traits from conception to calving, but the candidate gene or mutation is still missing. Collectively, with the promising success from genomic selection but low power of GWAS on dairy fertility traits, this review calls for continuous data collection of fertility traits to enable more powerful studies of dairy fertility in the future.
6 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699285
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): A. Fleming, C.F. Baes, A.A.A. Martin, T.C.S. Chud, F. Malchiodi, L.F. Brito, F. Miglior
ABSTRACT

In dairy production, high fertility contributes to herd profitability by achieving greater production and maintaining short calving intervals. Improved management practices and genetic selection have contributed to reversing negative trends in dairy cow fertility, but further progress is still required. Phenotypes included in current genetic evaluations are largely interval and binary traits calculated from insemination and calving date records. Several indicator traits such as calving, health, variation in body condition score, and longevity traits also apply to genetic improvement of fertility. Several fertility traits are included in the selection indices of many countries, but for improved selection, the development of novel phenotypes that more closely describe the physiology of reproduction and limit management bias could be more effective. Progesterone-based phenotypes can be determined from milk samples to describe the heritable interval from calving to corpus luteum activity, as well as additional measures of cow cyclicity. A fundamental component of artificial insemination practices is the observation of estrus. Novel phenotypes collected on estrous activity could be used to select for cows clearly displaying heat, as those cows are more likely to be inseminated at the right time and therefore have greater fertility performance. On-farm technologies, including in-line milk testing and activity monitors, may allow for phenotyping novel traits on large numbers of animals. Additionally, selection for improved fertility using traditional traits could benefit from refined and accurate recording and implementation of parameters such as pregnancy confirmation and reproductive management strategy, to differentiate embryonic or fetal loss, and to ensure selection for reproductive capability without producer intervention. Opportunities exist to achieve genetic improvement of reproductive efficiency in cattle using novel phenotypes, which is required for long-term sustainability of the dairy cattle population and industry.
7 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699286
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): M.C. Lucy
ABSTRACT

The establishment of pregnancy following insemination is the primary definition of fertility in most dairy systems. Highly fertile cows establish pregnancy sooner after calving and require fewer inseminations than lower-fertility cows. Pregnancy occurs through a series of individual events in sequence. In postpartum cows, for example, the uterus involutes, estrous cycles are re-established, estrus is expressed and detected, sperm are deposited in the reproductive tract and capacitate, ovulation occurs and is followed by fertilization, and the corpus luteum forms and produces sufficient progesterone to maintain pregnancy. The oviduct supports early cleavage and the uterus establishes a receptive environment for the developing pregnancy. Each individual event is theoretically heritable and these events collectively contribute to the phenotype of pregnancy after insemination. Across most dairy systems, genetic selection for fertility in cows is primarily based on reduced days from calving to pregnancy (i.e., days open). Dairy systems differ with respect to reproductive management applied to cows, which may affect the relative importance of individual components to the overall fertility of the cow. In some systems, cows are inseminated after detected estrus with minimal intervention. In these systems, days open effectively captures the summation of the individual components of fertility. More intensive systems use hormonal treatments (e.g., PGF2α, GnRH) followed by timed artificial insemination (AI). Timed AI does not invalidate days open but the individual components that contribute to days open may be more or less important. Selection of cows for days open within populations that are managed differently may place different pressures on the individual components of fertility. Ensuring uniform performance of future cows across a variety of reproductive management systems may require a greater understanding of the underlying genetics of the individual components of fertility.
8 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699287
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): M.E. Van Amburgh, F. Soberon, M.J. Meyer, R.A. Molano
ABSTRACT

To optimize first lactation and lifetime milk yield, growth benchmarks were established to help meet the appropriate growth objectives of breeding weight and age at an economically viable time and to achieve the optimum body size and composition at first calving. These guidelines provide a framework that helps to minimize overfeeding and, thus, potential overconditioning of heifers, which can lead to postpartum metabolic issues and reduced milk yield. Concerns still exist that mammary development is impaired when body weight gain exceeds a certain threshold, which would negatively affects milk yield. The objective of this review was to integrate concepts of nutrient requirements, body growth and composition, mammary development, and milk yield to provide a systems-based perspective on first-lactation milk differences that have been associated with mammary development. Work in the early 1980s described the effect of high energy intake on mammary development and the relationship with circulating growth hormone linked the relationship between prepubertal growth, mammary development, and future milk yield. The primary outcome of that research was to provide an intuitive mechanism to explain why rapid growth during the prepubertal phase resulted in reduced milk yield. The observation of reduced mammary development could be repeated in almost every experiment, leading to the conclusion that high energy intake and increased average daily gain reduced mammary development through altered hormone status or some signaling processes. However, further work that looked at mammary development over the entire prepubertal growth phase recognized that mammary development was not reduced by high energy intake, and instead accumulated at a constant rate; thus, overall mammary parenchymal growth was a function of the time to reach puberty and the associated signals to change from allometric mammary growth. The mammary gland, similar to most reproductive organs, grows in proportion to the size of the body and not in proportion to nutrient intake during the postweaning, prepubertal phase. First-lactation milk yield, mammary development, and body composition will be further discussed in the context of mechanisms and opportunities.
9 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699288
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): W.J.J. Gerrits
ABSTRACT

Recent interest in increasing rates of body weight gain in heifer calves before weaning is based on the promise of an increase in milk production during first lactation. This increase is usually realized by increasing milk or milk replacer intake, delaying the onset of rumen development. Simultaneously feeding liquids and solid feeds brings about new challenges. Macronutrient metabolism in growing calves is reviewed, combining literature from heifer and veal calves with the objective to provide insights useful for developing novel feeding strategies. Growing calves are not efficiently retaining digested N when compared with other growing species. Energy and protein appear to be simultaneously limiting growth. With the possible exception of very young calves, low responses to incremental intakes of AA indicate that the limiting AA rarely explains the low efficiency of N utilization. Nonetheless, there are indications that disproportionate oxidation of AA as a result of AA imbalance may occur, notably in splanchnic tissues. Long-chain fatty acids, absorbed from the milk or calf milk replacer (CMR) are preferentially deposited as body fat, but this strongly depends on the need for ATP, fueled by the oxidation of carbohydrates. Hence, fatty acid oxidation typically decreases with an increased feeding level. Insulin sensitivity in calves is quite high at birth, but decreases independent of feeding strategy in early age to very low levels when compared with other species. Even though changes in insulin sensitivity may be provoked by early life nutrition, these effects are small and rather transient. In heavy calves, insulin sensitivity is invariably low. Large effects of dietary treatments on postprandial glucose and insulin responses, as often observed, are unlikely to be caused by differences in insulin sensitivity. Unlike in pigs, de novo fatty acid synthesis is not a significant route of disposal of glucose absorbed from the intestinal tract. Instead, high lactate fluxes in milk-fed calves suggest this may be an important route of disposal. When combining the feeding of milk or CMR with solid feeds, estimation of the contribution of the individual ration components is difficult, and interactions inside the gastrointestinal tract complicate the estimation of their feeding value. There are indications in veal calves that use of nutrients absorbed from a CMR is not dependent on the level of intake of solid feeds.
10 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699289
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): J.D. Quigley
ABSTRACT

Provision of nutrients in appropriate amounts to meet nutrient requirements for growth, production, and reproduction is the basis for modern animal nutrition. Ration formulation systems predict nutrient requirements based on numerous inputs and then predict nutrient supply based on predicted intake and nutrient content of feeds. Energy systems are used to predict energy supply based on gross caloric content of feeds followed by adjustments for digestion and metabolism of ingested energy. Many models of energy supply use static coefficients of digestibility based on nutrient composition of feed. Other models partition digestion dynamically between ruminal and postruminal digestion but use static estimates of intestinal digestibility to predict energy supplied to the animal. In young calves, both ruminal fermentation and intestinal digestion are underdeveloped; therefore, existing models of energy supply might overestimate the energy available before complete gastrointestinal maturation. In a series of experiments, we reported that total-tract digestion of nutrients changes with advancing age and nutrient intake. Total-tract digestion was measured in calves from 3 to 16 wk of age when fed different amounts and types of milk replacers. Calves were also fed different types of calf starter for ad libitum consumption. Total-tract digestibility of protein, fat, neutral detergent fiber, and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) was used to calculate the metabolizable energy (ME) in starter. We used nonlinear regression to estimate the contribution of protein and fat from starter and milk replacer before weaning. Early in life, calculated ME of starter was low and increased with increasing intake of NFC. Cumulative intake of NFC was more highly correlated with changing ME values than other indices, including age, intake of milk replacer, or intake of other nutrients in starter. When calves consumed at least of 15 kg of NFC, ME calculated from digestibility measurements was similar to the ME calculated using National Research Council equations and indicated maturation of gastrointestinal digestion. Our data suggest that intake of NFC is critical to gastrointestinal maturation and the calf's ability to extract energy from calf starter.
11 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699290
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): B.N. Shonka-Martin, B.J. Heins, L.B. Hansen
ABSTRACT

Rotational 3-breed crossbred cows of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and Holstein (CB) were compared with Holstein (HO) cows for alternative measures of feed efficiency as well as income over feed cost (IOFC) and residual feed intake (RFI) during the first 150 d of first, second, and third lactations. Primiparous and multiparous CB (n = 63 and n = 43, respectively) and HO (n = 60 and n = 37, respectively) cows were fed the same total mixed ration twice daily with refusals weighed once daily. Feed was analyzed for dry matter content, net energy for lactation, and crude protein content. Body weight (BW) was recorded twice weekly. Daily production of milk, fat, and protein were estimated from monthly test days with best prediction. Measures of efficiency from 4 to 150 d in milk (DIM) were feed conversion efficiency (FCE), defined as fat plus protein production (kg) per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI); ECM/DMI, defined as kilograms of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per kilogram of DMI; net energy for lactation efficiency (NELE), defined as ECM (kg) per megacalorie of net energy for lactation intake; crude protein efficiency (CPE), defined as true protein production (kg) per kilogram of crude protein intake; and DMI/BW, defined as DMI (kg) per kilogram of BW. The IOFC was defined as revenue from fat plus protein production minus feed cost. The RFI from 4 to 150 DIM for each lactation was the residual error remaining from regression of DMI on milk energy output (Mcal), metabolic BW, and energy required for change in BW (Mcal). Statistical analysis of measures of feed efficiency and RFI for primiparous cows included the fixed effects of year of calving and breed group. For multiparous cows, statistical analysis included breed as a fixed effect and cow as a repeated effect nested within breed group. Primiparous CB cows had higher means for FCE (+5.5%), ECM/DMI (+4.0%), NELE (+4.0%), and CPE (+5.2%) and a lower mean DMI/BW (–5.3%) than primiparous HO cows. Primiparous CB cows ($875) also had higher mean IOFC than primiparous HO cows ($825). In addition, mean RFI from 4 to 150 DIM was significantly lower (more desirable) for primiparous CB cows than HO cows. Likewise, multiparous CB cows had higher means for FCE (+8.2%), ECM/DMI (+5.9%), NELE (+5.8%), and CPE (+8.1%) and a lower mean for DMI/BW (–4.8%) than multiparous HO cows. Multiparous CB cows ($1,296) also had a higher mean for IOFC than multiparous HO cows ($1,208) and a lower mean for RFI from 4 to 150 DIM than HO cows.
12 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699291
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): D.J. Saldana, C.M. Jones, A.M. Gehman, A.J. Heinrichs
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of feeding preweaning dairy calves pasteurized milk once or twice a day with or without a combination of yeast-derived products. Holstein heifer calves (n = 48) from The Pennsylvania State University dairy herd were fed 3.8 L of colostrum in 1 feeding and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (once-a-day milk feeding with or without live yeast culture and mannan-rich fraction and twice-a-day milk feeding with or without live yeast culture and mannan-rich fraction). All calves were fed 6 L of milk daily. Weekly growth measurements and blood samples were taken 3 h after the morning milk feeding for all animals. Growth measurement included body weight, hip width, and withers height. Calf starter refusal was recorded weekly, and a sample was taken to determine dry matter intake. Daily health scores were recorded for each calf using a standard scoring system. Intake, growth measurements, haptoglobin, and health scores data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis with calf included as a random variable. Preweaning average daily gain was 553.4 and 512.1 g/d for calves fed milk once and twice a day, respectively, and we found no difference between treatments. Preweaning calf starter intake was 242.3 and 198.7 g/d for calves fed milk once and twice a day, respectively, and we found no treatment differences. Preweaning calf starter intake was 224.3 and 216.6 g/d for calves fed yeast and without yeast, respectively. Withers height and hip width were similar in calves fed milk either once or twice a day; however, calves fed yeast tended to have greater withers height and hip width than control calves. Haptoglobin concentration as a measure of stress had least squares means of 4.0 and 9.5 ± 3.5 µg/mL for calves fed milk once or twice a day, respectively, and we found no difference among treatments. Scours score and total daily score were similar for calves fed milk once or twice a day. These results suggest that feeding milk once a day can be successfully applied to a calf feeding system and that yeast products may improve structural growth.
13 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699292
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): A.J. Buehler, R.L. Evanowski, M. Wiedmann, N.H. Martin
ABSTRACT

Fungal spoilage remains a significant issue in dairy product quality, especially for cultured dairy products such as yogurt formulated without preservatives such as potassium sorbate. Fungal contamination can occur throughout the processing continuum, from the dairy farm environment to the finished product processing environment. As molecular characterization of fungal isolates is used more frequently, we obtained fungal isolates obtained in 2 yogurt processing facilities as part of routine fungal testing of raw materials (e.g., fruit preparations, added ingredients), in-process product samples, environmental samples (e.g., air plates, equipment surfaces such as valves, face plates, air nozzles), and finished product samples, to determine whether internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcoding data would be helpful to support source tracking of fungal contamination issues. Internal transcribed spacer PCR amplification and sequencing allowed us to classify the 852 isolates from these 2 facilities into 200 unique ITS allelic types (AT), representing the phyla Ascomycota (743 isolates), Basidiomycota (97 isolates), and Mucoromycota (12 isolates). Thirty ITS AT were isolated from both facilities; 62 and 108 ITS AT were isolated from only facility A or only facility B, respectively. Nine ITS AT were each represented by more than 20 isolates; these AT comprised 53% of the 852 isolates. The considerable diversity of fungal isolates even within a single facility illustrates the challenge associated with controlling fungal contamination of dairy products. The ITS barcoding technique, however, did show promise for facilitating the source tracking of fungal contamination, particularly for ITS AT over-represented in a given facility. For example, we found evidence for equipment-specific reservoirs for 2 AT (14 and 219) in facility B. Our data suggest that despite its limited discriminatory power, ITS sequencing can provide initial information that can help trace fungal contamination along the processing continuum. However, development and implementation of discriminatory subtyping methods will be needed to further improve the ability to identify sources of fungal contamination in dairy facilities. Developing and implementing sampling plans that comprehensively capture yeast and mold diversity in a given processing facility remain a considerable challenge.
14 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699293
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): J.G. Usack, L. Gerber Van Doren, R. Posmanik, J.W. Tester, L.T. Angenent
ABSTRACT

Anaerobic digestion coupled with combined heat and power production on dairy farms is environmentally advantageous; however, high capital and operating costs have limited its adoption, especially in the United States, where renewable electricity and heat production are under-incentivized. Biogas is also at a disadvantage because it has to compete with very low natural gas prices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of integrating absorption refrigeration technology for combined cooling, heat, and power (CCHP) on the farm to help bridge this economic hurdle. A combined environmental life cycle and techno-economic assessment was used to compare 2 cooling pathways with and without co-digestion. We considered using CCHP to (1) displace electricity-driven refrigeration processes (e.g., milk chilling/refrigeration, biogas inlet cooling) or (2) mitigate heat stress in dairy cattle via conductive cow cooling. All cooling scenarios reduced environmental emissions compared with combined heat and power only, with an appreciable reduction in land use impacts when employing conductive cow cooling. However, none of the cooling scenarios achieved economically viability. When using cooling power to displace electricity-driven refrigeration processes, economic viability was constrained by low electricity prices and a lack of incentives in the United States. When used for conductive cow cooling, economic viability was constrained by (1) low waste heat-to-cooling conversion efficiency; (2) limited conductive cow cooling effectiveness (i.e., heat-stress mitigation); and (3) low heat stress frequency and limited severity. However, we predict that with minor improvements in conductive cow cooling effectiveness and in hotter climates, CCHP for conductive cow cooling would be economically viable even in current US energy markets.
15 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699294
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Eileen Thompson, Kyan Thelen, G. Andres Contreras
ABSTRACT

Reductionist studies of adipose tissue biology require reliable in vitro adipocyte culturing models. Current protocols for adipogenesis induction in stromal vascular fraction-derived preadipocytes require extended culturing periods and have low adipogenic rates. We compared the adipogenic efficiency of a 7-d co-culture model of visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SC) stromal vascular fraction-derived preadipocytes with mature adipocytes with a 14-d standard adipocyte differentiation protocol. We obtained preadipocytes and mature adipocytes from SC and VIS adipose tissue of nonlactating, nongestating Holstein cows (n = 6). Adipogenesis induction was performed using a standard protocol for 7 (SD7; control) or 14 d (SD14), and a co-culture model for 7 d (CC7). Culture conditions, including medium composition, were the same for all treatments. For CC7, 900 primary adipocytes/cm2 were placed in 0.4-μm transwell inserts and co-cultured with preadipocytes for adipogenesis induction. Both CC7 and SD14 similarly stimulated gene expression of adipogenic genes such as ADIPOQ, CEBPA, and CEBPB in VIS and SC. The CC7 increased triacylglycerol accumulation compared with SD14 and SD7. CC7 augmented triacylglycerol accumulation by 40- and 16-fold in SC and VIS compared with 22- and 4-fold increment in SD14, respectively. Lipolytic responses to 2-h β-adrenergic stimulation with 1 µM isoproterenol were higher in CC7 and SD14 than SD7 in SC; CC7 increased glycerol release compared with SD7 in VIS but SD7 and SD14 had similar responses. Overall, CC7 was more efficient in inducing adipogenesis in preadipocytes from VIS and SC than SD14. Furthermore, CC7 stimulated similar lipolysis and lipogenic responses than SD14 but in a shorter time. The adipogenic approach of co-culturing preadipocytes with mature adipocytes will improve the use of reductionist models to study adipocyte physiology in dairy cows and the assessment of pharmacological or nutritional interventions for enhancing dairy cow health and production.
16 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699295
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): T.C. Bruinjé, D.J. Ambrose
ABSTRACT

The in-line milk analysis system (IMAS) is an automated biosensor technology that samples and quantifies milk progesterone concentrations (P4c) at frequent intervals starting early postpartum until pregnancy. The objective was to validate the use of pregnancy notifications (PregN) generated by an IMAS based on P4c profiles after artificial insemination (AI) to determine pregnancy and nonpregnancy status in dairy cows. Records of 1,821 AI events from 715 Holstein cows that had milk P4c (ng/mL) measured every 2.2 ± 1.9 d (mean ± standard deviation) between 24.5 ± 8.2 and 173.4 ± 49.3 d in milk through a real-time IMAS (Herd Navigator, DeLaval International, Tumba, Sweden) were evaluated. Based on variations in adjusted milk P4c (< vs. ≥ the 5.0 ng/mL threshold), the system determined the sampling frequency, onset and cessation of luteal phases, and pregnancy. If a luteal phase initiated (P4c increased to ≥5.0 ng/mL) after AI and remained uninterrupted, a PregN was generated starting at (mean ± standard deviation) 31.0 ± 4.3 d until 53.4 ± 7.9 d after AI, when sampling stopped, unless a decline in P4c (to <5.0 ng/mL) occurred indicating nonpregnancy and imminent estrus. The assessment of IMAS PregN at 4 weekly intervals was tested, and a confirmed calving occurrence between 262 and 296 d after AI, with no other subsequent AI recorded, was the gold standard for pregnancy. In total, 14.1 (256/1,821), 41.0 (746/1,821), and 50.7% (924/1,821) of AI events were followed by a decline in P4c before 19, 23, and 30 d after AI, respectively. Frequency of the last 3 sampling events preceding P4c decline was greater if P4c decline occurred between 18 and 25 d after AI (1.4 ± 0.5 samples per day) compared with before 17 or beyond 26 d after AI (1.0 ± 0.5 samples per day). At 30 ± 3 (27 to 33) d after AI, PregN occurred in 46.8% (853/1,821) of AI events, of which 15.2% (130/853) had a decline in P4c between 30 and 55 d after AI and 17.1% (146/853) was later confirmed nonpregnant based on the gold standard. A total of 40.7% (742/1,821) of AI events was confirmed pregnant by the gold standard, which was no different than the proportion of PregN at 51 ± 3 (48 to 54) d (40.9%; 744/1,821). At any time point between 27 and 54 d after AI, sensitivity and negative predictive values for PregN were greater than 95.0 and 96.0%, respectively, whereas specificity values were less than 90.0% for PregN before 40 d but greater than 94.0% for PregN beyond 41 d after AI. In conclusion, IMAS is able to diagnose pregnancy based on P4c profiles with high precision and determine early nonpregnancy based on the spontaneous cessation of the luteal phase. However, for accuracy greater than 95.0%, pregnancy declaration based on IMAS notifications alone should occur no earlier than 41 d after AI.
17 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699296
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): L. Antonio González-Grajales, Laura Pieper, Stefan Görner, Philipp Görner, Rudolf Staufenbiel
ABSTRACT

