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International Journal of Sports Medicine



ISSN: 0172-4622 (1439-3964)
Sport Sciences - Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Full APC costs for WUR authors (no discount)

Recent articles

1 show abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the changes determined by increased cadence on skeletal muscle oxygenation during cycling at an exercise intensity equal to the ventilatory threshold (Tvent).Nine healthy, active individuals with different levels of cycling experience exercised at a power output equal to Tvent, pedaling at cadences of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 rpm, each for 4 min. Cadences were tested in a randomized counterbalanced sequence. Cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses were studied using an ECG for heart rate, and gas calorimetry for pulmonary oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production. NIRS was used to determine the tissue saturation index (TSI), a measure of vastus lateralis oxygenation.TSI decreased from rest to exercise; the magnitude of this TSI reduction was significantly greater when pedaling at 90 rpm (−14±4%), compared to pedaling at 40 (−12±3%) and 50 (−12±3%) rpm (P=0.027 and 0.017, respectively). Albeit small, the significant decrease in ΔTSI at increased cadence recorded in this study suggests that skeletal muscle oxygenation is relatively more affected by high cadence when exercise intensity is close to Tvent.
2 show abstract

Article URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0842-5727
Citation: Int J Sports Med 2019; 40: 219-223
Publication Date: 2019-02-25T00:00:00+0100
Journal: International Journal of Sports Medicine
3 show abstract
The present is an observational study following a genetic epidemiology model using a case-control design. We tested the hypothesis of an association between the prevalence of the genotypic and allelic frequencies distribution of the potassium voltage-gated channel of the shaker related subfamily member 4 gene (KCNA4) rs1323860 (C/T transition) and endurance performance level in Hispanic male marathon runners (MR). The subjects (n=1876) were adult Hispanic male MR. Fast-MR (cases; n=938) were finishers in the top 3rd percentile. Slow MR (controls; n=938) were finishers in the lowest 3rd percentile of their respective age. Genomic DNA was purified from a whole blood sample. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a KCNA4 SNP which consists of a C/T (rs1323860) transition. The observed genotype frequencies, in both Cases and Controls, met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2, P≥0.05). Genotype and allele frequencies were statistically different (P
4 show abstract
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in the young and in competitive athletes. The deleterious role of exercise in the natural history of ARVC is clear. Even in the absence of a demonstrated arrhythmogenic substrate, family history or mutations of ARVC, intense physical exercise may in some individuals lead to the development of right ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmogenicity. This led to question the benignity of some adaptive features of the athlete's heart. In fact, there is an overlap between typical aspects of the athlete's heart and pathological changes described in ARVC, being challenging to distinguish the two conditions. The aim of this review is to highlight the aspects that help to distinguish between athlete's heart and ARVC, to review the major findings on exams helping in the differential diagnosis and to determine the implications on eligibility for leisure and competitive sports.
5 show abstract
Standard outcomes of traditional isokinetic testing do not detect differences between various muscle mechanical properties. This study i) explored a novel analysis throughout the range of motion based on statistical parametric mapping and ii) examined the impact of sex and discipline on hamstrings/quadriceps torque in elite alpine skiers. Twenty-eight national team skiers (14 females, 14 males; 14 technical, 14 speed) undertook an isokinetic evaluation of the knee flexors/extensors (range 30–90°, 0° representing full extension). There was no effect of sex (p=0.864, d=0.03) and discipline (p=0.360, d=0.17) on maximal hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and no effect of discipline on maximal torque (p>0.156, d≤0.25). Hamstrings torque and hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio were lower in females than males toward knee extension only (p
6 show abstract
The aim was to analyze the influence of weather conditions on medical emergencies in a half-marathon, specifically by evaluating its relation to the number of non-finishers, ambulance-required assistances, and collapses in need of ambulance as well as looking at the location of such emergencies on the race course. Seven years of data from the world’s largest half marathon were used. Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station, and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index was used as a measure of general weather conditions. Of the 315,919 race starters, 104 runners out of the 140 ambulance-required assistances needed ambulance services due to collapses. Maximum air temperature and PET significantly co-variated with ambulance-required assistances, collapses, and non-finishers (R2=0.65–0.92; p=0.001–0.03). When air temperatures vary between 15–29°C, an increase of 1°C results in an increase of 2.5 (0.008/1000) ambulance-required assistances, 2.5 (0.008/1000) collapses (needing ambulance services), and 107 (0.34/1000) non-finishers. The results also indicate that when the daily maximum PET varies between 18–35°C, an increase of 1°C PET results in an increase of 1.8 collapses (0.006/1000) needing ambulance services and 66 non-finishers (0.21/1000).
7 show abstract
