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Planta Medica



ISSN: 0032-0943 (1439-0221)
Integrative & Complementary Medicine - Plant Sciences - Pharmacology & Pharmacy - Chemistry, Medicinal - Complementary and alternative medicine - Pharmaceutical Science - Organic Chemistry - Analytical Chemistry - Drug Discovery - Pharmacology - Molecular Medicine
Full APC costs for WUR authors (no discount)

Recent articles

1 show abstract
Three diynes, octadec-17-ene-9,11-diynoate ethyl (1), 8-hydroxy-octadeca-13,17-diene-9,11-diynoate ethyl (2), and 8-hydroxy-octadec-13-ene-9,11-diynoate ethyl (3), were isolated from Ongokea gore seed oil. The structure assignment of these three compounds was based according to chemical and spectroscopic data. They were screened against Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes malaria. In vitro micro-test (Mark III, supported by the World Health Organization) was developed to assess the response of P. falciparum to the isolated three compounds, and statistical analysis were performed for determination of the concentration that inhibits 50% of the parasite maturation (IC50). Two of the three diynes (2 and 3) showed a very effective in vitro antimalarial activity with an IC50 of 4.5 and 1.7 µM, respectively. Compound 3 exhibited better activity than quinine (IC50 1.9 µM), the drug reference, while compound 1 had no antimalarial activity (IC50 > 125 µM). In the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cytotoxicity screening, all compounds showed no toxicity (mean IC50 of 90 µM for each compound).
2 show abstract
The polyphenol compound, oxyresveratrol (OXY) possesses potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of potential utility in the treatment of Alzheimerʼs disease. However, the low oral bioavailability limits its neuroprotective effect and clinical application. The neuroprotective effect of orally administered OXY-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (OXY-SMEDDS) was compared with free OXY in vivo. Mice were orally administered either free OXY or OXY-SMEDDS once daily at a dose of 90, 180, or 360 mg/kg for 14 d. Mice received a single intracerebroventricular injection of the neurotoxic amyloid β (Aβ)25 – 35 peptide at day 8 during oral treatment. The OXY-SMEDDS formulation resulted in four-times reduction of the free OXY dose required for prevention of neurotoxicity effects due to Aβ 25 – 35 peptide as demonstrated by a significant decline in behavior impairments, lipid oxidation levels, and neuronal cell loss in all hippocampal subfields (p < 0.0001). These results indicate the potential of OXY-SMEDDS by oral delivery to improve the efficacy of this compound in the treatment of Alzheimerʼs disease.
3 show abstract
Wear debris-induced osteolysis is one of the major reasons for subsequent aseptic loosening after cementless hip arthroplasty. Increasing evidence suggests that receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand-mediated osteoclastogenesis and osteolysis are responsible for wear debris-induced aseptic loosening. In the present study, we explored the effect of amentoflavone (AMF) on inhibiting osteoclast generation and wear debris-induced osteolysis in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-four male C57BL/J6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: a sham group and groups with titanium wear debris treatment followed by intraperitoneal injection of various concentrations of AMF (0, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day). The micro computed tomography scanning and histological analysis were performed. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were cultured to investigate the effect of AMF on osteoclast generation and function. The results showed that AMF suppressed osteoclastogenesis, F-actin ring formation, and bone absorption without cytotoxicity. AMF prevented titanium wear debris-induced osteolysis in mice. AMF suppressed the relative proteins of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) signaling pathways. Thus, the present study suggests that AMF derived from plants could inhibit osteoclastogenesis and titanium wear debris-induced osteolysis via suppressing NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways.
4 show abstract
Silibinin, the bioactive compound of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), exerts tissue protective and regenerative effects that may include stem cell differentiation toward vascular cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether silibinin stimulates blood vessel formation from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and to unravel the underlying signaling cascade. Vascular branching points were assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis of CD31-positive cell structures. Protein expression of vascular markers and activation of protein kinases were determined by western blot. Nitric oxide (NO) generation was investigated by use of the fluorescent dye 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate. Silibinin dose-dependently increased CD31-positive vascular branching points in embryoid bodies cultivated from ES cells. This was paralleled by increase of protein expression levels for the endothelial-specific markers vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Moreover, silibinin increased activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which boosted generation of NO in embryoid bodies and enhanced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as well as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) and AKT. Vasculogenesis, VE-cadherin expression, STAT3 and AKT phosphorylation, NO generation, and eNOS phosphorylation were inhibited by the small molecule STAT3 inhibitor Stattic, AKT inhibitor VIII, the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002, or the NOS inhibitor Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. In conclusion, our findings indicate that silibinin induces vasculogenesis of ES cells via activation of STAT3, PI3-K, and AKT, which regulate NO generation by eNOS.