Few studies have compared individual variability of an intravenous glucose tolerance test (ivGTT) obtained daily in young cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of glucose traits and insulin responses derived from ivGTT during 3 consecutive days in Holstein-Friesian cattle (bulls: n = 4, steers: n = 3, heifers: n = 3). Blood collections were performed from min 0 (basal concentrations) to min 63 (last measurement). Additional estimates included maximal concentration for glucose and insulin, glucose half-life time (GHLT), and glucose and insulin area under the curve. Glucose traits showed higher repeatability when compared with insulin responses. On average, the glucose trait and insulin response with the lowest coefficient of variation was GHLT (0.7%) and insulin area under the curve (21.3%), respectively. In addition, a general linear model with repeated measures was used to test for significant differences in glucose and insulin concentrations over time at different trial days. Both glucose and insulin concentrations were influenced by time point but not by trial day or time point × trial day. The results from this study showed that individual insulin responses were more variable than glucose traits. The high repeatability of GHLT evidenced the strict regulatory glucose disposal mechanisms occurring in young Holstein-Friesian cattle, whereas insulin responses showed high variability despite controlled management and nutritional practices.
18 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699297
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): A.M.L. Madureira, L.B. Polsky, T.A. Burnett, B.F. Silper, S. Soriano, A.F. Sica, K.G. Pohler, J.L.M. Vasconcelos, R.L.A. Cerri
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to examine the association between increased physical activity at the moment of timed artificial insemination (AI), detected by an automated activity monitor (AAM), and fertility outcomes. This paper also investigated factors affecting estrous expression in general. A total of 1,411 AI events from 1,040 lactating Holstein cows were recorded, averaging 1.3 ± 0.6 (±standard deviation) events per cow. Activity (measured as steps/h) was monitored continuously by a leg-mounted AAM located on the rear leg of the cow. Ovulation was synchronized by a timed AI protocol based on estradiol and progesterone. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed in all cows on d −11 (AI = d 0) and in a subset of cows on d 0 (n = 588) and d 7 (n = 819) to determine the presence of a corpus luteum and follicles. The body condition score (1 to 5 scale) was assessed on d 0 and a blood sample was collected for progesterone measurement on d 7. Using the AAM, an estrus event was determined when the relative increase (RI) in physical activity of the cow exceeded 100% of the baseline activity. The physical activity was classified as strong RI (≥300% RI), moderate RI (100–300% RI), or no estrus (<100% RI). Milk production was measured daily and averaged between d −11 and 0. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 32 and 60 d post-AI and pregnancy losses were calculated. The mean RI at estrus was 328.3 ± 132.1%. Cows with strong RI had greater pregnancy per AI than those with moderate RI and those that did not express estrus (35.1 vs. 27.3 vs. 6.2%). When including only cows that successfully ovulated after timed AI, those that displayed strong intensity RI still had greater pregnancy per AI than those with moderate intensity RI or those that did not express estrus (45.1 vs. 34.8 vs. 6.2%). Cows expressing strong RI at timed AI had greater ovulation rates compared with moderate RI and cows that did not express estrus (94.9 vs. 88.2 vs. 49.5%). Furthermore, pregnancy losses were reduced in cows with strong RI compared with cows expressing moderate RI (13.9 vs. 21.7%). Cows with a strong RI at estrus were more likely to have a corpus luteum at the beginning of the protocol and had greater concentration of progesterone 7 d post-AI. Multiparous cows expressed lower RI compared with primiparous cows. Cows with lower body condition score tended to have decreased RI at estrus. No correlation between estrous expression and pre-ovulatory follicle diameter was observed. Also, no correlation was observed between milk production at AI and RI. In conclusion, strong intensity RI of estrus events at timed AI was associated with improved ovulation rates and pregnancy per AI, and reduced pregnancy losses. These results provide further evidence that measurements of estrous expression can be used to predict fertility at the time of AI and possibly be used as a tool to assist decision making strategies of reproduction programs.
19 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699298
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): E.A. Horst, S.K. Kvidera, M.J. Dickson, C.S. McCarthy, E.J. Mayorga, M. Al-Qaisi, H.A. Ramirez, A.F. Keating, L.H. Baumgard
ABSTRACT

Experimental objectives of this study were to characterize the systemic and intracellular metabolic response to continuous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion in mid-lactation Holstein cows (169 ± 20 d in milk; 681 ± 16 kg of body weight). Following 3 d of acclimation, cows were enrolled in 2 experimental periods (P). During P1 (3 d), cows were fed ad libitum and baseline data were collected. In P2 (8 d), cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) saline-infused and pair-fed (CON-PF; i.v. sterile saline at 40 mL/h; n = 5) or (2) LPS-infused and fed ad libitum (LPS-AL; Escherichia coli O55:B5 at 0.017, 0.020, 0.026, 0.036, 0.055, 0.088, 0.148, and 0.148 µg/kg of body weight per hour for d 1 through 8, respectively; n = 6). During P2, CON-PF cows were pair-fed to LPS-AL cows to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar nutrient intake. Blood samples were collected on d 1 and 2 of P1 and d 1, 3, 5, and 7 of P2. Following the P2 d 7 a.m. milking, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver biopsies were collected for reverse transcription quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. To assess whole-body nutrient trafficking, an i.v. glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed following the a.m. milking on P2 d 8; 4 h after the GTT, cows received an epinephrine challenge. During P2, there were no treatment differences in circulating glucose. Relative to P1, CON-PF cows had or tended to have decreased plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and insulin (29 and 47%, respectively) during P2, whereas neither variable changed in LPS-AL cows, leading to an overall increase in β-hydroxybutyrate and insulin (41 and 140%, respectively) relative to CON-PF cows. Circulating nonesterified fatty acids were increased from d 1 to 3 and subsequently decreased from d 3 to 7 in cows from both treatments. Blood urea nitrogen gradually decreased in CON-PF cows and increased in LPS-AL cows from d 1 to 5 of P2, resulting in an overall 25% increase in LPS-AL versus CON-PF cows. In response to the GTT, the glucose and insulin area under the curve were increased 33 and 56%, respectively, in LPS-AL compared with CON-PF cows; changes reflective of whole-body insulin resistance. However, protein abundance of insulin signaling markers within muscle, liver, and adipose tissue were similar between treatments. There were no observable treatment differences in the glucose or nonesterified fatty acids response to the epinephrine challenge. No treatment differences were observed in hepatic mRNA abundance of key gluconeogenic or lipid export enzymes. In conclusion, chronic LPS exposure altered multiple parameters of basal and stimulated metabolism, but did not appear to affect the molecular machinery evaluated herein.
20 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699299
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): M.J. Dickson, S.K. Kvidera, E.A. Horst, C.E. Wiley, E.J. Mayorga, J. Ydstie, G.A. Perry, L.H. Baumgard, A.F. Keating
ABSTRACT

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration causes immunoactivation, which negatively affects production and fertility, but experimental exposure via an acute bolus is unlikely to resemble natural infections. Thus, the objectives were to characterize effects of chronic endotoxemia on production parameters and follicular development in estrous-synchronized lactating cows. Eleven Holstein cows (169 ± 20 d in milk; 681 ± 16 kg of body weight) were acclimated to their environmental surroundings for 3 d and then enrolled in 2 experimental periods (P). During P1 (3 d) cows consumed feed ad libitum and baseline samples were obtained. During P2 (7 d), cows were assigned to continuous infusion of either (1) saline-infused and pair-fed (CON-PF; 40 mL/h of saline i.v.; n = 5) or (2) LPS infused and ad libitum fed (LPS-AL; Escherichia coli O55:B5; 0.017, 0.020, 0.026, 0.036, 0.055, 0.088, and 0.148 μg/kg of body weight/h i.v. on d 1 to 7, respectively; n = 6). Controls were pair-fed to the LPS-AL group to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar nutrient intake. Infusing LPS temporally caused mild hyperthermia on d 1 to 3 (+0.49°C) relative to baseline. Dry matter intake of LPS-AL cows decreased (28%) on d 1 of P2, then progressively returned to baseline. Relative to baseline, milk yield from LPS-AL cows was decreased on d 1 of P2 (12%). No treatment differences were observed in milk yield during P2. Follicular growth, dominant follicle size, serum progesterone (P4), and follicular P4 and 17β-estradiol concentrations were similar between treatments. Serum 17β-estradiol tended to increase (115%) and serum amyloid A and LPS-binding protein were increased (118 and 40%, respectively) in LPS-AL relative to CON-PF cows. Compared with CON-PF, neutrophils in LPS-AL cows were initially increased (45%), then gradually decreased. In contrast, monocytes were initially decreased (40%) and progressively increased with time in the LPS-AL cows. Hepatic mRNA abundance of cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C (CYP2C) or CYP3A was not affected by LPS, nor was there a treatment effect on toll-like receptor 4 or LBP; however, acyloxyacyl hydrolase and RELA subunit of nuclear factor kappa B tended to be increased in LPS-AL cows. These data suggest lactating dairy cows become tolerant to chronic and exponentially increasing LPS infusion in terms of production and reproductive parameters.
21 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699300
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): L.A. Webb, H. Sadri, D. von Soosten, S. Dänicke, S. Egert, P. Stehle, H. Sauerwein
ABSTRACT

Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain α-keto acids. This reaction is considered as the rate-limiting step in the overall branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway in mammals. For characterizing the potential enzymatic involvement of liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue (AT), and mammary gland (MG) in BCAA metabolism during early lactation, tissue and blood samples were examined on d 1, 42, and 105 after parturition from 25 primiparous Holstein cows. Serum BCAA profiles were analyzed and the mRNA and protein abundance as well as the activity in the different tissues were assessed for the BCAA catabolic enzymes, partly for the branched-chain aminotransferase and completely for BCKDH. Total BCAA concentration in serum was lowest on d 1 after parturition and increased thereafter to a steady level for the duration of the experiment. Pronounced differences between the tissues were observed at all molecular levels. The mRNA abundance of the mitochondrial isoform of branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) was greatest in AT as compared with the other tissues studied, indicating that AT might be an important contributor in the initiation of BCAA catabolism in dairy cows. From the different subunits of the BCKDH E1 component, only the mRNA for the β polypeptide (BCKDHB), not for the α polypeptide (BCKDHA), was elevated in liver. The BCKDHA mRNA abundance was similar across all tissues except muscle, which tended to lower values. Highest BCKDHA protein abundance was observed in both liver and MG, whereas BCKDHB protein was detectable in these tissues but could not be quantified. Adipose tissue and muscle only displayed abundance of the α subunit, with muscle having the lowest BCKDHA protein of all tissues. We found similarities in protein abundance for both BCKDH E1 subunits in liver and MG; however, the corresponding overall BCKDH enzyme activity was 7-fold greater in liver compared with MG, allowing for hepatic oxidation of BCAA transamination products. Reduced BCKDH activity in MG associated with no measurable activity in AT and muscle may favor sparing of BCAA for the synthesis of the different milk components, including nonessential AA. Deviating from previously published data on BCAA net fluxes and isotopic tracer studies in ruminants, our observed results might in part be due to complex counter-regulatory mechanisms during early lactation.
22 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699301
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): H.F. Xu, J. Luo, X.Y. Zhang, J. Li, M. Bionaz
ABSTRACT

In bovine mammary tissue and cells, liver X receptor (LXR) regulates lipid synthesis mainly via transactivation of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). In the present work, we investigated the role of LXR in controlling lipid synthesis via transactivation of SREBP1 in goat primary mammary cells (GMEC). The GMEC were treated with a synthetic agonist of LXR, T0901317, and transactivation and transcription of SREBP1, expression of lipogenic genes, and fatty acid profiling and triacylglycerol (TAG) content of the cells were measured. A mild increase in the mRNA expression level of LXRα (NR1H3) was observed following treatment with different concentrations of T0901317, and a dose-dependent increase in mRNA and transactivation of SREBP1 was detected. Activation of LXR resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA expression of most of the measured genes related to de novo synthesis, desaturation, and transport of fatty acids; TAG synthesis; and transcription regulators. Compared with the control, total content of cellular TAG increased by more than 20% with T0901317 treatment. Furthermore, addition of T0901317 increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., C16:1, C18:1, C20:1, and C22:1), and decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (e.g., C16:0, C18:0, C20:0, and C22:0). These results provide evidence that LXR regulates the expression and activity of SREBP1. Our results indicated that LXR participate in regulating the transcription of genes involved in milk fat synthesis in GMEC in an SREBP1-dependent fashion.
23 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699302
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): A.C.C. Fernandes, S. Davoodi, M. Kaur, D. Veira, L.E.H. Melo, R.L.A. Cerri
ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusions in nonlactating heifers on (1) the systemic proinflammatory state as measured by biomarkers in blood and plasma, and (2) endometrial gene expression of candidate transcripts on d 15 of gestation. Our hypothesis was that target transcripts related to a major functional group would be negatively modified in the preimplantation endometrium by the LPS treatments. In the first experiment (n = 13), a systemic proinflammatory state [defined as increased plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and haptoglobin for 2 wk] was established using 2 different sequential LPS infusion protocols. In the second experiment, heifers (n = 22; 11 mo of age) had their time of ovulation synchronized by a modified Ovsynch protocol and were enrolled in 1 of 2 treatments: control (CON; n = 11), which received sterile saline solution i.v., and LPS treatment (LPS; n = 11), submitted to repeated i.v. LPS injections (0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 µg/kg) starting 2 d after artificial insemination (AI; d 0) and then every other day until d 15 after AI. At each LPS injection, rectal temperatures were measured hourly for 6 h. Blood samples were collected from d −1 to d 13 for analyses of progesterone, TNF-α, and haptoglobin in plasma, along with white blood cell (WBC) count and differential analysis. On d 15, endometrium tissue biopsies were taken and kept at −80°C until quantitative real-time PCR analysis of 30 target transcripts related to the immune system, adhesion molecules, and endometrium receptivity. Data were checked for normality and analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA using PROC UNIVARIATE and PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). After each LPS injection, temperature was greater in the first 4 h in the LPS group compared with CON. Both TNF-α and haptoglobin increased in the LPS treatment with a significant treatment by day interaction. Total leukocyte count did not differ between treatments, but the differential count increased for neutrophils, band cells, and monocytes, and decreased for lymphocytes and eosinophils in LPS compared with CON. Progesterone concentrations in plasma did not differ between treatments during the experimental period. Out of 30 target genes analyzed, 3 transcripts were differentially expressed: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO; fold-change = 0.48) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3; fold-change = 0.38) were downregulated, whereas myxovirus-resistance protein (MX1; fold-change = 2.85) was upregulated in the LPS group. Sequential LPS injections were able to induce a prolonged systemic proinflammatory state, but effects on gene expression were limited to transcripts associated with the immune system. These results suggest that a mechanism for subfertility is linked to a proinflammatory state in dairy heifers.
24 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699303
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): J.M. Siewert, J.A. Salfer, M.I. Endres
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate milk yield and frequency of visits to the milking station of primiparous versus multiparous cows at different stages of lactation on farms with automatic milking systems (AMS) in the Upper Midwest United States. Forty farms were included in the study, and daily AMS software data were collected for 18 mo. For the investigation of milk yield and milking visits, stage of lactation was categorized into 14 periods, 7 d in length for the first 28 d in milk (DIM) and 30 d in length thereafter until 328 DIM. Cow traffic flow to the AMS (free or guided) was included in the model. For the evaluation of failures and refusals, stage of lactation was categorized into 6 periods, 7 d in length each for the first 28 DIM, and 2 periods of 150 d in length each thereafter until 328 DIM. Failures are milking station visits where a cow fails to be milked due to lack of machine attachment although it is time for the cow to be milked. Refusals are milking station visits before adequate time has passed since previous milking, thus the cow leaves the milking station without being milked. Data from lactation days beyond 328 DIM were excluded from the study. Primiparous cows in free-flow systems produced less milk than multiparous cows until the 11th stage of lactation and produced more milk from the 12th stage until the end of the study period. Primiparous cows in guided-flow systems produced less milk than multiparous cows all 14 stages of lactation, but were approaching the milk yield of multiparous cows at the end of the study period. This was a biologically normal lactation curve for primiparous cows. However, estimated peak ratio (primiparous vs. multiparous cows' peak milk yield) was lower than industry standards. Both traffic flow systems had fewer milking visits for primiparous cows compared with multiparous cows in early lactation. This lower milking frequency persisted until the 11th stage of lactation in free-flow systems. In guided-flow systems, primiparous cows were milked less frequently until the 5th stage of lactation, had similar milking frequency in the 6th stage of lactation, and were milked more frequently thereafter. Failures were greater for primiparous cows during all stages of lactation. However, the greatest differences were detected in the early stages of lactation. Primiparous cows had 0.067 more failures/cow per day on average than multiparous cows during wk 1 of lactation. For the remaining lactation stages, differences in failures ranged from 0.003 to 0.039. Refusals were less frequent (0.4 to 0.6/d) for primiparous cows during the first 2 wk of lactation, similar for wk 3 of lactation, and more frequent for the remaining lactation stages (0.10 to 0.14/d). Failures and refusals were only evaluated in free-flow systems. These findings appear to indicate a potential lagging performance for primiparous cows in early lactation as compared with multiparous cows. Additional investigation into improving the adaptation of primiparous cows to AMS in early lactation may be warranted.
25 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699304
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): W.M. Sischo, D.A. Moore, R. Pereira, L. Warnick, D.L. Moore, J. Vanegas, S. Kurtz, K. Heaton, D. Kinder, J. Siler, M.A. Davis
ABSTRACT

As dairy herd sizes become larger and the organization of the business more complex, targeting communication and education to enhance animal care becomes more difficult. The purpose of this study was to describe selected demographics of calf care employees on large (>500 animals) and small (<501 animals) dairy farms that raise their own calves. Two to 8 individuals per farm involved with calf care, including owners, veterinarians, and calf managers, feeders, and treaters, were interviewed in either English or Spanish. Interviews were conducted in person on 53 dairy farms located in Arizona, Idaho, New York, Oregon, and Washington State. The number of preweaned calves on the farm ranged from 9 to 1,500 (median = 93). A total of 224 individuals were interviewed across 8 job titles. As farm size increased, personnel structure became more complex. Farms with>100 preweaned calves were 15 times more likely to have a calf manager title compared with farms with ≤100 preweaned calves. Eight farms designated the same person as calf manager, treater, and feeder, all with ≤100 preweaned calves. Thirty-two (60%) of the farms had at least 1 full-time calf feeder. Almost 30% of owners and over 40% of veterinarians interviewed were over 50 yr of age, whereas over 40% of the calf managers, feeders, and treaters were under 30 yr of age. Seventy-three percent of feeders and 72% of treaters spoke Spanish at home. For languages in which interviewees were comfortable speaking, more than 30% of owners and 33% of veterinarians were comfortable communicating in Spanish. For calf care employees, 60% of calf managers, 42% of feeders, and 38% of treaters were bilingual (English and Spanish), but most (72%) preferred to be interviewed in Spanish. The level of education varied by job title for those interviewed, but most of the calf care team had high school or less education. However, some diversity was observed in educational background within job title with almost 38% of the calf managers having at least some college education. The majority of feeders (88%) and treaters (83%) reported being trained by another employee and 66 and 58%, respectively, had not received any continuing education in the previous year. With the amount of diversity seen on these farms, understanding employees' educational backgrounds, language, and generational differences may be valuable when developing training for new procedures for animal health or other aspects of animal care.
26 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699305
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Paige V. McDonald, Marina A.G. von Keyserlingk, Daniel M. Weary
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine whether data from an electronic drinking system that tracks individual animal attendance with ear tag transponders could be used to detect social competition between dairy cows at the drinker. Specifically, we sought to identify the interval between one cow leaving the drinker and another cow taking her place that most accurately identified competitive replacements (when physical contact initiated by one cow causes the other to entirely remove her head from the drinker and the initiator subsequently places her head in the same drinker). The optimal interval to accurately identify replacements at the drinker was determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve and by evaluating the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), and confusion matrix values (true positives, true negatives, false positives, false negatives) of different thresholds identified by 3 metrics: the Youden index, the point closest to (0,1) on the curve, and the point where Se roughly equals Sp. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 20) were monitored for 4 consecutive 24-h periods by video recording and with an electronic drinking system. Two periods were used to identify the optimal interval (the baseline set), and the other 2 periods were used to validate the interval (the validation set). The occurrence of a replacement identified by video was paired with the interval between drinking events of 2 cows at the same electronic drinker to identify the interval that best predicted replacement events. Based on the low prevalence of replacement events compared with nonreplacement events, the interval with the lowest number of false positives was considered optimal. Of the 3 potential metrics, the point on the receiver operating characteristic curve where Se and Sp were roughly equal yielded the fewest false positives. The optimal interval to identify replacements at the drinker was ≤29 s, with 82% Se and 83% Sp in the baseline set. This interval was found to have 85% Se and 89% Sp when applied to the validation set. These results indicate that social competition between dairy cows at the drinker can be accurately measured with an electronic drinking system.
27 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699306
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): L.N. Grinter, M.R. Campler, J.H.C. Costa
ABSTRACT