Hamstring strain injury (HSI) is one of the most prevalent and severe injury in professional soccer. The purpose was to analyze and compare the predictive ability of a range of machine learning techniques to select the best performing injury risk factor model to identify professional soccer players at high risk of HSIs. A total of 96 male professional soccer players underwent a pre-season screening evaluation that included a large number of individual, psychological and neuromuscular measurements. Injury surveillance was prospectively employed to capture all the HSI occurring in the 2013/2014 season. There were 18 HSIs. Injury distribution was 55.6% dominant leg and 44.4% non-dominant leg. The model generated by the SmooteBoostM1 technique with a cost-sensitive ADTree as the base classifier reported the best evaluation criteria (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve score=0.837, true positive rate=77.8%, true negative rate=83.8%) and hence was considered the best for predicting HSI. The prediction model showed moderate to high accuracy for identifying professional soccer players at risk of HSI during pre-season screenings. Therefore, the model developed might help coaches, physical trainers and medical practitioners in the decision-making process for injury prevention.
8 show abstract
This study determined the training load (TL) and its relationship with high-intensity running performance across the season in professional soccer players. The TL, YoYo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIR 2) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) were monitored in 29 players (age 26.2±3.8 years, height 173.6±5.6 cm, body mass 68.5±8.6 kg). In the mid in-season (MS), Lucia TRIMP (TRIMPL) was inversely correlated with YYIR 2 (r=−0.6, p
9 show abstract
The ability to change velocity rapidly is a key element of field-based sports. This study quantified the acceleration and deceleration profiles of soccer players during match play. Global positioning system measures were collected from 20 male soccer players competing in the Australian Hyundai A-League during 58 matches. Match data were organized into ten 9 min periods (i. e., P1: 0–9 min) and the time spent at moderate (1–2 m·s−2) and high (>2 m·s−2) acceleration and deceleration thresholds were quantified. Additionally, a novel deceleration: acceleration ratio was quantified to identify the transient nature of deceleration activity. Linear mixed models were used to model the acceleration and deceleration profiles. All acceleration and deceleration metrics displayed negative logarithmic curves within each half. There was no change in the ratio of high deceleration: acceleration; however, a significant increase in the ratio of moderate deceleration:acceleration was evident. Using negative logarithmic curves to illustrate the acceleration and deceleration decay provides a novel methodological approach to quantify the high-intensity actions during match play. A decrease in the time spent decelerating throughout a match may be attributed to a lack of opportunity. Practitioners can use the coefficients, intercepts, and deceleration: acceleration ratios to monitor a player’s deceleration profile in match play.
10 show abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether spiroergometry performance in adolescent alpine ski racers can predict later advancement to a professional career. Over 10 consecutive years, adolescent skiers of the regional Austrian Youth Skier Squad (local level) underwent annual medical examinations, including exhaustive bicycle spiroergometry. The performance was determined at fixed (2 and 4 mmol/l serum lactate) and individual (individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and lactate equivalent (LAE)) thresholds. Data from the last available test were compared between skiers who later advanced to the professional level (Austrian national ski team) and those who did not. Ninety-seven alpine skiers (n=51 male; n=46 female); mean age 16.6 years (range 15–18) were included. Of these, 18 adolescents (n=10 male; n=8 female) entered a professional career. No significant differences were found for maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Athletes advancing to the professional level had significantly higher performance and VO2 at LAE. Additionally, male professionals had significantly higher performances at fixed thresholds and the IAT. The performance and VO2 at the LAE, and thus the ability to produce power at a particular metabolic threshold, was the most relevant spiroergometric parameter to predict a later professional career.
11 show abstract
Ten highly-trained Jiu-Jitsu fighters performed 2 repeated-sprint sessions, each including 2 sets of 8 x ~6 s back-and-forth running sprints on a tatami. One session was carried out with normal breathing (RSN) and the other with voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume (RSH-VHL). Prefrontal and vastus lateralis muscle oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]) and deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb]) were monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), gas exchange and maximal blood lactate concentration ([La]max) were also assessed. SpO2 was significantly lower in RSH-VHL than in RSN whereas there was no difference in HR. Muscle oxygenation was not different between conditions during the entire exercise. On the other hand, in RSH-VHL, cerebral oxygenation was significantly lower than in RSN (−6.1±5.4 vs−1.5±6.6 µm). Oxygen uptake was also higher during the recovery periods whereas [La]max tended to be lower in RSH-VHL. The time of the sprints was not different between conditions. This study shows that repeated shuttle-run sprints with VHL has a limited impact on muscle deoxygenation but induces a greater fall in cerebral oxygenation compared with normal breathing conditions. Despite this phenomenon, performance is not impaired, probably because of a higher oxygen uptake during the recovery periods following sprints.