5 show abstract
Four new phenylethanoid glycosides (1–4), 1-β-p-hydroxyphenyl-ethyl-2-O-acetyl-3,6-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 1-β-p-hydroxyphenyl-ethyl-3,6-O-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), 1-β-p-hydroxyphenyl-ethyl-2-O-acetyl-3,6-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-4-p-coumaroyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 1-β-p-hydroxyphenyl-ethyl-3,6-di-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-4-p-coumaroyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), together with three known compounds, were isolated from the n-butanol extract of Cistanche phelypaea aerial parts. The structural characterization of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS experiments. The isolated compounds were assayed for their inhibitory activity on two enzymes involved in the peculiar glycolytic or lipidic metabolism of cancer cells, human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. All the compounds showed negligible activity on LDH, whereas some of them displayed a certain inhibition activity on MAGL. In particular, compound 1 was the most active on MAGL, showing an IC50 value of 88.0 µM, and modeling studies rationalized the supposed binding mode of 1 in the MAGL active site.
6 show abstract
Tripolinolate A as a new bioactive phenolic ester was previously isolated from a halophyte of Tripolium pannonicum. However, the in vitro and in vivo anti-glioma effects and mechanism of tripolinolate A have not been investigated. This study has demonstrated that (1) tripolinolate A inhibited the proliferation of different glioma cells with IC50 values of 7.97 to 14.02 µM and had a significant inhibitory effect on the glioma growth in U87MG xenograft nude mice, (2) tripolinolate A induced apoptosis in glioma cells by downregulating the expressions of antiapoptotic proteins and arrested glioma cell cycle at the G2/M phase by reducing the expression levels of cell cycle regulators, and (3) tripolinolate A also remarkably reduced the expression levels of several glioma metabolic enzymes and transcription factors. All data together suggested that tripolinolate A had significant in vitro and in vivo anti-glioma effects and the regulation of multiple tumor-related regulators and transcription factors might be responsible for the activities of tripolinolate A against glioma.
7 show abstract
The plants in the genus Derris have proven to be a rich source of rotenoids, of which cytotoxic effect against cancer cells seem to be pronounced. However, their effect on angiogenesis playing a crucial role in both cancer growth and metastasis has been seldom investigated. This study aimed at investigating the effect of the eight rotenoids (1–8) isolated from Derris trifoliata stems on three cancer cells and angiogenesis. Among them, 12a-hydroxyrotenone (2) exhibited potent inhibition on both cell growth and migration of HCT116 colon cancer cells. Further, anti-angiogenic assay in an ex vivo model was carried out to determine the effect of the isolated rotenoids on angiogenesis. Results revealed that 12a-hydroxyrotenone (2) displayed the most potent suppression of microvessel sprouting. The in vitro assay on human umbilical vein endothelial cells was performed to determine whether compound 2 elicits anti-angiogenic effect and its effect was found to occur via suppression of endothelial cells proliferation and tube formation, but not endothelial cells migration. This study provides the first evidence that compound 2 could potently inhibit HCT116 cancer migration and anti-angiogenic activity, demonstrating that 2 might be a potential agent or a lead compound for cancer therapy.
8 show abstract
Petasites hybridus extract is used in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the active constituent petasin and its isomers isopetasin and neopetasin (petasins) in the P. hybridus extract Ze 339 for liberation, dissolution, absorption, and metabolism. The determination of pH-dependent thermodynamic solubility was performed via the shake-flask method. Petasins exhibited a low solubility that was pH independent. In vivo, the concentration of solute drugs is decreased continuously by intestinal absorption. Therefore, low solubility is not assumed to be critical for in vivo performance. Additionally, dissolution of an herbal medicinal product containing P. hybridus extract Ze 339 was assessed. Furthermore, high permeability through Caco-2 monolayers was evident. Using an in situ rat model, absorption capacity for petasins was found in all tested intestinal segments, namely, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Besides, high metabolism was evident both in Caco-2 monolayers and in the rat intestine. To compare intestinal and hepatic metabolism of petasins, in vitro enzyme assays using liver and intestinal cytosol and microsomes (S9 fraction) of rats and humans were performed. A significantly higher metabolic rate was found in the liver S9 fraction of both species compared with the intestinal S9 fraction.
9 show abstract
The aerial parts of Guarea guidonia afforded three new tirucallane-type triterpenoids: 3,4-seco-tirucalla-4(28),8(9),24(25)-trien-7α,11α-dihydroxy-21,23-epoxy-3,11-olide, named guareolide (1), 3,4-seco-tirucalla-4(28),7(8),24(25)-trien-21-hydroxy-21,23-epoxy-3-oic acid, named guareoic acid A (2), and 3,4-seco-tirucalla-4(28),7(8),24(25)-trien-21,23-epoxy-3-oic acid, named guareoic acid B (3), of which 1 possessed an unusual seven-membered lactone ring. Seven known terpenes were also isolated and characterized as flindissone, 7-acetyldihydronomilin, picroquassin E, boscartol C, and cneorubins A, B, and X. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The isolates were investigated for their potential cytotoxic activity on Jurkat, HeLa, and MCF7 cancer cell lines. Flindissone and compound 2 showed an antiproliferative activity in all cell lines. Further studies revealed that flindissone, the most active compound, induced in Jurkat and HeLa cells both cytostatic and cytotoxic responses.