Precision dairy technology is important because of the possibility to continuously and accurately measure behavior, biometrics, and productivity on commercial and research dairy farms by an automated method with minimal human intervention. The behavior-monitoring collar (BMC) used in this study is a commercially available precision dairy technology (MooMonitor+, Dairymaster, Co. Kerry, Ireland), designed to measure rumination, heat detection, feeding, and resting behavior of dairy cows. The study objective was to compare cow behavior measured by the BMC with visual observations. Twenty-four lactating, group-housed, Holstein dairy cows (mean ± standard deviation; days in milk: 196 ± 101; parity: 2.0 ± 1.1; milk yield: 40.0 ± 9.8 kg/d) were randomly selected for observation at the University of Kentucky's research dairy farm, Lexington). Behavior-monitoring collars were assigned to cows as per farm protocol. Each cow was observed for 240 min within 1 d (0700 to 0900 h, and 1900 to 2100 h). Recordings of rumination, feeding, and resting time (min) by the BMC were compared with visual observation using Pearson correlation, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots for validation of precision and accuracy. Data from the BMC were considered precise if the correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination were high (>0.70), and mean bias from the Bland-Altman plots included zero with the 95% interval of agreement. The BMC was considered accurate if the slope from the linear regressions did not differ significantly from 1, and the CCC (ρc) were at least moderate (>0.90). We found very high Pearson correlation coefficients (0.99, 0.93, and 0.94) and coefficients of determination (0.97, 0.85, and 0.88) for rumination, feeding, and resting, respectively. Bland-Altman plots were acceptable; the plots did not show any bias. The Bland-Altman mean differences ± standard deviation (BMC – observation) were −7.57 ± 6.31, 15.81 ± 11.84, and −13.03 ± 9.37 min, respectively. The Bland-Altman plot's 95% interval of agreement encompassed 100% of the observations of resting time, and all but one cow's observations for both rumination and feeding time. The slope of the linear regression, however, was different than 1 for all behaviors, and rumination was the only behavior with moderate CCC. In summary, this study validates the high precision of rumination, resting, and feeding behaviors measured by a BMC in lactating dairy cows.
28 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699307
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Doron Bar, Moshe Kaim, Israel Flamenbaum, Boaz Hanochi, Rachel L. Toaff-Rosenstein
ABSTRACT

Monitoring thermal status using a reliable, practical method is essential for proper cattle management during periods of high heat load. Our objective was to determine whether accelerometer-based tags, which measure heavy breathing and other behaviors on a minute-by-minute basis, accurately reflect thermal status. We hypothesized that the tags would mirror core body temperature as recorded by continuous intravaginal loggers, and that response to a cooling intervention would also be captured. Data were collected during a 3-d period from 10 late dry and 20 high-producing cows at peak lactation, each fitted with an intravaginal temperature logger and tag attached to a collar. The relationship between vaginal temperature and proportion of cows recorded as breathing heavily averaged over the three 24-h periods was described separately for each group, and during a 1-h block capturing 2 intensive cooling sessions in lactating cows. Finally, the log of the odds of a cow breathing heavily in each minute relative to vaginal temperature in cows before cooling was analyzed using a linear mixed model. The proportion of cows breathing heavily in a group mirrors changes in vaginal temperature in both dry and lactating cows. In contrast to the dry cows, lactating cows suffered from excessive heat load to a much greater degree. Cooling intensively with showers and fans effectively mitigates the effects of excessive heat load, as reflected by response in vaginal temperature and proportion of cows breathing heavily. The probability of heavy breathing increases by approximately 10% for each 0.5°C rise in vaginal temperature above 39.0°C. In conclusion, accelerometer-based technology that automatically records heavy breathing provides a practical means of continuously assessing heat load status of dairy cows, whether lactating or dry, and their response to cooling intervention. This has the potential to optimize both cow and resource management during periods of high heat load.
29 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699308
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Kevin J. Cummings, Lorraine D. Rodriguez-Rivera, Michael B. Capel, Shelley C. Rankin, Daryl V. Nydam
ABSTRACT

Our objectives were to evaluate the clinical efficacy of oral and intranasal administration of a commercial modified-live Salmonella Dublin vaccine in dairy calves and to determine the serologic response associated with these extralabel routes of administration. We conducted a randomized field trial with calves from a New York dairy farm following an outbreak of Salmonella Dublin. A total of 399 Holstein calves were allocated by pen to 3 treatment groups: oral vaccination, intranasal vaccination, and an unvaccinated control group. Administration of the vaccine through oral and intranasal routes did not have a significant effect on pneumonia incidence risk or weight gain; however, calves vaccinated orally and intranasally had lower mortality risk as compared with control calves. Among calves tested using a Salmonella Dublin ELISA, vaccination did not induce an increase in antibody production relative to control calves, indicating that oral and intranasal administration will not hinder diagnosis based on this assay.
30 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699309
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Y. Yang, S. Chu, S. Shang, Z. Yang, C. Wang
ABSTRACT

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic leucosis in cattle and is classified into 10 genotypes with a worldwide distribution, except for several European countries, Australia, and New Zealand. Although BLV is widespread in Chinese cows with the positive rate of 49.1% at the individual level, very little is known about the BLV genotype in dairy cattle in China. To determine BLV genetic variability in cows in China, 112 BLV-positive samples from 5 cities in China were used for BLV molecular characterization in this study. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method on partial env sequence encoding gp51 obtained from 5 Chinese cities and those available in GenBank (n = 53, representing BLV genotype 1–10) revealed the Chinese strains belonged to genotype 6. Seven unique SNP were identified among Yancheng, Shanghai, and Bengbu strains out of the total 12 SNP identified in Chinese strains. The genotyping coupled with SNP analysis of BLV can serve as a useful molecular epidemiological tool for tracing the source of pathogens. This study highlights the importance of genetic analysis of geographically diverse BLV strains to understand BLV global genetic diversity.
31 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699310
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): B.A. Aylward, M.L. Clark, D.S. Galileo, A.M. Baernard, J.R. Wilson, E. Brannick, T. Gressley, M.E. Fecteau, W.C. Davis, R.M. Dyer
ABSTRACT

Inconsistent evidence of inflammatory immune cell infiltrates in adipose tissues with extensive triglyceride mobilization raises the possibility that regulatory or anti-inflammatory immune cell populations reside within the mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). These resident immune cell populations may be involved in attenuating the inflammatory response. We explored the immune cell population of MAT and MLN collected from lean, lactating Holstein cows without apparent disease in an abattoir (n = 42). Lean cows had a body condition score of 2.6 ± 0.1 (mean ± SD) with a greater frequency of adipocyte area occurring in small rather than large adipocytes. Cells were labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific to bovine leukocyte antigens for enumeration by flow cytometry. Within both lymph node and adipose tissues, relatively large subpopulations of cells expressed the β2 integrins CD11b and CD11c, class II major histocompatibility antigens (MHCII), and the SIIRP-1α receptor (CD172a) typical of dendritic cells and macrophages. Macrophage/dendritic cell heterogeneity was marked by β2 integrin expression alone or in conjunction with CD172a or MHCII across subpopulations from both tissues; CD209, the DC-SIGN c-type lectin receptor of dendritic cells, was not detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting in either tissue. Lymphocytes comprised 74.1 ± 3.7% and 13.7 ± 3.7% of the MLN and MAT cell populations, respectively, and CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes accounted for 49.8 ± 9.9% of the MLN and 6.13 ± 1.23% of the MAT cells. Fox P3+ regulatory lymphocytes comprised 15.3 ± 1.1% and 6.73 ± 0.52% of the MLN and MAT cells, whereas γδ+ lymphocytes accounted for 6.65 ± 0.74% and 3.91 ± 0.43% of the MLN and MAT cells, respectively. Subpopulations of CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and CD3+CD11c+ innate lymphocytes were present in MLN but not MAT. These results show that subpopulations of resident tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, T helper lymphocytes, regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), and γδ lymphocytes reside in mesenteric lymph nodes and adipose tissues. Balance in the innate and adaptive immune functions embedded in these tissues could support metabolic health.
32 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699311
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): K.N. Galvão, C.H. Higgins, M. Zinicola, S.J. Jeon, H. Korzec, R.C. Bicalho
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pegbovigrastim (PEG) treatment of peripartum Holstein cows on the microbiome found in the vagina postpartum using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A subset of cows was randomly sampled from a larger study where cows had been randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: pegbovigrastim (PEG) or untreated control (CTR). The PEG-treated cows received a subcutaneous injection containing 15 mg of pegbovigrastim 7 d before expected calving and a second injection within 24 h of calving. Vaginal samples from 97 PEG-treated and 98 CTR cows were collected at calving, 7 ± 3, and 35 ± 3 d in milk (0, 7, and 35 DIM). Metritis was diagnosed at 7 ± 3 DIM and purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) at 35 ± 3 DIM. The PEG treatment did not alter the vaginal microbiome. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed that metritic cows had a dissimilar vaginal microbiome compared with cows that did not develop metritis, particularly at 7 but also at 35 DIM. This difference was characterized by higher relative abundance of Porphyromonas and Bacteroides and a lower relative abundance of Ureaplasma, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiales at 7 DIM, and a higher relative abundance of Ureaplasma and a lower relative abundance of Pasteurellaceae at 35 DIM. Based on PCoA, we observed that cows that developed PVD had a dissimilar vaginal microbiome compared with cows that did not develop PVD, particularly at 35 DIM but also at 7 DIM. This difference was characterized by a higher relative abundance of Bacteroides at 7 DIM and higher relative abundance of Fusobacterium and Bacteroides at 35 DIM. Cows that developed metritis and PVD also had higher relative abundance of Fusobacterium and Bacteroides at 0 DIM. Furthermore, the Chao1 and Shannon indices were decreased in metritic cows at 7 DIM and in PVD cows at 7 and 35 DIM. In summary, PEG treatment had no effect on the vaginal microbiome, and uterine disease was associated with major changes in the microbiome found in the vagina postpartum.
33 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699312
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Reyna E. Jimenez, Sarah J.J. Adcock, Cassandra B. Tucker
ABSTRACT

Dairy calves are routinely administered medicines, vaccines, and anesthesia via injection. Although injections are painful, little is known about methods to alleviate this pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether lidocaine–prilocaine cream, a topical anesthetic, reduced calves' pain response to a subcutaneous injection around the cornual nerve. Calves were assigned 1 of 2 treatments: lidocaine–prilocaine cream at the sites of injection (n = 10) or no cream (n = 9). Thirty minutes after treatment, calves received a subcutaneous injection of 2% buffered lidocaine hydrochloride around the left and right cornual nerves. Contrary to our hypothesis, calves that received anesthetic cream beforehand displayed more escape behaviors during the injections than control calves. Both treatments had similarly low amounts of head-related behaviors afterward. Maximum eye temperature did not differ between the calves that received anesthetic cream and control calves, although eye temperature increased over time for both treatments. Heart rate increased during the 30 s following the first injection in both treatments. There were no treatment differences for any heart rate measures over the 5-min period after the first injection (mean heart rate, root mean square of successive differences, high-frequency power, and the ratio of low-frequency power to high-frequency power). These results suggest that cornual nerve blocks with buffered lidocaine are painful and that a lidocaine–prilocaine cream was not only ineffective in reducing this pain but that it may also worsen it.
34 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699313
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): K.C. Horvath, E.K. Miller-Cushon
ABSTRACT

Group housing allows for dairy calves to perform social grooming behavior; however, the use of mechanical brushes may influence how calves groom themselves and others. Our objectives were, first, to characterize the bout characteristics of brush use, self-grooming, and allogrooming in calves and, second, to evaluate the effects of access to a rotating brush on grooming behavior. Holstein heifer and bull calves (n = 32) were group-housed (4 calves/group) at 2 wk of life (17 ± 3 d of age; mean ± standard deviation) and followed to wk 7 of life. Pens were assigned to receive either a rotating brush (BR; n = 4 pens) or no brush (CON; n = 4 pens). Behavior was recorded continuously for 12 h for 2 focal calves/pen on 2 d during wk 4, 6, and 7 of life. We performed a bout analysis by fitting a mixture of normal distributions to the log10-transformed frequency distribution of the intervals between recorded periods of behavior. We calculated bout criteria for brush use (125.9 s), allogrooming (125.9 s), and self-grooming (a mixture of 3 normal distributions provided the best fit for these data, providing 2 bout criteria: a shorter (micro) bout criterion of 50.1 s and a longer (macro) criterion of 1,000 s). Brush use was consistent across weeks, and calves used the brush for 20.5 ± 6.1 min/12 h observation period, in 31.1 ± 1.7 bouts (mean ± SE). The frequency and duration of allogrooming bouts did not differ between treatments and across time. The BR calves tended to self-groom more than CON calves (16.3 vs. 14.3 min/12 h; BR vs. CON; SE = 0.68), and time spent self-grooming decreased across weeks. The frequency and duration of self-grooming micro bouts did not differ between treatments, but BR calves had shorter, more frequent self-grooming macro bouts (10.58 vs. 9.46 bouts; BR vs. CON; SE = 0.24). In summary, we determined that bout criteria could be fitted to grooming behaviors, which may be useful when characterizing these behaviors in future work, and that providing access to a rotating brush influenced self-grooming behavior in group-housed calves.
35 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699314
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): D.S. Beggs, E.C. Jongman, P.H. Hemsworth, A.D. Fisher
ABSTRACT

Animal welfare assessments were conducted on 50 Australian pasture-based dairy farms of varying herd sizes: 16 small (<300 cows), 15 medium-sized (300–500 cows), 11 large (501–750 cows), and 10 very large (751+ cows). A protocol based on elements of Welfare Quality adapted for Australian conditions was developed to assess the broad categories of good feeding, housing, health, and appropriate behavior. Farm records, body condition scores, integument injuries, fecal plaques, avoidance distance of humans, and fecal pat scoring for acidosis assessment were undertaken. The mean maximum kilograms of grain fed per day significantly increased with herd size, from 5.2 ± 0.38 (small), 7.7 ± 0.29 (medium-sized), 8.8 ± 0.45 (large), to 10.1 ± 0.80 kg (very large). Acidosis was not related to herd size based on either farm records or fecal pat scoring. All cows had access to water for more than 12 h in a 24-h period. More larger farms had water points on the farm tracks or at the dairy. Very large farms (90%) were more likely than others (36–39%) to provide water suitable for human consumption. Integument lesions were not related to herd size and were uncommon; 56 and 84% of farms had no cows with lesions or hairless areas, respectively, and no farm had>6% integument lesions. Heat stress is an important welfare risk in Australia. All farms had some form of cooling strategy; shade in all paddocks was more common on smaller farms (>90%) than others (<75%). Sprinklers were more common on large or very large farms (>80%) than others (<65%). Mastitis and lameness were the most common health conditions, followed by dystocia, downer cows, and gastrointestinal diseases. Prevalence of lameness, mastitis, downer cows, dystocia, and gastrointestinal disease were not related to farm size. Larger farms were more likely to have electronic infrastructure to monitor or electronically draft cows for inspection. We found wide variation in the avoidance distance of humans, but this was not related to farm size. Larger farms had longer walking distances to pasture and longer time away from pasture, which could affect the time available for behaviors such as lying down. Animal welfare risks differ on Australian farms compared with housed cattle. As animal welfare is multidimensional, both animal- and resource-based indicators can be useful. Animal-based indicators have strengths in that, when measured accurately, they genuinely reflect the outcome being measured, but they also have weaknesses in that the point-estimate of a disease prevalence on a given day may not be representative of other times of year or differences in case definition may exist when farm records are used. Similarly, resource-based indicators have strengths in that they may be applicable to longer periods, but weaknesses because the fact a resource is present does not guarantee it is being used. Identifying the major risks to animal welfare on individual farms and ensuring a plan is in place to effectively manage them should be an important element of any on-farm animal welfare assessment protocol.
36 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699315
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): M.T. Jewell, M. Cameron, J. Spears, S.L. McKenna, M.S. Cockram, J. Sanchez, G.P. Keefe
ABSTRACT

Lameness in dairy cattle is a major issue for the industry due to the effects on the welfare of the animal, the economic impact, and consumer perception. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of lameness and explore potential risk factors in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Cows were scored for lameness and potential risk factors and were assessed in 46 freestall herds and 33 tiestall herds in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. In freestall herds, lameness was assessed using the most common method, locomotion scoring. A cow with a gait score of ≥3 out of 5 was considered to be lame. In tiestall herds, lameness was assessed using an alternative method known as stall lameness scoring. This assessment consisted of observation of the cow for 4 behavioral changes: standing on the edge of the stall, shifting weight, resting a limb, and uneven weight bearing when moved side to side. A cow displaying 2 or more of these behaviors was considered to be lame. At the time of the assessment, other animal-, environmental-, and management-based measurements were collected. These measurements were used in multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine risk factors that were associated with lameness for both freestalls and tiestalls independently. The prevalence of lameness was 21% for freestall-housed cattle and 15% for tiestall-housed cattle. Of the 1,488 tiestall-housed cows that were assessed, 68% showed no behavioral changes, whereas 15, 15, 2, and <1% showed 1, 2, 3, or 4 changes, respectively. In freestalls, higher odds of lameness were seen when cows spent ≥3 h/d in the holding area for milking compared with those that spent <3 h/d. In tiestall herds, higher odds of lameness were seen when bedding material was wet compared with when it was dry. For both lactating cow facility types, housing the dry cows and heifers on a deep bedded pack compared with tiestalls or freestalls was associated with a decreased odds of lameness. There were also many cow-level variables associated with lameness, including parity, daily milk production, stage of production, body condition, and width at the tuber coxae (hook bones). If producers become aware of the risk factors associated with lameness, they can make informed decisions on where to implement changes to help reduce the level of lameness in their herd.
37 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699316
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): M.T. Jewell, M. Cameron, J. Spears, S.L. McKenna, M.S. Cockram, J. Sanchez, G.P. Keefe
ABSTRACT

Skin lesions are commonly seen in dairy herds and have been associated with animal-, environmental-, and management factors. These lesions are not only a welfare concern, but they also affect profitability. Three areas on the cattle were examined for skin lesions: the hock, knee, and neck. Previous Canadian studies estimating the prevalence of lesions and the risk factors associated with them have not included the Maritime Provinces. In this study, 73 herds in the Maritime Provinces were chosen voluntarily to participate, with both tiestalls (n = 33) and freestalls (n = 40) represented. Within each herd, 67 to 90% of the lactating cows were selected and assessed for potential animal-, environmental-, and management-based risk factors. If producers were aware of the potential risk factors, this could help them reduce the prevalence in their herd. Leg lesions were scored on a 4-point scale (0–3) based on hair loss, swelling, and scabs, with a lesion defined as a score of 2 or 3 on at least 1 hock or knee. Necks were scored on a 3-point scale (0–2), with a lesion defined as score 2. For freestalls, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of hock lesions was 39% (29–49%), knee lesions was 14% (11–18%), and neck lesions was 1% (<1–2%). Similarly, for tiestalls the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of hock lesions was 39% (33–46%), knee lesions was 17% (13–22%), and neck lesions was 5% (3–8%). Due to differences in management and methods of assessment between facility types, tiestalls and freestalls were analyzed separately. Due to dichotomization of cows as having a skin lesion or not, random-effects multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors for each lesion and facility type. Several environmental-based measurements, such as the stall base, type and dryness of bedding, and type of milking parlor, were associated with leg lesions. An environmental-based measurement that was associated with neck lesions was the design of the feed rail barrier in freestalls and the dimensions of the tie rail in tiestalls. Animal-based risk factors, such as stage of lactation, parity, and body condition, were also associated with all 3 types of lesions. This study showed that lesions to the hock, knee, and neck were common in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Although differences were seen between facility types, in general, the results suggest that improving stall design and management and feed bunk design would help producers reduce the number of skin lesions seen in dairy cattle.
38 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699317
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): J.M. Piñeiro, B.T. Menichetti, A.A. Barragan, A.E. Relling, W.P. Weiss, S. Bas, G.M. Schuenemann
ABSTRACT