12 show abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the game movement demands between professional club and senior international rugby union players. Data were obtained from 188 players from 4 professional club teams (Rabo Direct Pro12) and the affiliated international team during the 2014–15 season. Players were tracked by global positioning system (GPS) sampled at 10 Hz and were categorized into 6 different positional groups (front row forwards, FRF; second row forwards, SRF; back row forwards, BRF; half backs, HB; centres, C; outside backs, OB) and separated into playing standard (club vs. international level). Data on distance, distance per minute, high speed running, maximum velocity, sprint distance and efforts as well as repeated high-intensity locomotion efforts (RHILE) were collected. Significant effects (P
13 show abstract
This review used a narrative summary of findings from studies that focused on isometric strength training (IST), covering the training considerations that affect strength adaptations and its effects on sports related dynamic performances. IST has been shown to induce less fatigue and resulted in superior joint angle specific strength than dynamic strength training, and benefited sports related dynamic performances such as running, jumping and cycling. IST may be included into athletes’ training regime to avoid getting overly fatigue while still acquiring positive neuromuscular adaptations; to improve the strength at a biomechanically disadvantaged joint position of a specific movement; to improve sports specific movements that require mainly isometric contraction; and when athletes have limited mobility due to injuries. To increase muscle hypertrophy, IST should be performed at 70–75% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) with sustained contraction of 3–30 s per repetition, and total contraction duration of>80–150 s per session for>36 sessions. To increase maximum strength, IST should be performed at 80–100% MVC with sustained contraction of 1–5 s, and total contraction time of 30–90 s per session, while adopting multiple joint angles or targeted joint angle. Performing IST in a ballistic manner can maximize the improvement of rate of force development.
14 show abstract
To examine measures of total and regional body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in NCAA Division I collegiate equestrian athletes, 31 female collegiate equestrian athletes were matched to a population of normal controls by age and body mass index. Total and regional fat tissue mass (FM), lean tissue mass (LM), bone mineral density (BMD), and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were measured by DXA. Equestrian athletes had a significantly (p=0.03) lower total body fat percentage (%fat) than controls. There were no significant differences in total LM and VAT between equestrian athletes and controls. However, equestrian athletes, when compared to the controls, had significantly lower leg %fat, leg FM and higher leg LM. The greater leg LM in equestrian riders resulted in a smaller upper to lower body LM ratio compared to controls. There was no difference in leg BMD between equestrian athletes and controls. There were no significant differences between the 2 styles of riding (i. e., hunt seat and western style) in regards to body composition. The lower total %fat in equestrian athletes seems to be influenced by differences in leg composition, with equestrian athletes having significantly more LM and less FM.
15 show abstract
Mountain bike Cross-Country Olympic (XCO) has an intermittent performance profile, underlining the importance of anaerobic metabolism. Traditional performance tests in cycling primarily quantify aerobic metabolism and inadequately meet the demands in XCO. The aim was therefore to validate a specific test that quantifies these requirements by means of an XCO race.Twenty-three competitive XCO athletes (17.9±3.6 years) performed a previously developed performance test and an XCO race within one week. Correlations between individual anaerobic threshold (IAT), 4 mmol lactate threshold (LT4), maximal aerobic power (MAP), maximal effort time trials (TT) for 10–300 s and mean power output of the race (POR) were calculated. In addition, a multiple regression model of the predictive value of the test was calculated.Variables correlated significantly (p
16 show abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of vibrotactile signals during physical exercise by comparing differences in recognition between stationary and cycling positions. The impact of physical exercise on the ability to perceive vibrotactile cues is unknown, whereas the recognition in stationary position has been shown previously. Vibrating elements were positioned at 3 locations on the thighs and spine of 9 athletes to apply various vibrotactile cues. Subjects performed at 0, 50, 70 and 90% of their maximal cycling power output and denoted the interpretation of the vibration signals on a touchscreen. The results show a similarity in correct recognition between stationary position and physical exercise for the thighs and spine (p>0.1) and demonstrate a decrease in response time for 70 and 90% levels of physical exercise compared to 0 and 50% (p

APC Discount

Researchers from RUG, TU/e, UL, UM and UvA will receive a 25% discount on the Article Processing Charges that need to be paid by a first or corresponding author to publish open access in this journal.

More information on this Thieme deal.

This deal is valid until 2019-12-31.

More information on Open Access publishing

Last updated: 2019-01-14


Journal Citation Reports (2017)

Impact factor: 2.453
Q2 (Sport Sciences (25/81))

Scopus Journal Metrics (2017)

SJR: 1.217
SNIP: 1.092
Impact (Scopus CiteScore): 0.228
Quartile: Q1
CiteScore percentile: 81%
CiteScore rank: 45 out of 237
Cited by WUR staff: 19 times. (2014-2016)

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