10 show abstract
Fungi have consistently been one of the richest sources of natural products, with unprecedented chemical scaffolds and potent biological activities. During the last 20 years, pharmacognosy researchers in Mexico, in collaboration with mycologists, have discovered many novel bioactive fungi natural products and new fungal species. To date, more than 100 bioactive secondary metabolites from 20 fungi from different ecosystems throughout Mexico have been documented in peer-reviewed literature according to Scopus and SciFinder databases. These include compounds from different biosynthetic origins and structural cores with the potential for the development of anticancer, antidiabetic, and/or pesticide agents.
11 show abstract
Aspalathin is a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone that is abundantly present in Aspalathus linearis. This endemic South African plant, belonging to the Cape Floristic region, is normally used for production of rooibos, a herbal tea. Aspalathin was valued initially only as precursor in the formation of the characteristic red-brown colour of “fermented” rooibos, but the hype about the potential role of natural antioxidants to alleviate oxidative stress, shifted interest in aspalathin to its antioxidant properties and subsequently, its potential role to improve metabolic syndrome, a disease condition interrelated with oxidative stress. The potential use of aspalathin or aspalathin-rich rooibos extracts as a condition-specific nutraceutical is hampered by the limited supply of green rooibos (i.e., “unfermented” plant material) and low levels in “fermented” rooibos, providing incentive for its synthesis. In vitro and in vivo studies relating to the metabolic activity of aspalathin are discussed and cellular mechanisms by which aspalathin improves glucose and lipid metabolism are proposed. Other aspects covered in this review, which are relevant in view of the potential use of aspalathin as an adjunctive therapy, include its poor stability and bioavailability, as well as potential adverse herb-drug interactions, in particular interference with the metabolism of certain commonly prescribed chronic medications for hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia.
12 show abstract
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has recently established itself in the field of “spatial metabolomics.” Merging the sensitivity and fast screening of high-throughput mass spectrometry with spatial and temporal chemical information, IMS visualizes the production, location, and distribution of metabolites in intact biological models. Since metabolite profiling and morphological features are combined in single images, IMS offers an unmatched chemical detail on complex biological and microbiological systems. Thus, IMS-type “spatial metabolomics” emerges as a powerful and complementary approach to genomics, transcriptomics, and classical metabolomics studies. In this review, we summarize the current state-of-the-art IMS methods with a strong focus on desorption electrospray ionization (DESI)-IMS. DESI-IMS utilizes the original principle of electrospray ionization, but in this case solvent droplets are rastered and desorbed directly on the sample surface. The rapid and minimally destructive DESI-IMS chemical screening is achieved at ambient conditions and enables the accurate view of molecules in tissues at the µm-scale resolution. DESI-IMS analysis does not require complex sample preparation and allows repeated measurements on samples from different biological sources, including microorganisms, plants, and animals. Thanks to its easy workflow and versatility, DESI-IMS has successfully been applied to many different research fields, such as clinical analysis, cancer research, environmental sciences, microbiology, chemical ecology, and drug discovery. Herein we discuss the present applications of DESI-IMS in natural product research.
13 show abstract
Among the known or suspected risk factors, inflammation plays an important role in infectious and non-infectious pathways leading to cancer. Green tea polyphenols have been associated with reducing inflammation and protection against carcinogenesis, especially in prostate cancer. While most of the research in this field, so far, has focussed on epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate only, we studied epicatechin-3-O-gallate, the second most abundant green tea polyphenol with essential therapeutic potential, to obtain a more detailed understanding of its anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory action. Furthermore, to improve the bioactivity of (−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, we synthesized a difluoro analogue, called (−)-5,7-difluoro-epicatechin-3-O-gallate. Both compounds reduced cell proliferation of human primary inflammatory lymphocytes in an apoptosis-specific fashion, while (−)-5,7-difluoro-epicatechin-3-O-gallate had a significantly higher activity compared to the natural product (−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate. Treatment of low-metastatic LNCaP and high-metastatic PC-3 prostate cancer cells with (−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate and (−)-5,7-difluoro-epicatechin-3-O-gallate demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability in the low micromolar range. These effects suggest that (−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate and the more effective (−)-5,7-difluoro-epicatechin-3-O-gallate could be therapeutically used to inhibit tumorigenesis during initiation, promotion, and progression by diminishing the amount of inflammation due to a reduction of inflammatory lymphocytes. Further studies are needed to prove this in in vivo experiments.
14 show abstract
In this study, three semisynthetic betulonic acid-based compounds, 20(29)-dihydrolup-2-en[2,3-d]isoxazol-28-oic acid, 1-betulonoylpyrrolidine, and lupa-2,20(29)-dieno[2,3-b]pyrazin-28-oic acid, were studied in biotransformation experiments using Nicotiana tabacum and Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures. Biotransformation was performed using cyclodextrin to aid dissolving poorly water-soluble substrates. Several new derivatives were found, consisting of oxidized and glycosylated (pentose- and hexose-conjugated) products.