The objectives were to evaluate the associations of lying time (LT) during the first 14 d in milk (DIM) with milk yield, cyclicity (CYC), culling within 60 DIM (CULL), and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows. A total of 1,052 Holstein cattle (401 nulliparous heifers and 651 parous cows) from 3 commercial dairy farms had electronic data loggers (IceQube, IceRobotics, Edinburgh, UK) placed on a hind leg 14 ± 3 d before the expected parturition date and removed at 14 ± 3 DIM to assess their LT. Serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate were determined at 7 ± 3 and 14 ± 3 DIM. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, mastitis, pneumonia, and digestive disorders within 30 DIM were recorded and lactating cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: (1) nondiseased (ND, n = 613; cows without ketosis or any other diagnosed health condition); (2) cows with only ketosis (KET, n = 152); (3) sick cows experiencing ≥1 health conditions but without ketosis (SICK, n = 198); or (4) cows with ketosis plus ≥1 health condition (KET+, n = 61). Ultrasound was performed at 28 ± 3 and 42 ± 3 DIM to assess ovarian cyclicity (presence or absence of corpus luteum). Milk yield at first Dairy Herd Improvement Association test was not associated with LT during the first 14 DIM, but it was negatively correlated with the coefficient of variation of LT during the first 14 DIM. Lactating dairy cows experiencing KET+ had the lowest milk yield compared with ND, regardless of parity. Parity, health status, and season were significantly associated with CYC and CULL. Lying time had a significantly linear association with the risk of being culled: for every 1-h increment of LT during 0 to 14 DIM, the risk of culling within 60 DIM increased by 1 percentage point. Lying time had a negative quadratic association with cyclicity at 42 DIM. Multiparous cows with a LT of 9 to 13 h/d had a significantly greater probability of pregnancy up to 300 DIM compared with cows with a LT>13 h/d. Regardless of parity, KET+ cows had significantly higher proportion of culling within 60 DIM and decreased probability of pregnancy up to 300 DIM compared with ND cows. These findings suggest that there is an optimum daily LT range for early postpartum cows housed in freestall barns, different from that reported for mid-lactation cows, with the potential for improved survival, health, and the overall performance (milk yield and reproduction).
39 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699318
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): J.M. Piñeiro, B.T. Menichetti, A.A. Barragan, A.E. Relling, W.P. Weiss, S. Bas, G.M. Schuenemann
ABSTRACT

The objective was to evaluate the associations of pre- and postpartum lying time (LT) with serum total calcium (Ca), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and haptoglobin concentrations, hemogram, and health status of dairy cows. A total of 1,052 Holstein cattle (401 nulliparous heifers and 651 parous cows) from 3 commercial dairy farms were fitted with electronic data loggers (IceQube, IceRobotics, Edinburgh, UK) on a hind leg 14 ± 3 d before parturition (dpp) and removed at 14 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to assess their LT. Lying time data were summarized and reported daily (min/d or h/d). Serum concentrations of NEFA (at 14 ± 3 and 7 ± 3 dpp), total serum calcium within 48 h after calving, and BHB (at 7 ± 3 and 14 ± 3 DIM) were determined. Serum concentration of haptoglobin was determined and a hemogram was performed on a subsample of 577 cows (237 primiparous and 340 multiparous) at 7 ± 3 DIM. Cases of milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, mastitis, pneumonia, and digestive disorders within 30 DIM were recorded and cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: (1) nondiseased (ND, n = 613; cows without ketosis and any other health conditions); (2) cows with only ketosis (KET, n = 152); (3) sick cows experiencing ≥1 health conditions, but without ketosis (SICK, n = 198); or (4) cows with ketosis plus at least one other health condition (KET+, n = 61). Data were analyzed using mixed linear regression models or logistic regression (MIXED or GLIMMIX procedures). Lying time within 14 dpp had a significant positive quadratic association with serum NEFA concentrations at 14 ± 3 and 7 ± 3 dpp but was not significantly associated with serum Ca concentration within 48 h after calving. Lying time during the first 14 DIM after parturition had a significant linear association with the risk of ketosis within 14 DIM. For every 1-h increment in mean LT (from 8 to 15 h/d) within the first 14 DIM after calving, the risk of diagnosis with ketosis within 14 DIM increased by 3.7 percentage points. Regardless of parity, a greater proportion of KET and KET+ groups had increased serum prepartum NEFA concentration (≥400 µEq/L) and increased body condition loss from 14 dpp to 28 DIM compared with SICK and ND cows. A greater proportion of multiparous KET and KET+ cows had hypocalcemia within 48 h after calving compared with ND and SICK cows, but we did not detect a significant association between hypocalcemia and health status on primiparous cows. Multiparous KET+ cows had significantly reduced neutrophils and white blood cell count compared with ND cows, but lymphocytes did not differ. Regardless of parity, KET+ and SICK cows had significantly higher concentrations of serum haptoglobin compared with ND cows. These results suggest that LT along with energy and Ca balance are critical for transition cow health.
40 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699319
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): J. Bueso-Ródenas, G. Romero, A. Navarro, E. Pérez, J.R. Díaz
ABSTRACT

Recent research into how the pulsation type affects goat milking concluded that alternate pulsation (AP) and simultaneous pulsation (SP) similarly affect the milking efficiency (milking duration and milking fractioning) and teat end condition after milking when both pulsations are employed in short-term experiments. However, the use of SP in high pipeline milking machines led to higher vacuum fluctuations, which, in the long term, may entail a potential risk factor for the mammary gland health status. The aim of this work was to study how AP and SP affect the milk yield, mammary gland health status, and milk composition of goats in the long term, during a complete lactation period, in a high pipeline milking machine. With this objective, 100 Murciano-Granadina goats with similar parturition dates (4 ± 1 postpartum weeks) were divided into 2 similar groups (50 goats per group) according their parity, milk yield, mammary gland health status, and milking duration (after a 15-d pre-experimental period). Throughout the experimental period (7 mo), one group was milked using SP and the other group using AP. Every month, samplings were carried out of the variables related to sanitary status of the mammary gland, milk fractioning, milking duration, average and maximum milk flows, milk composition, teat end status, vacuum fluctuations at the short milk tube during milking, and pulsation tests. Results showed that the use of SP in a high pipeline milking machine showed higher vacuum fluctuations without involving any difference in the other variables studied. We concluded that the use of AP in the milking of Murciano-Granadina goats offers little improvement of the milking performance and increases the investment required for installation and maintenance of the milking machines.
41 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699320
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): M.J. Fuenzalida, P.L. Ruegg
ABSTRACT

The objective of this negatively controlled randomized clinical trial was to compare clinical outcomes of 5-d intramammary treatment using ceftiofur hydrochloride and no antimicrobial treatment of nonsevere culture-negative cases of clinical mastitis (CM). A total of 121 cases of nonsevere (abnormal milk or abnormal milk and udder) culture-negative CM were randomly assigned to either treatment (n = 62) or negative control (n = 59) groups. Quarters assigned to treatment received 1 daily intramammary infusion with an approved commercially available product containing ceftiofur hydrochloride for 5 d. Quarters assigned to the negative control group did not receive any interventions. Enrolled cows were followed for 90 d or until the end of lactation. At enrollment, milk samples from the affected quarter were used for on-farm culture, somatic cell count (SCC) analysis, and further microbiological analysis. During the follow-up period, milk samples were collected for microbiological analysis and SCC analysis. No significant differences between treatment and negative control groups were identified for treatment failure (5% for treatment vs. 10% for negative control, n = 121), quarter-level CM recurrence (8 vs. 5%, n = 91), intramammary infection at 14 or 28 d after enrollment (13 vs. 26%, n = 86), days until clinical cure (4.2 vs. 4.0 d), days to culling (48.3 vs. 36.8 d), daily milk production (43.3 vs. 43.6 kg/cow per day), or weekly quarter SCC (5.5 vs. 5.4 log10 SCC). Days of milk discard were greater for cows assigned to the treatment group (8.5 d) compared with cows assigned to the negative control group (5.6 d). During the follow-up period, cases in the treatment group had a 50% risk reduction in IMI compared with cases in the negative control group. Irrespective of group, negative outcomes such as quarter-level CM recurrence (12%), treatment failure (12%), and culling (5%) occurred infrequently in nonsevere culture-negative cases of CM. Use of intramammary ceftiofur for treatment of nonsevere culture-negative cases of CM did not improve any economically relevant clinical outcome such as culling, milk production, or SCC.
42 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699321
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): L.Y. Ding, Y.F. Wang, Y.Z. Shen, G. Zhou, X. Zhang, M.Z. Wang, J.J. Loor, J. Zhang
ABSTRACT

Transformation of Arg to nitric oxide and ornithine (Arg-Orn) constitutes the main route of Arg metabolism in mammals. The primary objective of this work was to determine the effects of inhibiting the Arg-Orn pathway via N
ω-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) on health of lactating cows. Furthermore, we also explored the effect of Arg-Orn inhibition on the efficiency of nitrogen utilization to find support for previous research that showed the inhibition of Arg-Orn inhibited milk protein synthesis. Six healthy Chinese Holstein cows of similar body weight (550.0 ± 20 kg), parity (4.0 ± 0), body condition score (3.0 ± 0), milk yield (21.0 ± 1.0 kg), and days in milk (80 ± 2 d) were selected and randomly assigned to 3 treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 22 d for each period (7 d for infusion and 15 d for washout). The treatments were (1) saline infusion (control); (2) infusion of 125 mg/L of nor-NOHA; and (3) infusion of 125 mg/L of nor-NOHA with 9.42 g/L of Arg. Dry matter intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, urinary N, N in milk, and blood indices of metabolism and immune function were determined. Compared with the control, the infusion of nor-NOHA had no effect on the concentrations of cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, IgA, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and alanine transaminase. In addition, the dry matter intake, apparent digestibility of N, and the concentration of milk protein N in the Nor-NOHA did not differ from the control; however, the infusion of nor-NOHA and Arg resulted in greater concentrations of high-density lipoprotein, IgA, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and lower concentrations of cholesterol in serum compared with the control. Moreover, the addition of Arg to cows infused with nor-NOHA increased the concentration of nitrate (the indicator of nitric oxide) in serum and was associated with greater milk protein N production due to greater milk yield compared with those infused with nor-NOHA. Overall, the results indicated important roles of Arg in immunity and mammary N utilization, whereas a minor role of the Arg-Orn pathway in these physiologic processes was found.
43 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699322
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): A. Leuenberger, C. Sartori, R. Boss, G. Resch, F. Oechslin, A. Steiner, P. Moreillon, H.U. Graber
ABSTRACT


Staphylococcus aureus is a highly contagious mastitis-causing pathogen infecting dairy cattle worldwide. Previous studies have shown the presence of different genotypes (GT) on farms. In Switzerland, Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) is contagious, whereas GTC and other genotypes cause sporadic, noncontagious mastitis. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiological properties of Staph. aureus, together with its genotypes and spa types, on Swiss dairy farms. A total of 21 dairy farms were sampled throughout Switzerland; 10 farms were positive for the contagious Staph. aureus GTB and 11 farms were negative for GTB. Samples were taken from milk, body surfaces of dairy cattle and other animals, milkers, milking equipment, and environmental sites (e.g., parlor, washing room, stall floor, manger, and bedding). The epidemiology of Staph. aureus depended markedly on the genotype. Staphylococcus aureus GTB was associated with mammary gland, intramammary infections (IMI), and milking clusters, whereas GTC and other genotypes were related to cow and other animal surfaces and occasionally to environment. Genotype C was by far the most common subtype in cattle and was found on GTB-negative and GTB-positive farms. Each farm had a predominant genotype, such as GTB, GTC, GTA, or GTF, but a few farms were almost free from Staph. aureus. The genotypes and spa types of Staph. aureus detected in the noses of milkers clearly differed from those found in dairy cattle, other animals, milking equipment, and the environment. Exceptions were GTS (spa type t034) and GTF (t899), which crossed the species barrier. In most cases, however, the species barrier was maintained because Staph. aureus is adapted to a particular host and even to particular body sites. As biological properties differ among the genotypes, new guidelines to prevent IMI caused by different genotypes were established: classical measures to prevent IMI caused by contagious pathogens still hold for GTB but not for Staph. aureus genotypes that are opportunistic colonizers of bovine skin (e.g., GTC and GTA). For those genotypes, protection of the skin from minor lesions and wounds, particularly on the hocks, is essential.
44 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699323
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): J.W. Aleri, B.C. Hine, M.F. Pyman, P.D. Mansell, W.J. Wales, B. Mallard, M.A. Stevenson, A.D. Fisher
ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to assess antibody and cellular immune responses in first-lactation dairy heifers reared under a pasture-based production system and to investigate associations between immune competence and stress responsiveness, health, and productivity. A commercial vaccine was used to induce antibody and cellular immune responses and, based on measured responses, animals were classified as above average, average, and below average for each trait independently and in combination (overall immune competence). Overall immune competence phenotypic rankings were generated by combining standardized residual values for antibody and cellular responses measured in individual heifers. Cortisol responses to handling and yarding were used to assess stress responsiveness, worm egg counts were used to assess internal parasite burden, somatic cell counts to assess udder health and estimates of total daily milk volume, and milk fat and milk protein contents to assess productivity. A total of 393 Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbred heifers from 2 herds practicing seasonal calving in a pasture-fed production system were enrolled in the study. The immune competence phenotypes of individual heifers were assessed before their first mating and their subsequent performance during their first lactation was monitored. Animals with below-average antibody and cellular immune competence had higher serum cortisol concentrations compared with their counterparts following handling, suggesting they had a reduced ability to cope with management-induced stress. Furthermore, a significant negative (favorable) correlation was observed between antibody responses and stress responsiveness. Similarly, correlations between antibody responses and internal parasite burden were significant and negative (favorable). No correlations were observed between overall immune competence and milk yield, milk fat, and milk protein content.
45 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699324
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): N. Käppeli, M. Morach, S. Corti, C. Eicher, R. Stephan, S. Johler
ABSTRACT


Staphylococcus aureus can be associated with subclinical, acute, chronic, and toxic cases of bovine intramammary infections, leading to considerable financial losses for the dairy industry in Switzerland and worldwide. In addition, milk products are one of the most common food categories implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning in humans. Detailed information on the population structure, as well as the virulence and resistance characteristics of Staph. aureus originating from bovine mastitis milk is needed to allow for source attribution and risk assessment of Staph. aureus in a food poisoning context and to improve therapeutic approaches in cattle. Our objective was to assess the population structure, phenotypic resistance patterns, and virulence and resistance gene profiles of Staph. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk in Switzerland. To this end, 58 Staph. aureus strains were characterized. The DNA microarray was used to test for the presence or absence of virulence and resistance genes. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentrations of various antimicrobial agents were determined by microdilution. To assess the population structure of the isolates, we determined clonal complexes (CC) using DNA microarray hybridization profiles and performed multilocus sequence typing and spa typing. The strains were assigned to 7 clonal complexes, 10 sequence types, and 11 spa types, with CC705 (43%), CC97 (33%), and CC20 (12%) representing the most common lineages and t529 (43%) and t267 (21%) representing the most common spa types. Only 1 isolate was assigned to CC8, a clonal lineage linked to high within-herd prevalence of mastitis. A total of 14% (n = 8) of strains were classified as resistant to penicillin, and 1 strain each was classified as oxacillin and pirlimycin resistant. Although no clinical breakpoints are available for the combination of kanamycin/cefalexin, growth of all strains was inhibited by the lowest combination of kanamycin/cefalexin concentrations tested (4 µg/mL of kanamycin and 0.4 µg/mL of cefalexin). One strain assigned to CC20, ST389, and t2094 exhibited resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, and pirlimycin as well as intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and high minimum inhibitory concentration for several antimicrobial agents, for which no breakpoints were available.
46 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699325
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): C. Edel, E.C.G. Pimentel, M. Erbe, R. Emmerling, K.-U. Götz
ABSTRACT

It has been shown that single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) can be reformulated, resulting in an equivalent SNP model that includes the explicit imputation of gene contents of all ungenotyped animals in the pedigree. This reformulation reveals the underlying mechanism enabling ungenotyped animals to contribute information to genotyped animals via estimates of marker effects and consequently to the reliability of genomic predictions, a key feature generally associated with the single-step approach. Irrespective of which BLUP formulation is used for genomic prediction, with increasing numbers of genotyped animals, the marker-oriented model is recommended when calculating the reliabilities of genomic predictions. This approach has the advantage of a manageable and stable size of the model matrix that needs to be inverted to calculate analytical prediction error variances of marker effects, an advantage that also holds for prediction with the single-step model. However, when including imputed genotypes in the design matrix of marker effects, an additional imputation residual term has to be considered to account for the prediction error of imputation. We summarize some of the theoretical aspects associated with the calculation of analytical reliabilities of single-step predictions. Derivations are based on the equivalent reformulation of ssGBLUP as a marker-oriented model and the calculation of prediction error variances of marker effects. We propose 2 approximations that allow for a substantial reduction of the complexity of the matrix operations involved, while retaining most of the relevant information required for reliability calculations. We additionally provide a general framework for an implementation of single-step reliability approximation using standard animal model reliabilities as a starting point. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using a small example extracted from data of the routine evaluation on dual-purpose Fleckvieh (Simmental) cattle.
47 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699326
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): T. Johnson, M. Keehan, C. Harland, T. Lopdell, R.J. Spelman, S.R. Davis, B.D. Rosen, T.P.L. Smith, C. Couldrey
ABSTRACT

In cattle, the X chromosome accounts for approximately 3 and 6% of the genome in bulls and cows, respectively. In spite of the large size of this chromosome, very few studies report analysis of the X chromosome in genome-wide association studies and genomic selection. This lack of genetic interrogation is likely due to the complexities of undertaking these studies given the hemizygous state of some, but not all, of the X chromosome in males. The first step in facilitating analysis of this gene-rich chromosome is to accurately identify coordinates for the pseudoautosomal boundary (PAB) to split the chromosome into a region that may be treated as autosomal sequence (pseudoautosomal region) and a region that requires more complex statistical models. With the recent release of ARS-UCD1.2, a more complete and accurate assembly of the cattle genome than was previously available, it is timely to fine map the PAB for the first time. Here we report the use of SNP chip genotypes, short-read sequences, and long-read sequences to fine map the PAB (X chromosome:133,300,518) and simultaneously determine the neighboring regions of reduced homology and true pseudoautosomal region. These results greatly facilitate the inclusion of the X chromosome in genome-wide association studies, genomic selection, and other genetic analysis undertaken on this reference genome.
48 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699327
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): N. Krattenmacher, G. Thaller, J. Tetens
ABSTRACT

The focus of modern dairy cow breeding programs has shifted from being mainly yield based toward balanced goals that increasingly consider functional traits such as fertility, metabolic stability, and longevity. To improve these traits, a less pronounced energy deficit postpartum is considered a key challenge. On the other hand, feed efficiency and methane emissions are gaining importance, possibly leading to conflicts in the design of breeding goals. Dry matter intake (DMI) is one of the major determinants of energy balance (EB), and recently some efforts were undertaken to include DMI in genomic breeding programs. However, there is not yet a consensus on how this should be achieved as there are different goals in the course of lactation (i.e., reducing energy deficit postpartum vs. subsequently improving feed efficiency). Thus, the aim of this study was to gain more insight into the genetic architecture of energy metabolism across lactation by genetically dissecting EB and its major determinants DMI and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield at different lactation stages applying random regression methodology and univariate and multivariate genomic analyses to data from 1,174 primiparous Holstein cows. Daily heritability estimates ranged from 0.29 to 0.49, 0.26 to 0.37, and 0.58 to 0.68 for EB, DMI, and ECM, respectively, across the first 180 d in milk (DIM). Genetic correlations between ECM and DMI were positive, ranging from 0.09 (DIM 11) to 0.36 (DIM 180). However, ECM and EB were negatively correlated (rg = −0.26 to −0.59). The strongest relationship was found at the onset of lactation, indicating that selection for increased milk yield at this stage will result in a more severe energy deficit postpartum. The results also indicate that EB is more affected by DMI (rg = 0.71 to 0.81) than by its other major determinant, ECM. Thus, breeding for a higher DMI in early lactation seems to be a promising strategy to improve the energy status of dairy cows. We found evidence that genetic regulation of energy homeostasis is complex, with trait- and lactation stage-specific quantitative trait loci suggesting that the trajectories of the analyzed traits can be optimized as mentioned above. Especially from the multivariate genomic analyses, we were able to draw some conclusions on the mechanisms involved and identified the genes encoding fumarate hydratase and adiponectin as highly promising candidates for EB, which will be further analyzed.
49 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699328
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Fernanda M. Rezende, Juan Pablo Nani, Francisco Peñagaricano
ABSTRACT

Service sire has a major effect on reproductive success in dairy cattle. Recent studies have reported accurate predictions for Holstein bull fertility using genomic data. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of genomic prediction of sire conception rate (SCR) in US Jersey cattle using alternative predictive models. Data set consisted of 1.5k Jersey bulls with SCR records and 95k SNP covering the entire genome. The analyses included the use of linear and Gaussian kernel-based models fitting either all the SNP or subsets of markers with presumed functional roles, such as SNP significantly associated with SCR or SNP located within or close to annotated genes. Model predictive ability was evaluated using 5-fold cross-validation with 10 replicates. The entire SNP set exhibited predictive correlations around 0.30. Interestingly, either SNP marginally associated with SCR or genic SNP achieved higher predictive abilities than their counterparts using random sets of SNP. Among alternative SNP subsets, Gaussian kernel models fitting significant SNP achieved the best performance with increases in predictive correlation up to 7% compared with the standard whole-genome approach. Notably, the use of a multi-breed reference population including the entire US Holstein SCR data set (11.5k bulls) allowed us to achieve predictive correlations up to 0.315, gaining 8% in accuracy compared with the standard model fitting a pure Jersey reference set. Overall, our findings indicate that genomic prediction of Jersey bull fertility is feasible. The use of Gaussian kernels fitting markers with relevant roles and the inclusion of Holstein records in the training set seem to be promising alternatives to the standard whole-genome approach. These results have the potential to help the dairy industry improve US Jersey sire fertility through accurate genome-guided decisions.
50 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699329
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): P.M. VanRaden, D.M. Bickhart, J.R. O'Connell
ABSTRACT

Whole-genome sequencing studies can identify causative mutations for subsequent use in genomic evaluations. Speed and accuracy of sequence alignment can be improved by accounting for known variant locations during alignment instead of calling the variants after alignment as in previous programs. The new programs Findmap and Findvar were compared with alignment using Burrows–Wheeler alignment (BWA) or SNAP and variant identification using Genome Analysis ToolKit (GATK) or SAMtools. Findmap stores the reference map and any known variant locations while aligning reads and counting reference and alternate alleles for each DNA source. Findmap also outputs potential new single nucleotide variant, insertion, and deletion alleles. Findvar separates likely true variants from read errors and outputs genotype probabilities. Strategies were tested using cattle, human, and a completely random reference map and simulated or actual data. Most tests simulated 10 bulls, each with 10× simulated sequence reads containing 39 million variants from the 1000 Bull Genomes Project. With 10 processors, clock times for processing 100× data were 105 h for BWA, 25 h for GATK, and 11 h for SAMtools but only about 4 h for SNAP, 3 h for Findmap, and 1 h for Findvar. Alignment programs required about the same total memory; BWA used 46 GB (4.6 GB/processor), whereas>10 processors can share the same memory in SNAP and Findmap, which used 40 and 46 GB, respectively. Findmap correctly mapped 92.9% of reads (compared with 92.6% from SNAP and 90.5% from BWA) and had high accuracy of calling alleles for known variants. For new variants, Findvar found 99.8% of single nucleotide variants, 79% of insertions, and 67% of deletions; GATK found 99.4, 95, and 90%, respectively; and SAMtools found 99.8, 12, and 16%, respectively. False positives (as percentages of true variants) were 11% of single nucleotide variants, 0.4% of insertions, and 0.3% of deletions from Findvar; 12, 8.4, and 2.9%, respectively, from GATK; and 37, 1.3, and 0.4%, respectively, from SAMtools. Advantages of Findmap and Findvar are fast processing, precise alignment, more useful data summaries, more compact output, and fewer steps. Calling known variants during alignment allows more efficient and accurate sequence-based genotyping.
51 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699330
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): S. Nyman, S.I. Duchemin, D.J. de Koning, B. Berglund
ABSTRACT

Female fertility has a major role in dairy production and affects the profitability of dairy cattle. The genetic progress obtained by traditional selection can be slow because of the low heritability of classical fertility traits. Endocrine fertility traits based on progesterone concentration in milk have higher heritability and more directly reflect the cow's own reproductive physiology. The aim of our study was to identify genomic regions for 7 endocrine fertility traits in dairy cows by performing a genome-wide association study with 54,000 SNP. The next step was to fine-map targeted genomic regions with significant SNP using imputed sequences to identify potential candidate genes associated with the normal and atypical progesterone profiles. The association between a SNP and a phenotype was assessed by a single SNP analysis, using a linear mixed model that included a random polygenic effect. Phenotypes and genotypes were available for 1,126 primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows from research herds in Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In total, 44 significant SNP associated with 7 endocrine fertility traits were identified on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 1–4, 6, 8–9, 11–12, 14–17, 19, 21–24, and 29. Three chromosomes, BTA8, BTA17, and BTA23, were imputed from 54,000 SNP genotypes to the whole-genome sequence level with Beagle version 4.1. The fine-mapping identified several significant associations with delayed cyclicity, cessation of cyclicity, commencement of luteal activity, and inter-ovulatory interval. These associations may contribute to an index of markers for genetic improvement of fertility. Several potential candidate genes reported to affect reproduction were also identified in the targeted genomic regions. However, due to high linkage disequilibrium, it was not possible to identify putative causal genes or polymorphisms for any of the regions.
52 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699331
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): A. Cesarani, G. Gaspa, F. Correddu, M. Cellesi, C. Dimauro, N.P.P. Macciotta
ABSTRACT

Fatty acid (FA) composition is one of the most important aspects of milk nutritional quality. However, the inclusion of this trait as a breeding goal for dairy species is hampered by the logistics and high costs of phenotype recording. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a valid and cheap alternative to laboratory gas chromatography (GC) for predicting milk FA composition. Moreover, as for other novel phenotypes, the efficiency of selection for these traits can be enhanced by using genomic data. The objective of this research was to compare traditional versus genomic selection approaches for estimating genetic parameters and breeding values of milk fatty acid composition in dairy sheep using either GC-measured or FTIR-predicted FA as phenotypes. Milk FA profiles were available for a total of 923 Sarda breed ewes. The youngest 100 had their own phenotype masked to mimic selection candidates. Pedigree relationship information and genotypes were available for 923 and 769 ewes, respectively. Three statistical approaches were used: the classical-pedigree-based BLUP, the genomic BLUP that considers the genomic relationship matrix G, and the single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) where pedigree and genomic relationship matrices are blended into a single H matrix. Heritability estimates using pedigree were lower than ssGBLUP, and very similar between GC and FTIR regarding the statistical approach used. For some FA, mostly associated with animal diet (i.e., C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3), random effect of combination of flock and test date explained a relevant quota of total variance, reducing the heritability estimates accordingly. Genomic approaches (genomic BLUP and ssGBLUP) outperformed the traditional pedigree method both for GC and FTIR FA. Prediction accuracies in the older cohort were larger than the young cohort. Genomic prediction accuracies (obtained using either G or H relationship matrix) in the young cohort of animals, where their own phenotypes were masked, were similar for GC and FTIR. Multiple-trait analysis slightly affected genomic breeding value accuracies. These results suggest that FTIR-predicted milk FA composition could represent a valid option for inclusion in breeding programs.
53 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699332
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): S. Id-Lahoucine, A. Cánovas, C. Jaton, F. Miglior, P.A.S. Fonseca, M. Sargolzaei, S. Miller, F.S. Schenkel, J.F. Medrano, J. Casellas
ABSTRACT

Realized deviations from the expected Mendelian inheritance of alleles from heterozygous parents have been previously reported in a broad range of organisms (i.e., transmission ratio distortion; TRD). Various biological mechanisms affecting gametes, embryos, fetuses, or even postnatal offspring can produce patterns of TRD. However, knowledge about its prevalence and potential causes in livestock species is still scarce. Specific Bayesian models have been recently developed for the analyses of TRD for biallelic loci, which accommodated a wide range of population structures, enabling TRD investigation in livestock populations. The parameterization of these models is flexible and allows the study of overall (parent-unspecific) TRD and sire- and dam-specific TRD. This research aimed at deriving Bayesian models for fitting TRD on the basis of haplotypes, testing the models for both haplotype- and SNP-based methods in simulated data and actual Holstein genotypes, and developing a specific software for TRD analyses. Results obtained on simulated data sets showed that the statistical power of the analysis increased with sample size of trios (n), proportion of heterozygous parents, and the magnitude of the TRD. On the other hand, the statistical power to detect TRD decreased with the number of alleles at each loci. Bayesian analyses showed a strong Pearson correlation coefficient (≥0.97) between simulated and estimated TRD that reached the significance level of Bayes factor ≥10 for both single-marker and haplotype analyses when n ≥ 25. Moreover, the accuracy in terms of the mean absolute error decreased with the increase of the sample size and increased with the number of alleles at each loci. Using real data (55,732 genotypes of Holstein trios), SNP- and haplotype-based distortions were detected with overall TRD, sire-TRD, or dam-TRD, showing different magnitudes of TRD and statistical relevance. Additionally, the haplotype-based method showed more ability to capture TRD compared with individual SNP. To discard possible random TRD in real data, an approximate empirical null distribution of TRD was developed. The program TRDscan v.1.0 was written in Fortran 2008 language and provides a powerful statistical tool to scan for TRD regions across the whole genome. This developed program is freely available at http://www.casellas.info/files/TRDscan.zip.
54 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699333
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): I. van den Berg, T.H.E. Meuwissen, I.M. MacLeod, M.E. Goddard
ABSTRACT

Genomic prediction is widely used to select candidates for breeding. Size and composition of the reference population are important factors influencing prediction accuracy. In Holstein dairy cattle, large reference populations are used, but this is difficult to achieve in numerically small breeds and for traits that are not routinely recorded. The prediction accuracy is usually estimated using cross-validation, requiring the full data set. It would be useful to have a method to predict the benefit of multibreed reference populations that does not require the availability of the full data set. Our objective was to study the effect of the size and breed composition of the reference population on the accuracy of genomic prediction using genomic BLUP and Bayes R. We also examined the effect of trait heritability and validation breed on prediction accuracy. Using these empirical results, we investigated the use of a formula to predict the effect of the size and composition of the reference population on the accuracy of genomic prediction. Phenotypes were simulated in a data set containing real genotypes of imputed sequence variants for 22,752 dairy bulls and cows, including Holstein, Jersey, Red Holstein, and Australian Red cattle. Different reference populations were constructed, varying in size and composition, to study within-breed, multibreed, and across-breed prediction. Phenotypes were simulated varying in heritability, number of chromosomes, and number of quantitative trait loci. Genomic prediction was carried out using genomic BLUP and Bayes R. We used either the genomic relationship matrix (GRM) to estimate the number of independent chromosomal segments and subsequently to predict accuracy, or the accuracies obtained from single-breed reference populations to predict the accuracies of larger or multibreed reference populations. Using the GRM overestimated the accuracy; this overestimation was likely due to close relationships among some of the reference animals. Consequently, the GRM could not be used to predict the accuracy of genomic prediction reliably. However, a method using the prediction accuracies obtained by cross-validation using a small, single-breed reference population predicted the accuracy using a multibreed reference population well and slightly overestimated the accuracy for a larger reference population of the same breed, but gave a reasonably close estimate of the accuracy for a multibreed reference population. This method could be useful for making decisions regarding the size and composition of the reference population.
55 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699334
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): M. Teissier, H. Larroque, C. Robert-Granie
ABSTRACT

Genomic evaluation of French dairy goats is routinely conducted using the single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) method. This method has the advantage of simultaneously using all phenotypes, pedigrees, and genotypes. However, ssGBLUP assumes that all SNP explain the same amount of genetic variance, which is unlikely in the case of traits whose major genes or QTL are segregating. In this study, we investigated the effect of weighted ssGBLUP and its alternatives, which give more weight to SNP associated with the trait, on the accuracy of genomic evaluation of milk production, udder type traits, and somatic cell scores. The data set included 2,955 genotyped animals and 2,543,680 pedigree animals. The number of phenotypes varied with the trait. The accuracy of genomic evaluation was assessed on 205 genotyped Alpine and 146 genotyped Saanen goats born between 2009 and 2012. For traits with unknown QTL, weighted ssGBLUP was less accurate than, or as accurate as, ssGBLUP. For traits with identified QTL (i.e., QTL only present in the Saanen breed), weighted ssGBLUP outperformed ssGBLUP by between 2 and 14%.
56 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699335
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): L. Beckett, R. Rosemond, B. Renquist, R.R. White
ABSTRACT

Tissue biopsy metabolic activity, assessed using the oxidation-reduction indicator resazurin, may serve as a proxy to assess energy expenditure associated with maintenance in nongrowing animals or growth rate in growing animals. Herein, we evaluate the repeatability, practicality, and sensitivity of a resazurin-based assay for ranking bovine skeletal muscle biopsies based on metabolic activity. Six yearling Holstein heifers (body weight = 330 ± 11.3 kg) were fed 4 dietary treatments consisting of high or low rumen-degradable starch and fiber arranged factorially in a partially replicated Latin square design. Periods were 18 d, consisting of 3 d for diet transition, 14 d for diet adaptation, and 1 d for sample collection. Semitendinosus biopsies were collected into ice-cold Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (Fisher Scientific, Hampton, NH) from each heifer during each period. Analysis was initiated within an hour of sample collection. To assess tissue metabolic rate, biopsies were transferred to Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with resazurin and incubated at 37°C. Fluorescence of each sample was read at time 0 and at 15-min intervals for 2 h. Change in fluorescence was representative of skeletal muscle reducing equivalent production. Fluorescent signal strength increased with time and relative rank of treatments did not change with time; accordingly, future studies may compare fluorescence at a single time point. Change in fluorescence at 120 min was used for analysis of the fixed effects of fiber, starch, and animal when accounting for a random effect of period. Samples collected when animals were on a high-ruminally degradable starch diet were more metabolically active than samples collected from animals on low-starch diets. Significant differences in metabolic activity among individual animals were also identified. Average relative fluorescence was correlated with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed-to-gain ratio. The relative fluorescence tended to correlate with average daily gain (r = 0.749) and feed-to-gain ratio (r = −0.783); change in fluorescence did not correlate with dry matter intake. Although evaluated on a small sample size, this technique shows promise as a potential means of ranking animals by growth or feed efficiency. Further work on a larger experimental population is needed to confirm the usefulness of this assay as a consistent and reliable predictor of these important phenotypic parameters.
57 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699336
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): J.Y. Wei, J. Wang, W. Liu, K.Z. Zhang, P. Sun
ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of a hydroxy-analog of selenomethionine (HMSeBA) on rumen fermentation, apparent nutrient digestibility, and total selenium absorption in mid-lactation dairy cows, and to compare the effects with those of sodium selenite (SS). Fifty mid-lactation dairy cows with similar milk yields, days in milk, and parity were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments according to a randomized complete block design. The cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.06 mg/kg dry matter (DM) of Se (control) or the same basal diet supplemented with SS, yielding 0.3 mg of Se/kg of DM (SS-0.3), or HMSeBA, yielding 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 mg of Se/kg of DM (SO-0.1, SO-0.3, and SO-0.5, respectively), during the experimental period. The final content of Se in control, SS-0.3, SO-0.1, SO-0.3, and SO-0.5 was 0.06, 0.34, 0.15, 0.33, and 0.52 mg of Se/kg of DM. The experiment lasted for 10 wk, with a pretrial period of 2 wk. Supplementation with HMSeBA altered rumen fermentation by linearly increasing total volatile fatty acids and the molar proportions of propionate and butyrate but decreasing rumen pH, ammonia content, and the ratio of acetate to propionate. Compared with SS, HMSeBA enhanced the molar proportion of propionate in the rumen and the apparent digestibility of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and selenium. We demonstrated that HMSeBA promoted rumen fermentation, apparent nutrient digestibility, and selenium absorption, implying that HMSeBA has a greater apparent absorption than SS.
58 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699337
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): E.M. Rice, K.M. Aragona, S.C. Moreland, P.S. Erickson
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varying levels of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in feed on the growth, digestibility, and health of postweaned heifers. Forty Holstein dairy heifers with a mean age of 84 d and average body weight (BW) of 100.9 ± 11.2 kg were housed in a naturally ventilated freestall barn. Heifers were blocked by birth date and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized block design: (1) 100 g of soybean meal carrier (control), (2) 0.25 g of SB/kg of BW plus carrier, (3) 0.50 g of SB/kg of BW plus carrier, and (4) 0.75 g of SB/kg of BW plus carrier. Carrier with or without SB was top-dressed and hand-mixed into a total mixed ration once daily. Heifers were fed to provide 10% orts. Initial BW, hip and withers heights, heart girth, and body length were measured before the start of the study and every week thereafter until the 14-wk trial was over. Blood samples were obtained and plasma urea nitrogen, plasma glucose, and whole-blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were determined before the start of treatment and weekly thereafter until the conclusion of the study. Fecal samples were taken before treatment and every other week from each heifer for coccidia counts. Apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as an internal marker. Each heifer underwent this phase from d 47 until d 54 of the study. Sodium butyrate had a positive effect on average BW and overall BW gain. Feed efficiency tended to improve as SB supplementation increased. Coccidia counts were lowest in the treatment with 0.25 g of SB/kg of BW plus carrier. Sodium butyrate had no effects on skeletal growth or plasma urea nitrogen concentration. Blood glucose concentration decreased linearly and β-hydroxybutyrate increased linearly with increasing levels of SB supplementation. Sodium butyrate supplementation did not affect apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. Sodium butyrate supplementation offers positive results in the growth performance and feed efficiency of postweaned heifers.
59 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699338
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): C. Lee, D.L. Morris, J.E. Copelin, J.M. Hettick, I.H. Kwon
ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to examine effects of supplemental lysophospholipids (LPL) in dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were (1) a dairy ration [CON; 55% forage and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis], (2) a positive control diet supplemented with monensin (MON; 16 mg/kg in dietary DM; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN], (3) a control diet supplemented with low LPL (0.05% of dietary DM; Lipidol Ultra, Easy Bio Inc., Seoul, South Korea), and (4) a control diet supplemented with high LPL (0.075% of dietary DM). Experimental periods were 21 d with 14-d diet adaptation and 7-d sample collection. Daily intake and milk yield were measured and rumen contents were collected for fermentation characteristics and bacterial population. Spot urine and fecal samples (8 samples/cow per period) were collected to determine nutrient digestibility and dietary N utilization. All data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC; group and cow within group were random effects and treatments, time, and their interaction were fixed effects). Preplanned contrasts were made to determine effect of MON versus CON, effect of LPL versus MON, and linear effect of increasing LPL. In the current study, responses to MON generally agreed with effects of monensin observed in the literature (increased milk yield and feed efficiency but decreased milk fat content). Supplementation of LPL to the diet did not alter DM intake but linearly increased milk yield, resulting in increases in feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) and milk protein and fat yields. However, total-tract digestibility of DM and organic matter tended to be lower (60.9 vs. 62.2% and 61.8 vs. 63.1%, respectively) for LPL compared with CON. Linear increases in milk N secretion and decreases in urinary N excretion were observed with increasing LPL in the diet. A slight decrease in acetate proportion in the rumen for LPL was found. Relative to MON, very few bacteria in the rumen were affected with increasing LPL. In conclusion, LPL is a potential feed additive that can increase milk yield and components and dietary N utilization. However, more studies with large numbers of animals are needed to confirm the effect of LPL on production. Similar positive effects on production were observed between LPL and MON, but individual mechanisms were likely different according to ruminal fermentation characteristics. Further studies are needed to explore the mode of action of LPL in dairy cows.
60 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699339
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): E. Pulido, M. Fernández, N. Prieto, R.L. Baldwin, S. Andrés, S. López, F.J. Giráldez
ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to study the effect of milking frequency [once-daily milking (ODM) vs. twice-daily milking (TDM)] and antioxidant (AOX) supplementation on fatty acid (FA) profile and oxidative stability in sheep milk. Sixteen Assaf ewes were used; 8 did not receive any vitamin–mineral supplement (control), and the other 8 received an oral dose of 1,000 IU of α-tocopherol and 0.4 mg of Se daily. The experiment consisted of 2 consecutive periods; the first was 3 wk with TDM of both mammary glands. The second period was 8 wk and consisted of ODM of one mammary gland and TDM of the other gland. All ewes were fed ad libitum the same total mixed ration from lambing and throughout the experiment. There were no differences in plasma or milk Se concentrations between control and AOX ewes. However, plasma and milk α-tocopherol concentrations and AOX capacity were increased in ewes receiving the AOX supplement. Milk FA profile was practically unaffected after 21 d of AOX supplementation. However, after 77 d, AOX supplementation increased the relative percentage of C16:0 and cis-9 C18:1 and reduced the proportions of some saturated FA with less than 16 carbons and cis-9 C12:1. Antioxidant supplementation had no effect on the proportions of conjugated linoleic acid or total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) but decreased the proportion of trans-7,cis-9 C18:2 and increased that of n-6 C20:3. Once-daily milking did not affect α-tocopherol, Se, or fat resistance to oxidation in milk. Total monounsaturated FA, cis-9 C16:1, and several cis and trans isomers of C18:1 were increased and total saturated FA were decreased in milk from ODM glands. Compared with TDM, ODM increased the proportions of cis-9,cis-12 C18:2 and several isomers of C18:2 and reduced those of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 C18:3 and some PUFA of 20 and 22 carbons, but total proportion of PUFA was unaffected. Once-daily milking and AOX supplementation modified milk FA profile, but the effects of ODM could be considered of little biological relevance for consumer health. Supplementing ewes with α-tocopherol plus Se could be considered an effective strategy to improve plasma AOX status and reduce milk fat oxidation without substantial changes in the milk FA profile.
61 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699340
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): W. Shi, C.E. Knoblock, K.V. Murphy, T.C. Bruinjé, I. Yoon, D.J. Ambrose, M. Oba
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; NutriTek, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) during the periparturient period (d −28 ± 3 to 44 ± 3 relative to calving) on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, and postpartum ovarian activity of dairy cows fed fresh diets varying in starch content. From d 28 ± 3 before the expected calving date until d 44 ± 3 after calving, 117 Holstein cows were fed diets with SCFP (SCFP; n = 59) or without (control, CON; n = 58). A common, basal, controlled-energy close-up diet (net energy for lactation: 1.43 Mcal/kg; 13.8% starch) was fed before calving. Cows within each treatment (CON or SCFP) were fed either a low- (LS; 22.1% starch) or high-starch (HS; 28.3% starch) diet from d 1 to 23 ± 3 after calving (fresh period), resulting in 4 treatment groups: LS-CON (n = 30), LS-SCFP (n = 29), HS-CON (n = 28), and HS-SCFP (n = 30). All cows were fed the HS diets from d 24 ± 3 to 44 ± 3 after calving (post-fresh period). Cows were assigned to treatment balanced for parity, body condition score, body weight, and expected calving date. Milk yield was higher for cows fed the LS diets compared with those fed the HS diets during the fresh period (34.1 vs. 32.1 kg/d), whereas DMI and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (FCM) were not affected by dietary starch content, and LS cows tended to lose more body condition than HS cows (−0.42 vs. −0.35 per 21 d) during the fresh period. Overall DMI during the close-up and fresh periods did not differ between SCFP and CON cows. However, SCFP supplementation transiently increased DMI on d 1 (13.0 vs. 11.9 kg/d) and 5 (15.5 vs. 14.1 kg/d) after calving compared with CON. During the post-fresh period, SCFP cows tended to eat less than CON cows (19.8 vs. 20.6 kg/d) but had similar 3.5% FCM (44.9 vs. 43.6 kg/d), resulting in greater feed efficiency for SCFP cows (FCM/DMI; 2.27 vs. 2.13). Neither starch content of fresh diets nor SCFP supplementation affected the interval from calving to first ovulation or the incidence of double ovulation. These findings suggest that feeding low-starch diets during the fresh period can increase milk production of dairy cows during the fresh period, and that supplementation of SCFP may increase feed intake around calving and feed efficiency in the post-fresh period.
62 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699341
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Quentin L. Sciascia, Danitsja S. van der Linden, Francisco A. Sales, Nina J. Wards, Hugh T. Blair, David Pacheco, Mark H. Oliver, Susan A. McCoard
ABSTRACT