15 show abstract
The genus Santolina is a taxonomically complex group of plant species widely distributed in the Mediterranean flora and used in traditional medicine since ancient times for their biological properties, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, digestive, and analgesic activities. Phytochemical investigations of Santolina species have revealed the presence of terpenoids as the main bioactive constituents of the genus. Coumarins and flavonoids were also identified. This review deals, for the first time, with information on the traditional uses, chemical profile, and biological properties of plants of the genus Santolina in order to provide input for future research prospects.
16 show abstract
Skin hyperpigmentation is caused by several factors that upregulate melanogenesis. Plants and natural products with skin-whitening effects are gaining interest among consumers and researchers because they are perceived to be milder, safer, and healthier than synthetic alternatives. This review extensively summarizes the status of plants and natural products currently used in skin-whitening cosmetics as well as potential candidates for future use, because the scope of natural choices for efficient treatment of skin hyperpigmentation is rapidly widening. Biological activities of plants and natural extracts are therefore available for cosmetic formulators and dermatologists interested in naturally derived ingredients for skin hyperpigmentation treatment and in accordance with the consumersʼ preferences and expectations upon natural cosmetic products.
17 show abstract
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important part in the development of depressive symptoms. In this study, the effects of a commercial St. Johnʼs wort extract (STW3-VI), hyperforin, miquelianin, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on the expression of genes relevant to HPA axis function were investigated in human neuronal cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with STW3-VI (20 µg/mL), hyperforin (1 µM), miquelianin (10 µM), or citalopram (10 µM) in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (DEX,10 µM) for 6 h and 48 h, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of FKBP5 (FK506 binding protein 51), CREB (cAMP responsive element binding protein), GRIK4 (glutamate ionotropic receptor kainate type subunit 4), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), NET (norepinephrine transporter), and ARRB (β-arrestins), promising biomarkers of antidepressant therapy. Using DEX to mimic stress conditions, it was shown that the gene expression pattern of FKBP5, CREB, GRIK4, VEGF, NET, and ARRB2 in SH-SY5Y cells is time- and treatment-dependent. Most pronounced effects were observed for FKBP5: after 6 h of co-incubation, only STW3-VI could reverse the DEX-induced increase in FKBP5 expression, and after 48 h, citalopram, miquelianin, and hyperforin also reversed the glucocorticoid-induced increase in FKBP5 mRNA expression. The effects observed on FKBP5, CREB, GRIK4, VEGF, NET, and ARRB2 are in good correlation with published data, suggesting that this in vitro model could be used to screen the responsiveness of antidepressants under stress conditions.
18 show abstract
Naturally occurring and semisynthetic ergot alkaloids play a role in health care or as recreational drugs in Western and indigenous Mexican societies. Evidence is summarized that ergot alkaloids present in Central American Convolvulaceae like Turbina corymbosa, Ipomoea violacea, and Ipomoea asarifolia are colonized by different species of a newly described clavicipitaceous fungal genus named Periglandula. The fungi are associated with peltate glandular trichomes on the adaxial leaf surface of its host plants. The Periglandula fungi are not yet culturable in vitro but were demonstrated to have the capacity to synthesize ergot alkaloids. The alkaloids do not remain in the fungal mycelium but are translocated via the glandular trichomes into their plant host. Both fungi and host benefit from a symbiotic lifestyle. In evolutionary terms the alkaloid biosynthetic gene cluster in the Periglandula/Ipomoea symbiosis is likely to have a conserved (basic) structure while biosynthetic ergot gene clusters within the genera Claviceps and Epichloe were under ecological selection for alkaloid diversification.
19 show abstract
Homoharringtonine (HHT), also known as omacetaxine, is a natural compound found in the genus Cephalotaxus and is a promising pharmaceutical drug used for the treatment of chronic or accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia. As a tool for the quantitative determination of HHT, a specific monoclonal antibody against HHT (MAb 6A1) was generated by conjugates prepared via sodium periodate-mediated oxidation. The developed indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) using MAb 6A1 was found to be highly specific and sensitive with a limit of detection for HHT of 48.8 ng/mL. Validation assays to evaluate precision and accuracy of the method were conducted by the use of intra- and inter-assay analysis, recovery test, and comparison analysis between the amounts of HHT determined by ELISA and high-performance liquid chromatography. These results revealed that the established icELISA using MAb 6A1 is specific, sensitive, and reliable enough to be applied to the qualitative analysis for HHT. Furthermore, the results of this study support the usefulness of sodium periodate as a reagent for the conjugation between Cephalotaxus alkaloids and proteins for producing specific antibodies.