Maternal milk is the primary source of nutrition for suckling mammals, and its yield and composition are important determinants of survival during the early neonatal period. The objective of this study was to examine whether parenteral administration of l-Arg to twin-bearing ewes, during mid to late pregnancy, influenced prepartum maternal mammary gland development and subsequent lactation performance in the early postpartum period (14 d). At 80 d of pregnancy, multiparous Romney ewes were housed indoors in group pens, split into 2 cohorts, and fed a lucerne-based pellet diet, formulated to meet 100% of National Research Council-recommended requirements for twin-bearing pregnant ewes, once a day. Cohort 1 was administered l-Arg (72.7 mg/kg of live weight via i.v, 3 times a day) from d 100 of pregnancy until d 140. At d 140, ewes were euthanized and maternal mammary tissues were collected for analysis of the biochemical indices total DNA, RNA, protein, protein synthetic efficiency (protein:RNA), cell size (protein:DNA), transcriptional efficiency (RNA:DNA), and the abundance of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mTORSer2448 protein. Cohort 2 was administered an identical l-Arg regimen as cohort 1, but from d 100 until parturition. Milk was collected over a 14-d period (d 1, 4, 7, 10, and 14) to assess milk yield and composition. In cohort 1, total mammary DNA (cell number) tended to be higher in l-Arg ewes, with no change in total mammary RNA or protein content, biochemical indices of protein synthetic efficiency, cell size or transcriptional efficiency, or mTOR protein abundance or phosphorylation. In cohort 2, milk composition analysis from l-Arg ewes showed lower (d 7–14) milk somatic cell counts, greater crude protein percentage from d 7 to 10 but lower at d 14, and altered absolute concentrations of some free AA (d 7 and 14) compared with controls. We propose that parenteral administration of l-Arg during late pregnancy is associated with increased mammary gland cellular content and decreased somatic cell counts during early lactation.
63 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699342
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): L.A. Prado, Ph. Schmidely, P. Nozière, A. Ferlay
ABSTRACT

We sought to establish predictive response models of milk fatty acid (FA) yields or concentrations from their respective duodenal flow, rumen digestive parameters, or diet characteristics in dairy cows, with a special focus on cis and trans isomers of C18:1, C18:2, odd- and branched FA, and mammary de novo synthesized FA. This meta-analysis was carried out using data from trials with nature of forage, percentage of concentrate, supplementation of diets with vegetable oils or seeds, and marine products' animal fats as experimental factors. The data set included 34 published papers representing 50 experiments with 142 treatments. Increasing duodenal C18 FA flow induced a quadratic increase in milk total C18 yield and a linear decrease in milk C4:0 to C14:0 concentration. Intra-experimental predictive response models of individual milk cis C18:1 isomers (Δ 11 to 15 position) from their respective duodenal flows had coefficients of determination (R2) ranging from 0.74 to 0.99, with root mean square error varying from 0.19 to 0.96 g/d, 0.02 to 0.10% of total FA, and 0.03 to 0.29% of C18 FA. Models predicting milk trans C18:1 isomer yields or concentrations had R2 greater than 0.90 (except for trans-4 and trans-10 C18:1) with root mean square error varying from less than 0.1 to 5.2 g/d. Linear regressions for C18:2n-6, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, and trans-11,trans-13 CLA were calculated according to their respective duodenal flows. Quadratic models of milk C18:3n-3 yield or concentration from its duodenal flow had R2 values above 0.97. Models of amounts desaturated from C18:0 into cis-9 C18:1 and trans-11 C18:1 into cis-9,trans-11 CLA indicated that the contribution of C18:0 and trans-11 C18:1 desaturation to respective cis-9 C18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA yields in milk fat was 83.8% (±0.75) and 86.8% (±2.8). Furthermore, when cows were fed marine products, our results could indicate a lower mammary uptake of C18:0 and trans-11 C18:1 in proportion to their respective duodenal flow, with no associated change in mammary Δ9-desaturase activity. Yields or concentrations of C15:0, C17:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, anteiso-C15:0, and anteiso-C17:0 were dependent on their respective duodenal flow or concentration at duodenum, but synthesis of these FA from C3 units for linear-chain odd FA, and from C2 units for branched-chain FA was suggested, respectively. Several milk C18 FA concentrations were closely related to their duodenal concentrations with slopes of the linear models close to the bisector; this could reflect a priority for the use of these duodenal C18 FA by the mammary gland to favor their high concentration in plasma triglycerides and nonesterified FA, which are preferentially taken up by the mammary gland.
64 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699343
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): S.W. Fessenden, T.J. Hackmann, D.A. Ross, E. Block, A. Foskolos, M.E. Van Amburgh
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a fermentation by-product on rumen function, microbial yield, and composition and flows of nutrients from the rumen in high-producing lactating dairy cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 60 ± 10 d in milk and 637 ± 38 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment sequences in a switchback design. Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) 44% corn silage, 13% alfalfa silage, 12% ground corn, and 31% protein premix, containing either a control mix of urea and wheat middlings (CON) or a commercial fermentation by-product meal (Fermenten, Arm and Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) at 3% diet inclusion rate (EXP). The trial consisted of three 28-d experimental periods, where each period consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. A triple-marker technique and double-labeled 15N15N-urea were used to were used to measure protozoal, bacterial, and nonmicrobial omasal flow of AA. Rumen pool sizes and omasal flows were used to determine digestion parameters, including fractional rates of carbohydrate digestion, microbial growth, and yield of microbial biomass per gram of degraded substrate. Fermentation by-product inclusion in EXP diets increased microbial N and amino acid N content in microbes relative to microbes from CON cows fed the urea control. Microbial AA profile did not differ between diets. Daily omasal flows of AA were increased in EXP cows as a result of decreased degradation of feed protein. The inclusion of the fermentation by-product increased nonmicrobial AA flow in cows fed EXP versus CON. Average protozoal contribution to microbial N flow was 16.8%, yet protozoa accounted for 21% of the microbial AA flow, with a range of 8 to 46% for individual AA. Cows in this study maintained an average rumen pool size of 320 g of microbial N, and bacterial and protozoal pools were estimated at 4 different theoretical levels of selective protozoa retention. Fractional growth rate of all microbes was estimated to be 0.069 h−1, with a yield of 0.44 g of microbial biomass per gram of carbohydrate degraded. Results indicated that fermentation by-product can increase omasal flow of AA while maintaining adequate rumen N available for microbial growth and protein synthesis. Simulations from a developmental version of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System indicated strong agreement between predicted and observed values, with some areas key for improvement in AA flow and bacterial versus protozoal N partitioning.
65 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699344
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): S.W. Fessenden, A. Foskolos, T.J. Hackmann, D.A. Ross, E. Block, M.E. Van Amburgh
ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a fermentation byproduct on rumen fermentation and microbial yield in high producing lactating dairy cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 60 ± 10 d in milk and 637 ± 38 kg of body weight were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment sequences in a switchback design. Treatment diets contained (dry matter basis) 44% corn silage, 13% alfalfa silage, 12% ground corn, and 31% premix containing either a control mix of urea and wheat middlings (CON) or a commercial fermentation byproduct meal (Fermenten, Arm and Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) at 3% diet inclusion rate (EXP). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric, with similar levels of neutral detergent fiber and starch. The trial consisted of three 28-d experimental periods, where each period consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Omasal nutrient flows were determined using a triple-marker technique and double-labeled 15N15N-urea. The EXP diet provided 18 g/d more nonammonia N versus the CON diet, representing 3.0% of total N intake. Energy-corrected milk yield (41.7 and 43.1 kg/d for CON and EXP, respectively), milk fat, and protein yield and content did not differ between treatments. Total dry matter intake was similar between treatments (25.5 and 26.4 kg/d for CON and EXP, respectively). Ammonia N concentration and pool size in the rumen was greater in cows fed the EXP diet. No differences were observed in rumen or total-tract dry matter, organic matter, or neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Ruminal degradation of feed N was 15% lower in cows fed EXP diets, resulting in differences in omasal N flows. Results demonstrated the fermentation byproduct meal had a sparing effect on degradable feed protein, but did not increase microbial N flow from the rumen.
66 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699345
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): F. Dufreneix, P. Faverdin, J.-L. Peyraud
ABSTRACT

Increasing rumen-undegraded protein is one challenge of ruminant nutrition to both meet protein requirements of animals and reduce nitrogen excretion in the environment by increasing nitrogen efficiency. Industrial processes using heat or tanning to reduce rumen protein degradation have certain limitations, such as difficulty in balancing low ruminal degradation and high intestinal digestibility. Reducing the mean retention time (MRT) in the rumen by varying the size and density of particles may be another promising way to increase the rumen-undegraded protein proportion of concentrate feeds and improve the effectiveness of industrial processes. Spherical plastic particles of 3 mean diameter sizes (1, 2, and 3 mm) and 4 densities (0.9, 1.1, 1.3, and 1.5) were used to study the combined effect of size and density on the MRT of particles without interactions with microbial fermentations. Dynamics of fecal excretion of particles were monitored over 106 h (17 sampling times) in a Latin square experiment with 4 lactating cows. Cumulative particle excretion curves were fitted to a double exponential model to calculate total MRT in the digestive tract (TMRT), MRT in 2 compartments (MRT1 and MRT2), and retention time in the intestines' tubular section (TT). Differences in density had a quadratic effect, with densities of 1.1 and 1.3 yielding lower TMRT (29.5 and 31.2 h, respectively) than the densities of 0.9 and 1.5 (TMRT = 64.0 and 51.2 h, respectively). Similar responses were observed for MRT1, which was assumed to be the ruminal MRT for densities 1.1 and 1.3 (8.9 and 10.5 h, respectively) compared with densities 0.9 and 1.5 (39.6 and 22.6 h, respectively). Differences in diameter had a linear effect on TMRT (12.9 h longer for 3 mm than for 1 mm) and on TT. A combined effect of size and density was observed and particle size had no effect on TMRT when density was 1.1 to 1.3; however, outside this range, an increase in particle diameter increased TMRT. Consequently, a density of 1.2 to 1.3 is optimal for the escape of particles. As smaller particles of concentrates lose functional specific gravity more rapidly than larger particles due to their higher fermentation rate, our results, obtained with plastic particles, suggest that a diameter slightly greater than 3 mm seems a compromise to delay the start of fermentation and allow for rapid passage through the reticulo-omasal orifice.
67 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699346
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Hifzulrahman, M. Abdullah, M.U. Akhtar, T.N. Pasha, J.A. Bhatti, Z. Ali, M. Saadullah, M.N. Haque
ABSTRACT

The effects of feeding rumen-inert fat sources on production responses of lactating dairy cows have been well reported but less thoroughly described in lactating dairy buffalo. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oil and 2 different rumen-inert fat sources on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Nili Ravi buffalo. Twelve multiparous mid-lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes received 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a period length of 21 d. The treatments were (1) the basal diet without supplementation of oil or fats (CTRL), (2) the basal diet supplemented with canola oil (CO), (3) the basal diet supplemented with calcium salts of palm FA (Ca-FA), and (4) the basal diet supplemented with high palmitic acid (PA). Dry matter intake was decreased by 4.4% in the CO compared with Ca-FA and PA. Milk yield and milk fat yield were increased by 7.8 and 14.3%, respectively, in CO, Ca-FA, and PA compared with the CTRL. Milk fat content increased by 7.5%, whereas milk fat yield tended to increase with the supplementation of Ca-FA and PA compared with CO. No effect on milk yield and milk composition was observed in Ca-FA versus PA treatments. The yield of medium-chain FA was increased by Ca-FA and PA versus CO. The CO treatment increased the yield of long-chain FA compared with Ca-FA and PA treatments. Plasma glucose level was higher in CO, Ca-FA, and PA compared with the CTRL. In conclusion, feeding rumen-inert fats in the lactating buffalo diet proved to be a useful strategy to increase the 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield due to the higher milk fat content in this study.
68 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699347
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Troy L. Ott
ABSTRACT

Infertility and subfertility reduce the economic viability of dairy production. Inflammation reduces conception rates in dairy cattle, but surprisingly little information exists about the populations and the functions of immune cells at the conceptus–maternal interface during the periattachment period in dairy cattle. Early pregnancy is accompanied by immune stimulation at insemination and conceptus secretion of IFN-τ, pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, prostaglandins, and other molecules whose effects on immune function during early pregnancy have not been determined. Our working hypothesis is that pregnancy induces changes in immune cell populations and functions that are biased toward immunological tolerance, tissue remodeling, and angiogenesis. This review summarizes current knowledge, starting with insemination and proceeding through early pregnancy, as this is the period of maximal embryo loss. Results indicated that early pregnancy is accompanied by a marked increase in the proportion of endometrial immune cells expressing markers for natural killer (CD335) cells and cytotoxic T cells (CD8) along with an increase in cells expressing major histocompatibility class II antigens (macrophages and dendritic cells). This is accompanied by increased abundance of mRNA for IL-15, a natural killer growth factor, and IL-10 in the endometrium during early pregnancy. Furthermore, expression of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase was 15-fold greater in pregnant compared with cyclic heifers at d 17, but then declined by d 20. This enzyme converts tryptophan to kynurenine, which alters immune function by creating a localized tryptophan deficiency and by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and induction of downstream tolerogenic mediators. Expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is abundant in the bovine uterus, but its temporal and spatial regulation during early pregnancy have not been characterized. Pregnancy is also associated with increased expression of proteins known to inhibit immune activation, including programed cell death ligand-1 (CD274), lymphocyte activation gene-3 (CD223), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CD152). These molecules interact with receptors on antigen-presenting cells and induce lymphocyte tolerance. Current results support the hypothesis that early pregnancy signaling in dairy heifers involves changes in the proportions of immune cells in the endometrium as well as induction of molecules known to mediate tolerance. These changes are likely essential for uterine wall remodeling, placentation, and successful pregnancy.
69 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699348
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): M.M.D. Castro, A.L. Silva, L.F. Costa e Silva, P.P. Rotta, T.E. Engle, M.I. Marcondes
ABSTRACT

International committees that have published nutrient requirements for dairy cattle have used data from mineral studies conducted in the 1920s to 1970s, and no study has reported data from animals less than 100 kg; therefore, there is a need to update mineral requirements for preweaned dairy calves. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the mineral requirements of Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na for Holstein and Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves using data from 5 studies developed at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Viçosa, MG, Brazil). A total of 210 calves were separated into 2 breeds: purebred Holstein calves (animals with a Holstein pedigree higher than 87.5%) and Holstein × Gyr crossbred calves (animals with a Holstein pedigree lower than 87.5%). The comparative slaughter technique was used to estimate animal body composition and empty body weight (EBW). Mineral requirements for maintenance were estimated by the regression between retained mineral and mineral intake, whereas mineral requirements for gain were obtained from the first derivative of the mineral content in the animal's body. In addition, breed effect was tested on the intercept and slope of the models. The effect of breed was not observed for all analyzed variables. Thus, net requirements for maintenance were 12.73, 11.81, 20.28, 3.50, and 6.37 mg/kg of EBW per day for Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na, respectively. Retention coefficients were 73.18, 65.20, 13.16, 29.55, and 24.28% for Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na, respectively. The following equations were determined to estimate net requirements for gain (NRG, g/d): NRG for Ca = 14.402 × EBW−0.139 × empty body gain (EBG); NRG for P = 5.849 × EBW−0.027 × EBG; NRG for K = 1.140 × EBW−0.048 × EBG; NRG for Mg = 0.603 × EBW−0.036 × EBG; and NRG for Na = 1.508 × EBW−0.045 × EBG. Due to the high variation between the data found in this study and in the available literature, we suggest that further studies should be conducted to evaluate the estimates of this study.
70 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699349
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Rodrigo V. Moreira, Marion P. Costa, Vinicius S. Castro, Clara E. Paes, Yhan S. Mutz, Beatriz S. Frasao, Sérgio B. Mano, Carlos A. Conte-Junior
ABSTRACT