20 show abstract
The process of wound healing constitutes an ordered sequence of events that provides numerous opportunities for therapeutic intervention to improve wound repair. Rooibos, Aspalathus linearis, is a popular ingredient in skin care products, however, little scientific data exists exploring its therapeutic potential. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fermented and aspalathin-enriched green rooibos in various in vitro models representative of dermal wound healing. Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with fermented rooibos resulted in increased nitric oxide production as well as increased levels of cellular inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, which are typical markers for classically activated macrophages. In contrast, the green extract was devoid of such activity. Using glycated gelatin as a model to mimic diabetic wounds, only the green extract showed potential to reduce cyclooxygenase-2 levels. Considering the role of reactive oxygen species in wound healing, the effects of rooibos on oxidative stress and cell death in human dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Both fermented and green rooibos decreased cellular reactive oxygen species and attenuated apoptotic/necrotic cell death. Our findings highlight several properties that support the therapeutic potential of rooibos, and demonstrate that green and fermented rooibos present distinctly different properties with regards to their application in wound healing. The proinflammatory nature of fermented rooibos may have therapeutic value for wounds characterised with a delayed initial inflammatory phase, such as early diabetic wounds. The green extract is more suited to wounds burdened with excessive inflammation as it attenuated cyclooxygenase-2 levels and effectively protected fibroblasts against oxidative stress.
21 show abstract
The Hyacinthaceae family (sensu APGII), with approximately 900 species in around 70 genera, plays a significant role in traditional medicine in Africa as well as across Europe and the Middle and Far East. The dichloromethane extract of the bulbs of Massonia pustulata (Hyacinthaceae sensu APGII) yielded two known homoisoflavonoids, (R)-5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxy-4-chromanone 1 and 5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxy-4-chromone 2 and four spirocyclic nortriterpenoids, eucosterol 3, 28-hydroxyeucosterol 4 and two previously unreported triterpenoid derivatives, (17S,23S)-17α,23-epoxy-3β,22β,29-trihydroxylanost-8-en-27,23-olide 5, and (17S, 23S)-17α,23-epoxy-28,29-dihydroxylanost-8-en-3-on-27,23-olide 6. Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 5 were assessed for cytotoxicity against CaCo-2 cells using a neutral red uptake assay. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 reduced cell viability by 70% at concentrations of 30, 100, and 100 µM, respectively. Massonia bifolia yielded three known homoisoflavonoids, (R)-(4′-hydroxy)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-chromanone 1, (R)-(4′-hydroxy)-5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromanone 7 and (R)-(3′-hydroxy-4′-methoxy)-5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromanone 9, two previously unreported homoisoflavonoids, (E)-3-benzylidene-(3′,4′-dihydroxy)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-chromanone 8 and (R)-(3′,4′-dihydroxy)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-chromanone 10, and a spirocyclic nortriterpenoid, 15-deoxoeucosterol 11. Compounds 1, 1Ac, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were screened for antiangiogenic activity against human retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Some compounds showed dose-dependent antiproliferative activity and blocked endothelial tube formation, suggestive of antiangiogenic activity.
22 show abstract
In this work, an integrated approach for the identification of new antiviral agents from natural sources for the treatment of acute respiratory infections is presented. The approach comprises (i) the selection of starting material based on traditional knowledge, (ii) phenotypic screening of extracts for antiviral activity, and (iii) the implementation of in silico predictions to identify antiviral compounds and derive the molecular mechanism underlying their biological activity. A variety of starting materials from plants and fungi was selected for the production of 162 extracts. These extracts were tested in cytopathic effect inhibition assays against influenza virus A/Hong Kong/68 (HK/68), rhinovirus A2 (RV-A2), and coxsackie virus B3 (CV-B3). All extracts were also evaluated regarding their cytotoxicity. At an IC50 threshold of 50 µg/mL, 20, 11, and 14% of all tested extracts showed antiviral activity against HK/68, CV-B3, and RV-A2, respectively. Among all active extracts (n = 47), 68% showed antiviral activity against one of the investigated viruses, whereas 31% inhibited at least two viruses. Herein, we present a comprehensive dataset of probed extracts along with their antiviral activities and cytotoxicity. Application examples presented in this work illustrate the phytochemical workflow for the identification of antiviral natural compounds. We also discuss the challenges, pitfalls, and advantages of the integrated approach.
23 show abstract
The African wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. africana) is traditionally used as a hypotensive agent. Herb-drug interactions may result from the concurrent use of herbal medicines and conventional prescription drugs. This aspect was investigated by determining the effect of the extract on the in vitro intestinal epithelial permeation of selected hypotensive drugs using the Caco-2 cell culture model. The phytochemical profiles of leaf extracts of African wild olive from different localities in South Africa were compared, since efficacy is determined by the chemical composition. Extracts were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The oleuropein concentration varied considerably from below the detection limit (4.94 µg/mL) to 59.4 mg/g dry weight. Chemometric models constructed from the aligned chromatographic data indicated only quantitative differences between the profiles. The leaf extract was found to increase the permeability of propranolol in the absorptive direction (Papp = 8.93 × 10−6 cm/s) across Caco-2 cell monolayers, but considerably decreased transport in the secretory direction (Papp = 3.68 × 10−6 cm/s). The permeation of diltiazem was enhanced by the extract in both the absorptive (Papp = 7.33 × 10−6 cm/s) as well as in the secretory direction (Papp = 7.16 × 10−6 cm/s), but a decrease in the efflux ratio was observed. The extract therefore caused a net increase in the transport of both drugs in the absorptive direction due to an inhibition effect on their efflux. This suggests a potential increase in the blood levels of these drugs when taken simultaneously with African wild olive leaf extract, indicating potential adverse effects that must be verified in vivo.