Sodium chloride reduction in foods is a significant focus of the dairy industry; however, it can interfere with dairy product quality. Thus, researchers have carried out studies on alternatives to maintain dairy product safety when presenting reduced NaCl content, such as natural antimicrobial addition. Caryocar brasiliense (pequi) is a fruit with high phenolic compound concentrations in the pulp and peel and known antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to define the optimum stage for pequi waste extract addition during cheese manufacturing in order to maintain and prolong the shelf life of reduced-sodium goat Minas Frescal cheese. Four different goat Minas Frescal cheese treatments were carried out: control cheese (without extract; CC), pequi extract addition to milk (CM), pequi extract addition to mass (CS), and cheese immersion in pequi extract (CIE). The treatments were subjected to microbiological (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms and fecal coliforms, Lactococcus spp., and lactic acid bacteria counts), textural (hardness and consistency), and instrumental color (luminosity, yellow intensity, red intensity, chroma, hue angle, and total color change) analyses. No Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus spp., E. coli, or coliforms and fecal coliforms were detected during storage for any of the assessed samples, including CC. Regarding texture, all samples presented a trend for decreasing rigidity during storage. In addition, lower luminosity values were also observed in cheeses produced with added pequi extract (CM, CS, and CIE) when compared with CC. All cheeses produced with added pequi were stable regarding all evaluated parameters; however, pequi extract addition to milk (CM) was shown to be more efficient, leading to higher textural parameters and better microbiological quality during storage. Thus, the CM treatment is the most recommended for pequi waste extract addition during Minas Frescal cheese manufacture.
71 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699350
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Taobo Liang, Ping Zhou, Baoqing Zhou, Qian Xu, Ziqiang Zhou, Xin Wu, Zoraida P. Aguilar, Hengyi Xu
ABSTRACT


Escherichia coli O157:H7, Cronobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. are common food-borne pathogens in milk that may cause serious diseases. In the present study, we established a simple, rapid, and specific method to simultaneously detect viable E. coli O157:H7, Cronobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. in milk. Three specific genes, fliC from E. coli O157:H7, cgcA from Cronobacter spp., and invA from Salmonella spp., were selected and used to design primers and probes. False-positive results were eliminated with the use of a combined sodium deoxycholate (SD) and propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment. Using the optimized parameters, this SD-PMA treatment combined with multiplex real-time PCR (SD-PMA-mRT-PCR) detected E. coli O157:H7, Cronobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. respectively, at 102 cfu/mL in pure culture or artificially spiked skim milk samples. A reasonable recovery rate (from 100 to 107%) for detection of viable bacteria using the SD-PMA-mRT-PCR assay was obtained in the presence of dead bacteria at 107 cfu/mL. The SD-PMA-mRT-PCR method developed in this study can accurately detect and monitor combined contamination with E. coli O157:H7, Cronobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. in milk and milk products.
72 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699351
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): P. Quintanilla, M.C. Beltrán, A. Molina, I. Escriche, M.P. Molina
ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfer of the most widely used antibiotics in dairy goats from milk to cheese as well as their effect on the cheese-making process and cheese characteristics during ripening. Antibiotic-free milk was spiked individually with 7 veterinary drugs (amoxicillin, benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and oxytetracycline) at an equivalent concentration of the European Union maximum residue limit. Spiked goat milk was used to make mature Tronchón cheeses, which were analyzed at 0, 30, and 60 d of maturation to determine pH, chemical composition, proteolytic and lipolytic activities, and color and textural properties. A sensory evaluation of 60-d ripened cheeses was carried out. Cheeses from raw antibiotic-free goat milk were made simultaneously to be used as reference. The cheese-making process was unaffected by the presence of most antibiotics evaluated. Only erythromycin and oxytetracycline significantly increased the time required for cheese production (122 ± 29 and 108 ± 25 min, respectively). However, variable amounts of antibiotics, ranging from 7.4 to 68%, were transferred from milk to cheese, with oxytetracycline and quinolones showing the highest retention rates. In general, antibiotic residues present in the cheeses at the beginning of maturation decrease significantly along time. Thus, β-lactams and erythromycin residues were not detectable after 30 d of ripening. However, relatively high concentrations of enrofloxacin (148 ± 12 µg/kg) and ciprofloxacin (253 ± 24 µg/kg) residues were found in the cheeses after 60 d of maturation. The quality characteristics of the Tronchón cheeses were only slightly affected by such substances, with few significant differences in the free fatty acid concentration and color and textural properties of the cheeses. Results herein indicate that the use of goat milk containing antibiotics, such as quinolones, at the European Union maximum residue limit for cheese production could adversely affect the safety of the final products because relatively high concentrations of these substances could be retained in soft and semi-mature cheeses, making it necessary to assess the risk for consumer health. Studies on the partition of the antibiotic substances during cheese-making, using specific technologies, would be convenient to guarantee the safety of cheese and related products.
73 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699352
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Samane Rahmdel, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Saeid Hosseinzadeh, Sandra Torriani, Veronica Gatto
ABSTRACT

Bacteriocins have attracted great attention as potential alternatives to antibiotics and chemical food additives. In the present study, 243 Staphylococcus isolates from milk samples (n = 110) of goat and sheep herds located in Fars province, Iran, were screened for antimicrobial substance production. Twenty-eight isolates showed an antagonistic activity against the indicator strain Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698. The susceptibility of all antimicrobial substances to proteolytic enzymes allowed us to consider them as bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS). The term BLIS is applied to uncharacterized proteinaceous antimicrobials produced by gram-positive bacteria. Based on molecular identification methods, the isolates belonged to the species Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus agnetis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a high level of genotype diversity among the Staph. chromogenes isolates. All of the isolates harbored nukA or bsaA2 genes, suggesting that their BLIS were related to nukacin or Bsa. The antimicrobial compounds from test strains were not effective against gram-negative pathogens, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella pneumonia as well as the indicator mold Aspergillus fumigatus. All the gram-positive targets, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis Ef37 (a tyramine-producer strain), Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (a histamine-producer strain), and methicillin-resistant Staph. epidermidis, were inhibited by the Staph. chromogenes isolates. Staphylococcus haemolyticus 4S12 was able to inhibit the majority of gram-positive bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes strains were the only indicators sensitive to the antimicrobial agents produced by Staph. agnetis 4S97B. The other Staphylococcus strains were ineffective on all the organisms tested. Based on their inhibitory capacities, the BLIS produced by the Staph. chromogenes isolates seem to be interesting candidates for developing novel antimicrobial agents.
74 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699353
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Andrea Ianni, Denise Innosa, Camillo Martino, Lisa Grotta, Francesca Bennato, Giuseppe Martino
ABSTRACT

Zinc represents an essential microelement for several biochemical mechanisms. The body's inability to store zinc necessarily requires a constant dietary supply to avoid alteration of physiological functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary enrichment with zinc on chemical-nutritional and aromatic properties of milk and cheese. Thirty commercial dairy cows, balanced for parity, milk production, and days in milk, were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The control group was fed with a conventional complete diet (22 kg of dry matter/animal per day), whereas the experimental group received a daily zinc supplementation of 60 mg per kg of dry complete feed. During the experimental period, the milk yield was monitored and samples of milk and caciotta cheese were collected to obtain information about the chemical-nutritional composition and aromatic profile. Dietary zinc integration did not influence milk yield and composition, but induced a marked reduction of somatic cell count and improved the oxidative stability of ripened caciotta cheese. In both milk and cheese, the experimental group samples were characterized by a lower concentration of saturated fatty acids and an increase in oleic acid, vaccenic acid, and rumenic acid. The aromatic profile of dairy products was also positively affected by dietary zinc intake, with an increase in concentration of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and esters. The present results suggest a positive role of zinc in improving animal health and nutraceutical properties of milk and corresponding cheese. Taking into account the analysis of volatile compounds, zinc dietary supplementation of dairy cows should contribute to the production of cheeses with interesting organoleptic properties, although more studies are necessary to confirm the consumer acceptability of these changes.
75 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699354
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Nicolò Amalfitano, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Alessio Cecchinato, Massimo Malacarne, Andrea Summer, Giovanni Bittante
ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the role of milk protein fractions in the coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of bovine milk. Analyses were performed on 1,271 individual milk samples from Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds classified into 4 types of farming systems, from the very traditional (tied cows, feed manually distributed, summer highland pasture) to the most modern (loose cows, use of total mixed rations with or without silage). Fractions αS1-casein (CN), αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN, β-lactoglobulin (LG), and α-lactalbumin (LA) and genotypes at CSN2, CSN3, and BLG were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC. The following milk coagulation properties were measured with a lactodynamograph, with the testing time extended to 60 min: rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd firming time (min), and curd firmness at 30 and 45 min (mm). All the curd firmness measures recorded over time (total of 240 observations/sample) were used in a 4-parameter nonlinear model to obtain parameters of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis: RCT estimated from the equation (min), asymptotic potential curd firmness (mm), the curd firming and syneresis instant rate constants (%/min), and the maximum curd firmness value (CFmax, mm) and the time taken to reach it (min). All the aforementioned traits were analyzed with 2 linear mixed models, which tested the effects of the protein fractions expressed in different ways: in the first, quantitative model, each protein fraction was expressed as content in milk; in the second, qualitative model, each protein fraction was expressed as a percentage of total casein content. Besides proteins, additional nuisance parameters were herd (included as a random effect), daily milk production (only for the quantitative model), casein content (only for the qualitative model), dairy system, parity, days in milk, the pendulum of the lactodynamograph, and the CSN2, CSN3, and BLG genotypes. Both αS1-CN and β-CN showed a clear and favorable effect on CFmax, where the former effect was almost double the latter. Milk coagulation ability was favorably affected by κ-CN, which reduced both the RCT and RCT estimated from the equation, increased the curd firming and syneresis instant rate constants, and allowed a higher CFmax to be reached. In contrast, αS2-CN delayed gelation time and β-LG worsened curd firming, both resulting in a low CFmax. The results of this study suggest that modification of the relative contents of specific protein fractions can have an enormous effect on the technological behavior of bovine milk.
76 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699355
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Aftab Siddique, Young W. Park
ABSTRACT

In this study, we manufactured 3 types of caprine milk Cheddar cheese: a control cheese (unfortified) and 2 iron-fortified cheeses, one of which used regular ferrous sulfate (RFS) and the other used large microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (LMFS). We then compared the iron recovery rates and the microstructural, textural, and sensory properties of the 3 cheeses under different storage conditions (temperature and duration). Compositional analysis included fat, protein, ash, and moisture contents. The RFS (FeSO4·7H2O) and LMFS (with 700- to 800-μm large particle ferrous sulfate encapsulated in nonhydrogenated vegetable fat) were added to cheese curds after whey draining and were thoroughly mixed before hooping and pressing the cheese. Three batches of each type of goat cheese were stored at 2 temperatures (4°C and −18°C) for 0, 2, and 4 mo. We analyzed the microstructure of cheese using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis software. A sensory panel (n = 8) evaluated flavors and overall acceptability of cheeses using a 10-point intensity score. Results showed that the control, RFS, and LMFS cheeses contained 0.0162, 0.822, and 0.932 mg of Fe/g of cheese, respectively, with substantially higher iron levels in both fortified cheeses. The iron recovery rates of RFS and LMFS were 71.9 and 73.5%, respectively. Protein, fat, and ash contents (%) of RFS and LMFS cheeses were higher than those of the control. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that LMFS cheese contained smaller and more elongated sharp-edged iron particles, whereas RFS cheese had larger-perimeter rectangular iron crystals. Iron-fortified cheeses generally had higher hardness and gumminess scores than the control cheese. The higher hardness in iron-fortified cheeses compared with the control may be attributed to proteolysis of the protein matrix and its binding with iron crystals during storage. Control cheese had higher sensory scores than the 2 iron-fortified cheeses, and LMFS cheese had the lowest scores for all tested sensory properties.
77 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699356
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Jie Luo, Ziwei Wang, Yiran Li, Chong Chen, Fazheng Ren, Huiyuan Guo
ABSTRACT

Milk fat globule membrane polar lipids (MPL) are increasingly used as the surface-active components for emulsions in many infant food products. However, the precise effect of the emulsifier MPL on the digestion of lipids during gastrointestinal digestion has not been elucidated. This study investigated the lipid digestion of droplets covered with MPL with different sizes in a simulated in vitro infant gastrointestinal digestion assay. The well-used surface-active component casein was used as a control. Four types of emulsions were formulated: small and large droplets covered with MPL concentrate (MPL-S and MPL-L, with volumetric means of 0.35 ± 0.01 and 4.04 ± 0.01 μm, respectively), and small and large droplets covered with casein (CN-S and CN-L, with volumetric means of 0.44 ± 0.01 and 4.09 ± 0.03 μm, respectively). The emulsions were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion using a semidynamic model mimicking infant digestion. Through the determination of particle size evolution, zeta-potential, and microstructure of emulsions, the lipid droplets covered with MPL were found to be more stable than that of the CN-S and CN-L during gastrointestinal digestion. Moreover, although CN-S and CN-L showed a higher initial lipolysis rate at the beginning of gastric digestion, droplets covered by MPL exhibited a significantly higher amount of free fatty acid release during later digestion. The amount of free fatty acid release of the emulsions in both gastric and intestinal digestion could be generally classified as MPL-S ≥ MPL-L> CN-S> CN-L. Our study highlights the crucial role of MPL in the efficient digestion of emulsions and brings new insight for the design of infant food products.
78 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699357
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Sachie Nakatani, Yousuke Taguchi, Hiroya Ueda, Yuko Ishida, Yoshikazu Morita, Ken Kato, Masahiro Wada, Kenji Kobata
ABSTRACT

It has been reported that the intake of milk basic protein (MBP) increases bone density by promoting bone formation and suppressing bone resorption. However, few studies have been done on MBP in cartilage, the tissue adjacent to bone. We therefore investigated the effect of MBP on a chondrocyte cell line, ATDC5. In a proliferative assay using the WST-1 method, the addition of 10, 100, and 1,000 µg/mL of MBP to ATDC5 cells significantly increased the cell number by about 1.2-, 1.5-, and 1.7-fold, respectively, compared with the control cells. The cell cycle analysis using flow-cytometry revealed that the proportion of S- and G2/M-phase cells was increased but that of G0/G1 phase was decreased in a dose-dependent manner with MBP addition. We measured the alkaline phosphatase activity of MBP-treated ATDC5 cells to examine the differentiation stage of the cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner with MBP addition and was especially drastic at higher doses of MBP (100 and 1,000 µg/mL). The Alizarin Red S staining intensity, the indicator for calcification of cells, was lower in the MBP-treated (100 µg/mL) cells than in nontreated control cells. In the reverse-transcription PCR experiment, the mRNA level of SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9) and type II collagen (Col2) was significantly increased in the MBP-treated cells compared with the control cells. A significant decrease of the mRNA level of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and type X collagen (Col10) was also observed in the MBP-treated cells. These results suggested that MBP promoted the proliferation of chondrocytes by suppressing their differentiation toward calcification.
79 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699358
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Pei Cao, Lingyi Wu, Zhen Wu, Daodong Pan, Xiaoqun Zeng, Yuxing Guo, Liwei Lian
ABSTRACT

In the present work, we studied the effects of different oligosaccharides on Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917, focusing on growth and adhesion characteristics and fermented milk flavor. The results showed that mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) had the greatest proliferative effect on L. plantarum ATCC14917 in vitro. In terms of adhesive properties, the autoaggregation rate of L. plantarum cultured in MOS was 23.76%, adhesion to mucin was 24.65%, and adhesion to Caco-2 cells was 14.71%. These results for L. plantarum cultured with MOS were higher than those for L. plantarum cultured in fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). Furthermore, the surface consistency and viscosity scores of fermented milk of the MOS group was higher than that of milks cultured with FOS or GOS, although MOS had the lowest scores for fermented milk flavor.
80 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699359
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Jong-Hwa Kim, Kiyoung Kim, Rungravee Kanjanasuntree, Wonyong Kim
ABSTRACT

Atopic dermatitis (AD) causes chronic inflammatory skin disease that results in a considerable economic expense and social burden. Certain Lactobacillus strains ameliorate AD, but the effects of probiotic yeast on AD have not been investigated to date. In this study, we isolated Kazachstania turicensis CAU Y1706, commonly known as a kefir yeast, and evaluated its mitigating effects using an ovalbumin-sensitized AD mouse model. Overall, K. turicensis CAU Y1706 was generally effective against AD. Oral administration of K. turicensis CAU Y1706 suppressed T helper type 2 immune response factors by regulatory T cells and upregulation of T helper type 1 cytokine levels. Kazachstania turicensis CAU Y1706 also reduced IgE levels as well as the number of eosinophil and mast cells. Furthermore, feces from K. turicensis CAU Y1706-treated mice had more butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, and Akkermansia, although the level of Fecalibacterium was significantly reduced. Therefore, K. turicensis CAU Y1706 modulates immune responses as well as gut microbiota, thus indicating that it has potential for application as a supplement for alleviation of AD.
81 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699360
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): S.J. Son, J.H. Koh, M.R. Park, S. Ryu, W.J. Lee, B. Yun, J.-H. Lee, S. Oh, Y. Kim
ABSTRACT

Synbiotics, a combination of prebiotics and probiotics, produce synergistic effects to promote gastrointestinal health. Herein, we investigated the synbiotic interaction between the Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG; a probiotic strain) and tagatose (a prebiotic) in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis murine model. Initially, body weight, food intake, and clinical features were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, and the addition of LGG, tagatose, or both ameliorated these effects. In our pyrosequencing analysis of fecal microbiota, DSS treatment increased the abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased that of Firmicutes. When LGG and tagatose were administered as synbiotics, the gut microbiota composition recovered from the dysbiosis caused by DSS treatment. In particular, the abundance of Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Akkermansia was significantly associated with probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic treatments. Taken together, our results suggest that LGG and tagatose as synbiotics can alleviate colitis, and synbiotics could be applied as dietary supplements in dairy foods such as yogurt and cheese.
82 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699361
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): J.J. Gross, R.M. Bruckmaier
ABSTRACT

Milk production of dairy cows has increased markedly during recent decades and continues to increase further. The evolutionarily conserved direction of nutrients to the mammary gland immediately after calving provided the basis for successful selective breeding toward higher performance. Considerable variation in adaptive responses toward energy and nutrient shortages exists; however, this variation in adaptability recently gained interest for identifying more metabolically robust dairy cows. Metabolic challenges during periods of high milk production considerably affect the immune system, reproductive performance, and product quality as well as animal welfare. Moreover, growing consumer concerns need to be taken into consideration because the public perception of industrialized dairy cow farming, the high dependency on feed sources suitable for human nutrition, and the apparently abundant use of antibiotics may affect the sales of dairy products. Breeding for high yield continues, but the metabolic challenges increasingly come close to the adaptational limits of meeting the mammary gland's requirements. The aim of the present review is to elucidate metabolic challenges and adaptational limitations at different functional stages of the mammary gland in dairy cows. From the challenges and adaptational limitations, we derive perspectives for sustainable milk production. Based on previous research, we highlight the importance of metabolic plasticity in adaptation mechanisms at different functional stages of the mammary gland. Metabolic adaptation and plasticity change among developing, nonlactating, remodeling, and lactational stages of the mammary gland. A higher metabolic plasticity in early-lactating dairy cows could be indicative of resilience, and a high performance level without an extraordinary occurrence of health disorders can be achieved.
83 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699362
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): S. Leane, M.M. Herlihy, F. Curran, J. Kenneally, N. Forde, C.A. Simintiras, R.G. Sturmey, P. Lonergan, S.T. Butler
84 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699363
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Vimal Selvaraj, Yves R. Boisclair
85 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699364
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): Matthew Lucy
86 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699365
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s):
87 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699366
Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 102, Issue 4
Author(s): J. De Koster, M. Salavati, C. Grelet, M.A. Crowe, E. Matthews, R. O'Flaherty, G. Opsomer, L. Foldager, GplusE, M. Hostens
88 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699367
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Zhiwei Kong, Chuanshe Zhou, Bin Li, Jinzhen Jiao, Liang Chen, Ao Ren, Hongdong Jie, Zhiliang Tan
ABSTRACT