24 show abstract
A novel segetane (1) and jatrophane diterpene (2), together with five known diterpenoids possessing segetane (3), jatrophane (4), and ingenane skeletons (5 – 7), were isolated from the methanol extract of Euphorbia taurinensis All. The structure elucidation of the compounds was performed by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including HRESIMS and 1D (1H, J-modulated spin-echo carbon experiment) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) NMR experiments. The multidrug resistance reversing and cytotoxic effects of five diterpenes (1, 4 – 7) were studied on the L5178 mouse lymphoma cell line using rhodamine 123 accumulation and the MTT cell viability assay. Segetane and jatrophane diterpenes had no cytotoxic activity on the sensitive parent and multidrug resistance cells, while ingenane diterpenes showed a cytotoxic effect on both cell lines. Ingenanes 6 and 7 and segetane 1 demonstrated the remarkable multidrug resistance modulating effect at 20 µM.
25 show abstract
The aim of this study was the development and characterization of lipid nanocarriers using food grade components for oral delivery of Serenoa repens CO2 extract, namely microemulsions (MEs) and self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) to improve the oral absorption. A commercial blend (CB) containing 320 of S. repens CO2 extract plus the aqueous soluble extracts of nettle root and pineapple stem was formulated in two MEs and two SMEDDSs. The optimized ME loaded with the CB (CBM2) had a very low content of water (only 17.3%). The drug delivery systems were characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode-array detector analyses in order to evaluate the size, the homogeneity, the morphology, and the encapsulation efficiency. β-carotene was selected as marker for the quantitative HPLC analysis. Additionally, physical and chemical stabilities were acceptable during 3 wk at 4 °C. Stability of these nanocarriers in simulated stomach and intestinal conditions was proved. Finally, the improvement of oral absorption of S. repens was studied in vitro using parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. An enhancement of oral permeation was found in both CBM2 and CBS2 nanoformulations comparing with the CB and S. repens CO2 extract. The best performance was obtained by the CBM2 nanoformulation (~ 17%) predicting a 30 – 70% passive oral human absorption in vivo.
26 show abstract
The effects of genistein on angiogenesis remain poorly understood. Some studies claim an antiangiogenic effect and others claim a pro-angiogenic one. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if genistein may exhibit bivalent angiogenic effects. To address this question, genistein angiogenic modulatory effects were examined using an in vitro 3D angiogenesis model using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In this model, a bivalent effect of genistein was demonstrated on sprouting angiogenesis, with angiogenic stimulation at low concentrations (0.001 – 1 µM) and inhibition at higher ones (25 – 100 µM). Enhancement of the endothelial tube formation correlated with an increase in human umbilical vein endothelial cell metabolic activity and proliferation. Inhibition of angiogenesis correlated with a decreased metabolic activity, proliferation, and migration. Moreover, high concentrations of genistein influenced human umbilical vein endothelial cell morphology. Expression of genes involved in the angiogenic process in response to genistein was measured to study the mechanism of action. Secretome profiling revealed that angiogenic regulators were modulated with genistein treatment. These results suggested a bivalent effect of genistein on human umbilical vein endothelial cell growth and angiogenesis, and further investigations on the benefit of genistein for cancer chemoprevention, cancer treatment, or pro-angiogenic therapies have to be carefully considered.
27 show abstract
Correct identification of the true bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) and its substitutes is important not only for the quality control of the products, but also for the safety of the consumers. L. nobilis is often substituted or confused with other species, such as Cinnamomum tamala, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium polyanthum, and Umbellularia californica. In the present study, the potential of gas chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the profiling of various bay leaf products was evaluated for the first time. Thirty-nine authenticated samples representing the true bay leaf and the four commonly substituted species were analyzed. An automatic feature extraction algorithm was applied for data mining and pretreatment in order to identify the most characteristic compounds representing different bay leaf groups. This set of data was employed to construct a sample class prediction model based on stepwise reduction of data dimensionality followed by principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The statistical model, with demonstrated excellent accuracies in recognition and prediction abilities, enabled the correct classification of commercial samples including complex mixtures and essential oils. In addition, in-house developed personal compound database and library with retention time locking offered the advantage of combining retention time matching with accurate mass matching, resulting in high confidence of compound identification for each bay leaf subgroup. At least three marker compounds were identified for each bay leaf species that could be used to discriminate among them.
28 show abstract
Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao, have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids. In this review a critical appraisal is made of recent studies on mood and cognition, with a special emphasis on analytical characterization of the test samples. It is concluded that the mood and cognition-enhancing effects of cocoa and chocolate can be ranked from more general activities associated with flavanols and methylxanthines, to more specific activities related to minor constituents such as salsolinol, with on top the orosensory properties of chocolate. Therefore, the “mood pyramid” of cocoa and chocolate is proposed as a new concept. To understand the role and interactions of the different major and minor constituents of cocoa, it is recommended that all test samples used in future in vitro, in vivo, or human studies should be phytochemically characterized in much more detail than is common practice today.
29 show abstract
The attraction of novel foods proceeds alongside epidemic cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and related risk factors. Dieticians have identified chia (Salvia hispanica) as a product with a catalog of potential health benefits relating to these detriments. Chia is currently consumed not only as seeds, but also as oil, which brings about similar effects. Chia seeds and chia seed oil are used mainly as a food commodity and the oil is also used popularly as a dietary ingredient used in various dietary supplements available in the U. S. market. Chia seed is rich in α-linolenic acid, the biological precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. Because the body cannot synthesize α-linolenic acid, chia has a newfound and instrumental role in diet. However, the inconclusive nature of the scientific communityʼs understanding of its safety warrants further research and appropriate testing. The focus of this work is to summarize dietary health benefits of S. hispanica seed and oil to acknowledge concerns of adverse events from its ingestion, to assess current research in the field, and to highlight the importance of quality compendial standards to support safe use. To achieve this end, a large-scale literature search was partaken on the two well-known databases, PubMed and SciFinder. Hundreds of articles detailing such benefits as decreased blood glucose, decreased waist circumference and weight in overweight adults, and improvements in pruritic skin and endurance in distance runners have been recorded. These benefits must be considered within the appropriate circumstances.
30 show abstract
Authors: Glasl ; Sabine ; Khan ; Ikhlas A.
Article URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0578-0271
Citation: Planta Med 2018; 84: 348-349
Publication Date: 2018-04-26T00:00:00+01:00
Journal: Planta Medica
31 show abstract
Ellagic acid is a common metabolite present in many medicinal plants and vegetables. It is present either in free form or as part of more complex molecules (ellagitannins), which can be metabolized to liberate ellagic acid and several of its metabolites, including urolithins. While ellagic acidʼs antioxidant properties are doubtless responsible for many of its pharmacological activities, other mechanisms have also been implicated in its various effects, including its ability to reduce the lipidemic profile and lipid metabolism, alter pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and decrease the activity of nuclear factor-κB while increasing nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 expression. These events play an important role in ellagic acidʼs anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Several of these activities, together with the effect of ellagic acid on insulin, glycogen, phosphatases, aldose reductase, sorbitol accumulation, advanced glycation end-product formation, and resistin secretion, may explain its effects on metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In addition, results from recent research have increased the interest in ellagic acid, both as a potential protective agent of the liver and skin and as a potential anticancer agent, due to the specific mechanisms affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage, and angiogenesis and its aforementioned anti-inflammatory properties. Taken together, these effects make ellagic acid a highly interesting compound that may contribute to different aspects of health; however, more studies are needed, especially on the compoundʼs pharmacokinetic profile. In this review, we selected papers published from 2005 to the present.
32 show abstract
Lithospermum officinale is a valuable source of bioactive metabolites with medicinal and industrial values. However, little is known about genes involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites, primarily due to the lack of genome or transcriptome resources. This study presents the first effort to establish and characterize de novo transcriptome assembly resource for L. officinale and expression analysis for three of its tissues, namely leaf, stem, and root. Using over 4Gbps of RNA-sequencing datasets, we obtained de novo transcriptome assembly of L. officinale, consisting of 77,047 unigenes with assembly N50 value as 1524 bps. Based on transcriptome annotation and functional classification, 52,766 unigenes were assigned with putative genes functions, gene ontology terms, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. KEGG pathway and gene ontology enrichment analysis using highly expressed unigenes across three tissues and targeted metabolome analysis showed active secondary metabolic processes enriched specifically in the root of L. officinale. Using co-expression analysis, we also identified 20 and 48 unigenes representing different enzymes of lithospermic/chlorogenic acid and shikonin biosynthesis pathways, respectively. We further identified 15 candidate unigenes annotated as cytochrome P450 with the highest expression in the root of L. officinale as novel genes with a role in key biochemical reactions toward shikonin biosynthesis. Thus, through this study, we not only generated a high-quality genomic resource for L. officinale but also propose candidate genes to be involved in shikonin biosynthesis pathways for further functional characterization.
33 show abstract
Biologically active cyclotides have been found on some flowering plants species and are involved in the role of the plant protection. As part of studies focusing on peptides from Brazilian plant species, we are reporting the detection by LC-MS of several cyclotides from leaves and stems of Noisettia orchidiflora (Violaceae). From stems it was possible to isolate and characterize a cyclotide named Nor A. Its primary structure (amino acid sequence) was established by MALDI-TOF-MS, based on the y- and b-type ion series, after reduction and alkylation reactions, as well as enzymatic digestion using the enzymes endoproteinase glutamic acid (endoGlu-C), trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Furthermore, the amino acid analysis was also described.