Blood has been widely collected and analyzed for diagnosing and monitoring diseases in humans and animals; a range of plasma proteins and peptide can be used as biomarkers to describe pathological or physiological status. Changes in the environment such as high-altitude hypoxia (HAH) can lead to adaptive changes in the blood system of mammals. However, the adaptation mechanism induced by HAH remains unclear. In this study, we used 12 multiparous Jersey cattle (400 ± 35 kg, average 3 yr old, dry period). We applied an iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) proteomics approach and microRNA (miRNA) microarray to explore differences in the plasma proteomic and miRNA profiles of Jersey cattle exposed to HAH conditions in Nyingchi, Tibet (altitude 3,000 m) and HAH-free conditions in Shenyang, China (altitude 50 m). Such quantitative proteomic strategies are suitable for accurate and comprehensive prediction of miRNA targets. In total, 264 differentially expressed proteins (127 upregulated, fold-change>1.2; 137 downregulated, fold-change <0.8) and 47 differential miRNAs (25 upregulated, fold-change>2; 22 downregulated, fold-change <0.5) were observed in the HAH-stressed group compared with the HAH-free group. Integrative analysis of proteomic and miRNA profiles demonstrated that the biological processes associated with differentially expressed proteins were immune response, complement system, and conjugation system. Integrative analysis of canonical pathways showed that most were associated with acute phase response signaling (z-score = −0.125), liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation pathway (z-score = 1.134), coagulation system (z-score = −0.943), and complement system (z-score = −0.632). The current results indicated that Jersey cattle exposed to HAH could adapt to that condition through regulation of inflammatory homeostasis by inhibiting the acute phase response, coagulation system, and complement system and promoting LXR/RXR activation.
89 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699368
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): R.L. Hiltz, A.H. Laarman
ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of supplemental butyrate on (1) Ig production in dams and (2) Ig absorption in their calves. Twenty dry dams fed a close-up total mixed ration were assigned to either a control treatment (CTRL-D) or a butyrate treatment where the close-up total mixed ration was supplemented with butyrate at 1% of dry matter intake (wt/wt; BUT-D). At calving, calves were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a control group fed colostrum replacer only (CTRL-C) and a butyrate group fed colostrum replacer with supplemental butyrate at 2.5% (wt/vol; BUT-C). Serum IgG, glucose, and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured weekly in both dams and calves. Additionally, calves were weighed weekly to determine average daily gain. In dams, serum IgG concentration was not different between CTRL-D and BUT-D (1,785 ± 117 vs. 1,736 ± 137 mg/dL, respectively), nor was there a change in Ig levels in the colostrum between control and butyrate groups. Serum total protein did not differ between CTRL-D and BUT-D dams. Dam dry matter intake did not differ between CTRL-D and BUT-D but did decrease 1 wk before parturition. Compared with CTRL-C calves, BUT-C calves had significantly decreased serum IgG concentration at 24 h (2,110 ± 124 vs. 1,400 ± 115 mg/dL), wk 1 (1,397 ± 121 vs. 866 ± 115 mg/dL), and wk 2 (1,310 ± 121 vs. 797 ± 115 mg/dL). Additionally, apparent efficiency of absorption was lower for the BUT-C group compared with the CTRL-C group (35.3 ± 2.1 vs. 25.9 ± 2.0). Differences in serum Ig concentrations between the CTRL-C and BUT-C groups did not affect average daily gain (0.59 ± 0.05 vs. 0.48 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively), serum glucose concentrations, or serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. These data demonstrate that butyrate inclusion in colostrum negatively affects IgG absorption in newborn calves, whereas calf body weight gains were unaffected.
90 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699369
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Yaofeng Zhou, Sicheng Xiong, KangKang Zhang, Lin Feng, Xuelan Chen, Yuhao Wu, Xiaolin Huang, Yonghua Xiong
ABSTRACT

Herein, we reported a novel direct competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (dcFLISA) for the ultrasensitive detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in pasteurized milk, yogurt, and milk powder using 150-nm quantum dot beads (QB) as the carrier of competing antigen. Large QB were applied to decrease the binding affinity of the competing antigen to antibody and enhance the fluorescent signal intensity. The aflatoxin B1 molecule was used as the surrogate of AFM1 to label with BSA on the surface of QB because of its 63% cross reaction to anti-AFM1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb). The binding affinity of the competing antigen to mAb was tuned by changing the labeled molar ratios of aflatoxin B1 to BSA. Through combining the advantages of QB as the carrier of the competing antigen, including low binding affinity to mAb and highly fluorescent signal output, the proposed dcFLISA exhibited an ultrahigh sensitivity for AFM1 detection, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 3.15 pg/mL in 0.01 M phosphate-buffered saline solution (pH 7.4), which is approximately 130-fold lower than that of the traditional horseradish peroxidase-based ELISA. The proposed method also exhibited very low detection limitations of 0.5, 0.6, and 0.72 pg/mL for real pasteurized milk, yogurt, and milk powder, respectively. These values are considerably below the maximum permissible level of the European Commission standard for AFM1 in dairy products. In summary, the proposed dcFLISA offers a novel strategy with an ultrahigh sensitivity for the routine monitoring of AFM1 in various dairy products.
91 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699370
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): H.J. Perez Marquez, D.J. Ambrose, A.L. Schaefer, N.J. Cook, C.J. Bench
ABSTRACT

Most Canadian dairy herds operate in tiestall housing (61%), where average estrus detection rates may be lower than 54%. The objective of this study was to evaluate infrared thermography and behavioral biometrics as indicators of estrus in dairy cows. Eighteen cyclic multiparous cows (Synch) were subjected to an estrus synchronization protocol, and 18 pregnant cows (control) received a sham protocol on the same schedule and frequency as the cyclic cow treatment. A decline in plasma concentrations of progesterone and the appearance of a dominant follicle using transrectal ultrasonography were used as indirect indicators of estrus, and the disappearance of a dominant follicle was used to confirm ovulation. All cows were monitored via visual cameras to determine the frequency of treading, drinking, neighbor interaction, tail movement, lying, and shifting behaviors. Infrared thermograms were recorded at the eye, muzzle, cheek, neck, front right foot, front left foot, rump, flank, vulva area, tail head, and withers. To evaluate the accuracy of behavioral and thermal parameters, a predefined minimum acceptable value (i.e., threshold) for estrus alerts (>0.30 Youden J index and>0.60 area under the curve) was used. Ovulation was confirmed in 14 (77.7%) out of 18 Synch cows. Eye, cheek, neck, rump, flank, vulva area, and wither thermograms exhibited higher temperatures at 48 h [cycle threshold (Δt) = +0.30 to 1.20°C] and 24 h before ovulation compared with 4 d prior to ovulation (Δt = 0.06 to 0.11°C) and during ovulation day (Δt = 0.03 to 0.32°C) in the Synch group. In addition, control cows exhibited greater treading activity per day compared with Synch cows (20.84 ± 0.39 vs. 16.35 events/5 min ± 0.34), and tail movement frequency was greater in Synch cows compared with control cows (14.84 ± 2.7 vs. 10.11 ± 4.7 events/5 min). However, within Synch cows, tail movement was the only behavior that significantly increased in frequency 2 d before ovulation (11.81 ± 1.71 events/5 min) followed by a decrease in frequency 1 d before ovulation (4.67 ± 1.05 events/5 min) compared with ovulation day (0 d; 6.10 ± 1.25 events/5 min) and during luteolysis (3 d before ovulation; 6.01 ± 1.25 events/5 min). Upon evaluation of all variables (thermograms and behavior frequencies) as estrus indicators at 48 and 24 h before ovulation, treading and tail movements before milking and 9 thermal locations satisfied the predefined minimum acceptable value for estrus alerts. This study demonstrates that fluctuations in radiated temperature measured at specific anatomical locations and the frequency of tail movements and treading behaviors can be used as a noninvasive estrus alerts in multiparous cows housed in a tiestall system.
92 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699371
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Pedro Menchik, Tristan Zuber, Anika Zuber, Carmen I. Moraru
ABSTRACT

This article provides composition information for 3 abundantly available but little characterized dairy coproduct streams: acid whey from Greek yogurt (GAW), acid whey from cottage cheese (CAW), and milk permeate (MP). Three replicate samples obtained on different dates from several dairy processors were analyzed. The main component in all streams was lactose, with up to 3.5, 2.1, and 11.9% in GAW, CAW, and MP, respectively. Crude protein content ranged from 1.71 to 3.71 mg/g in GAW, 1.65 to 5.05 mg/g in CAW, and 3.2 to 4.35 mg/g in MP, and pH ranged from 4.21 to 4.48, 4.35 to 4.51, and 5.4 to 6.37, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand varied from 52,400 to 62,400 mg/L for GAW, 31,900 to 40,000 mg/L for CAW, and 127000 to 142,000 mg/L for MP; biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 45,800 to 50,500 mg/L (GAW), 32,700 to 40,000 mg/L (CAW), and 110,000 to 182,000 mg/L (MP). The GAW had the lowest pH (4.21–4.48) and highest mineral content of all streams. These data will assist processors and researchers in developing value-added uses of these dairy coproducts.
93 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699372
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): M. Villettaz Robichaud, J. Rushen, A.M. de Passillé, E. Vasseur, K. Orsel, D. Pellerin
ABSTRACT

Motivating dairy producers to financially invest in the improvement of their animals' comfort and welfare can pose some challenges, especially when financial returns are uncertain. Economic advantages for dairy producers associated with increased animal welfare are likely to come from either a premium paid for the milk or increased productivity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the associations between measures of herd productivity and farm profitability and animal-, management-, and resource-based indicators of cow welfare and comfort. The cow welfare measures were collected during a cow comfort assessment conducted on 130 Canadian freestall dairy farms, including 20 using an automatic milking system. Herd productivity and farm profitability measures were retrieved or calculated from data collected by the regional dairy herd improvement programs, and included milk production and quality, longevity, and economic margins over replacement costs. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the associations between welfare indicators and productivity and profitability measures. Increased yearly corrected milk production was associated with reduced prevalence of cows with knee lesions [β = 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.6–12.2], dirty flanks (β = 26.9; 95% CI: 7.4–46.5), and lameness (β = 11.7; 95% CI: 3.3–20.1). The farms' economic margin per cow, calculated over replacement costs, was associated with the within farm average lying time standard deviation (β = −7.2; 95% CI: −12.7–−1.7), percent of stalls with dry bedding (β = 6.4; 95% CI: 1.4–11.4), and prevalence of cows with knee lesions (β = −5.1; 95% CI: −8.9–−1.3). Some of the relationships found were complex, including several interactions between the animal-, management-, and resource-based measures. Overall, the results suggest that improved cow comfort and welfare on freestall farms is associated with increased herd productivity and profitability, when the latest is calculated by the margins over the replacement costs.
94 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699373
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Y. Liang, F. Batistel, C. Parys, J.J. Loor
ABSTRACT

Enhanced postruminal supply of Met during the periparturient period increases dry matter intake and milk yield. In nonruminants, adipose tissue is responsive to AA supply, and can use AA as fuels or for protein synthesis regulated in part via insulin and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Whether enhancing supply of Met has an effect on insulin and mTOR pathways in adipose tissue in peripartal cows is unknown. Multiparous Holstein cows were assigned from −28 to 60 d relative to parturition to a basal diet (control; 1.47 Mcal/kg of dry matter and 15.3% crude protein prepartum; 1.67 Mcal/kg and 17.7% crude protein postpartum) or the control plus ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected Met (RPM). The RPM was fed individually at a rate of 0.09% of dry matter intake prepartum and 0.10% postpartum. Subcutaneous adipose tissue harvested at −10, 10, and 30 d relative to parturition (days in milk) was used for quantitative PCR and Western blotting. A glucose tolerance test was performed at −12 and 12 d in milk to evaluate insulin sensitivity. Area under the curve for glucose in the pre- and postpartum tended to be smaller in cows fed Met. Enhanced Met supply led to greater overall mRNA abundance of Gln (SLC38A1), Glu (SLC1A1), l-type AA (Met, Leu, Val, Phe; SLC3A2), small zwitterionic α-AA (SLC36A1), and neutral AA (SLC1A5) transporters. Abundance of AKT1, RPS6KB1, and EIF4EBP1 was also upregulated in response to Met. A diet × day interaction was observed for protein abundance of insulin receptor due to Met cows having lower values at 30 d postpartum compared with controls. The diet × day interaction was significant for hormone-sensitive lipase due to Met cows having greater abundance at 10 d postpartum compared with controls. Enhanced Met supply upregulated protein abundance of insulin-responsive proteins phosphorylated (p)-AKT, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and fatty acid synthase. Overall abundance of solute carrier family 2 member 4 tended to be greater in cows fed Met. A diet × day interaction was observed for mTOR protein abundance due to greater values for RPM cows at 30 d postpartum compared with controls. Enhanced RPM supply upregulated overall protein abundance of solute carrier family 1 member 3, p-mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6. Overall, data indicate that mTOR and insulin signaling pathways in adipose tissue adapt to the change in physiologic state during the periparturient period. Further studies should be done to clarify whether the activation of p-AKT or increased availability of AA leads to the activation of mTOR.
95 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699374
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): Elissandra M.C. Zilio, Tiago A. Del Valle, Lucas G. Ghizzi, Caio S. Takiya, Mauro S.S. Dias, Alanne T. Nunes, Guilherme G. Silva, Francisco P. Rennó
ABSTRACT

Lactation diets are composed mostly of carbohydrates that are not fully fermented by rumen microbes. The aim of this study was to evaluate exogenous fibrolytic (Fibrozyme, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and amylolytic (Amaize, Alltech Inc.) enzymes on nutrient intake, sorting index, total-tract apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, milk yield, and composition of dairy cows in mid-lactation. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (181 ± 35 d in milk, 571 ± 72.7 kg of body weight, and 29.6 ± 5.24 kg/d of milk yield at the start of experiment) were blocked according to milk yield and randomly allocated to treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were (1) control, basal diet without exogenous enzymes; (2) fibrolytic enzyme (FIB), dietary supplementation of Fibrozyme (Alltech Inc.) at 12 g/d (51 IU of xylanase activity/kg of diet dry matter); (3) amylolytic enzyme (AMY), dietary supplementation of Amaize (Alltech Inc.) at 8 g/d (203 fungal amylase units/kg of diet dry matter); and (4) both fibrolytic and amylolytic enzymes (FIB+AMY) added at the same dose of the individual treatments. Enzyme products were added to the concentrate during its preparation (once a week). The supply of FIB and AMY had no effect on nutrient intake and digestibility. However, an interaction effect was observed on sorting index of feed particle size between 8 and 19 mm. Amylolytic enzyme increased the sorting for feed particles between 8 and 19 mm, only when fed without FIB. In addition, AMY decreased the sorting for feed with particle size greater than 19 mm. An interaction effect was observed between FIB and AMY for ruminal butyrate concentration and N excretion. Amylolytic enzyme increased ruminal butyrate concentration in cows treated with FIB. Further, FIB decreased milk protein production and feed efficiency only in cows not fed AMY. Amylolytic enzyme reduced urinary N excretion. Exogenous enzymes had no effect on milk production and composition of dairy cows. This study lacks evidence that fibrolytic and amylolytic enzymes can affect nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and performance of mid-lactation cows.
96 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699375
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): H.Y. Chang, R.X. Xie, L. Zhang, L.Z. Fu, C.T. Zhang, H.H. Chen, Z.Q. Wang, Y. Zhang, F.S. Quan
ABSTRACT

Accumulating studies have suggested that microRNA play a part in regulating multiple cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, the cell cycle, and embryo development. This study explored the effects of miR-101-2 on donor cell physiological status and the development of Holstein cow somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos in vitro. Holstein cow bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFF) overexpressing miR-101-2 were used as donor cells to perform SCNT; then, cleavage rate, blastocyst rate, inner cell mass-to-trophectoderm ratio, and the expression of some development- and apoptosis-related genes in different groups were analyzed. The miR-101-2 suppressed the expression of inhibitor of growth protein 3 (ING3) at mRNA and protein levels, expedited cell proliferation, and decreased apoptosis in BFF, suggesting that ING3, a target gene of miR-101-2, is a potential player in this process. Moreover, by utilizing donor cells overexpressing miR-101-2, the development of bovine SCNT embryos in vitro was significantly enhanced; the apoptotic rate in SCNT blastocysts was reduced, and the inner cell mass-to-trophectoderm ratio and SOX2, POU5F1, and BCL2L1 expression significantly increased, whereas BAX and ING3 expression decreased. Collectively, these findings suggest that miR-101-2 promotes BFF proliferation and vitality, reduces their apoptosis, and improves the early development of SCNT embryos.
97 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699376
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): B.M. Roque, G.C. Reyes, T.A. Tewoldebrhan, J. A. D. R.N. Apphuamy, J.-J. Lee, S. Seo, E. Kebreab
ABSTRACT

Exogenous enzymes have been used to improve nutrient utilization in several species of livestock, particularly swine and poultry. In addition, improved immunological and metabolic traits have been reported in nonruminants. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase supplementation on milk yield and composition, and immunological and metabolic responses in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Two weeks after calving, 20 Holstein cows (10 multiparous and 10 primiparous) were blocked by parity and assigned to 1 of 2 diets for 182 d. All cows were housed in the same environment and fed the same basal diet. The basal diet of the treatment group was supplemented with β-mannanase (CTCBio Inc., Seoul, South Korea) at 0.1% of concentrate dry matter. No differences were detected between the control and enzyme supplement groups in milk yield parameters or milk composition. Supplementation of β-mannanase enzyme reduced blood haptoglobin levels in supplemented multiparous cows compared with controls. Furthermore, nonesterified fatty acid concentration levels tended to be lower in cows fed β-mannanase, regardless of parity. Neither immunoglobulin G nor milk somatic cell count was affected by β-mannanase supplementation, regardless of parity. The number of insemination services tended to be lower in cows fed diets supplemented with β-mannanase. Results from this study suggest that supplementation of β-mannanase exogenous enzyme could help to reduce instances of systemic inflammation and decrease fat mobilization in lactating Holstein cows. Multiparous cows are considered susceptible to acute infections and inflammation; thus, the enzyme had a greater effect in multiparous cows.
98 show abstract
0022-0302 * * 29699377
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science
Author(s): S. Kargar, M. Kanani
ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of reconstitution of alfalfa hay on starter feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation, selected blood metabolites, and health criteria of dairy calves during the pre- and postweaning periods. A total of 20 newborn male Holstein calves (3 d of age; 40.3 ± 1.30 kg of body weight; ±SE) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments, a starter feed containing either 10% dry (AH) or reconstituted alfalfa hay (RAH), each consisting of 10 calves. Alfalfa hay was reconstituted with water 24 h before feeding to achieve a theoretical dry matter content of 20%. Both starter feeds had the same ingredients and nutrient compositions but differed in their dry matter content (91.2 and 83.8% dry matter for AH and RAH, respectively). Calves were weaned on d 50 and remained on the study until d 70. All calves had free access to fresh and clean drinking water and the starter feed at all times. During the study period, the average maximum temperature-humidity index was 73.8 units, indicating no degree of environmental heat load for dairy calves. Starter feed dry matter intake, total dry matter intake, and body weight (at weaning and at the end of the trial) were unaffected by treatment. Nutrient intake (except for total ether extract intake) increased during the postweaning period compared with the preweaning period. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were unchanged between treatments. Calves had higher average daily gain and skeletal growth during the postweaning period; however, feed efficiency was lower during the post- versus preweaning period. Calves fed RAH gained more hip width and body barrel compared with calves fed AH during the preweaning and all studied periods, respectively. Rectal temperature was similar between treatments, but feeding RAH decreased fecal score and general appearance score during the preweaning period. Apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility was not affected by reconstitution of alfalfa hay; however, reconstitution increased total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber during the postweaning period. Ruminal fluid pH, and concentrations and profile of total volatile fatty acids were unchanged between treatments. Molar concentration of propionate and acetate to propionate ratio increased and decreased, respectively, during the postweaning period. Reconstitution of alfalfa hay did not affect concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N, and albumin, and albumin to globulin ratio during the studied periods; however, reconstitution increased concentration of blood total protein during the overall period. Calves had higher concentrations of blood glucose and globulin during the preweaning and β-hydroxybutyrate during the postweaning period. Overall, reconstitution of alfalfa hay did not interact with calf phase (pre- vs. postweaning) to affect dry matter intake, growth performance, and metabolic indications of rumen development (measured as ruminal volatile fatty acids and selected blood metabolites), but improved health-related variables (fecal score and general appearance score) during the preweaning period.

Green Open Access

Sherpa/Romeo info

Author cannot archive pre-print (ie pre-refereeing)
Author can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing)
Author cannot archive publisher's version/PDF
  • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
  • On author's personal website immediately
  • On non-commercial open access repository after 12 months embargo
  • Publisher last reviewed on 24/11/2016


More Sherpa/Romeo information

APC Discount

For this journal no deals have been made concerning APC discount

More information on Open Access publishing

Impact

Journal Citation Reports (2017)

Impact factor: 2.749
Q1 (Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science (4/60))
Q2 (Food Science & Technology (35/133))

Scopus Journal Metrics (2017)

SJR: 1.350
SNIP: 1.491
Impact (Scopus CiteScore): 0.284
Quartile: Q1
CiteScore percentile: 95%
CiteScore rank: 16 out of 367
Cited by WUR staff: 3321 times. (2014-2016)

Similar journals  

 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.