34 show abstract
Plants have always been used as medicines since ancient times to treat diseases. The knowledge around the active components of herbal preparations has remained nevertheless fragmentary: the biosynthetic pathways of many secondary metabolites of pharmacological importance have been clarified only in a few species, while the chemodiversity present in many medicinal plants has remained largely unexplored. Despite the advancements of synthetic biology for production of medicinal compounds in heterologous hosts, the native plant species are often the most reliable and economic source for their production. It thus becomes fundamental to investigate the metabolic composition of medicinal plants to characterize their natural metabolic diversity and to define the biosynthetic routes in planta of important compounds to develop strategies to further increase their content. We present here a number of case studies for selected classes of secondary metabolites and we review their health benefits and the historical developments in their structural elucidation and characterization of biosynthetic genes. We cover the cases of benzoisoquinoline and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, cannabinoids, caffeine, ginsenosides, withanolides, artemisinin, and taxol; we show how the “early” biochemical or the more recent integrative approaches–based on omics-analyses–have helped to elucidate their metabolic pathways and cellular compartmentation. We also summarize how the knowledge generated about their biosynthesis has been used to develop metabolic engineering strategies in heterologous and native hosts. We conclude that following the advent of novel, high-throughput and cost-effective analytical technologies, the secondary metabolism of medicinal plants can now be examined under the lens of systems biology.
35 show abstract
The discovery of immunostimulating complex formation by the saponin Quil A from
the plant Quillaja saponaria with cholesterol and a phospholipid opened
up new avenues for the development of drug delivery systems for vaccine
application with additional adjuvant properties. In this study, β-escin,
a monodesmosidic triterpene saponin from horse chestnut, was investigated in
terms of its interaction with liposomal components (cholesterol,
dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) by Langmuir film balance studies and with regard
to particle formation visualized by transmission electron microscopy. A strong
interaction of β-escin with cholesterol was observed by Langmuir
isotherms due to the intercalation of the saponin into the monolayer, whereas no
interaction occurred with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Transmission electron
microscopy studies also confirmed the strong interaction of β-escin with
cholesterol. In aqueous pseudo-ternary systems (β-escin,
dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol) and in pseudo-binary systems
(β-escin, cholesterol), new colloidal structures built up from
ring-like and worm-like subunits were observed with a size of about
100 – 200 nm. These colloidal structures are formed in pseudo-binary systems by
aggregation of the subunits, whereas in pseudo-ternary systems, they are formed
among others by attacking the liposomal membrane. The rehydration of the
liposomal dispersions in NANOpure water or Tris buffer pH 7.4 (140 mM) resulted
in the same particle formation. In contrast, the sequence of the dispersionsʼ
production process affected the particle formation. Unless adding the saponin to
the other components from the beginning, just a liposomal dispersion was formed
without any colloidal aggregates of the subunits mentioned above.
36 show abstract
Secondary natural products from plants are important drug leads for the
development of new drug candidates for rational clinical therapy and exhibit a
variety of biological activities in experimental pharmacology and serve as
structural template in medicinal chemistry. The exploration of plants and
discovery of natural compounds based on ethnopharmacology in combination with
high sophisticated analytics is still today an important drug discovery to
characterize and validate potential leads. Due to structural complexity, low
abundance in biological material, and high costs in chemical synthesis,
alternative ways in production like plant cell cultures, heterologous
biosynthesis, and synthetic biotechnology are applied. The basis for any
biotechnological process is deep knowledge in genetic regulation of pathways and
protein expression with regard to todays “omics” technologies. The high number
genetic techniques allowed the implementation of combinatorial biosynthesis and
wide genome sequencing. Consequently, genetics allowed functional expression of
biosynthetic cascades from plants and to reconstitute low-performing pathways in
more productive heterologous microorganisms. Thus, de novo biosynthesis
in heterologous hosts requires fundamental understanding of pathway
reconstruction and multitude of genes in a foreign organism. Here, actual
concepts and strategies are discussed for pathway reconstruction and genome
sequencing techniques cloning tools to bridge the gap between
ethnopharmaceutical drug discovery to industrial biotechnology.
37 show abstract
This paper describes the use of 1H NMR profiling and chemometrics in order to facilitate the selection of medicinal plants as potential sources of collagenase inhibitors. A total of 49 plants with reported ethnobotanical uses, such as the healing of wounds and burns, treatment of skin-related diseases, rheumatism, arthritis, and bone diseases, were initially chosen as potential candidates. The in vitro collagenase inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants was tested. Moreover, their phytochemical profiles were analyzed by 1H NMR and combined with the inhibitory activity data by an orthogonal partial least squares model. The results showed a correlation between the bioactivity and the concentration of phenolics, including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and tannins, in the extracts. Considering the eventual false-positive effect on the bioactivity given by tannins, a tannin removal procedure was performed on the most active extracts. After this procedure, Alchemilla vulgaris was the most persistently active, proving to owe its activity to compounds other than tannins. Thus, this plant was selected as the most promising and further investigated through bioassay-guided fractionation, which resulted in the isolation of a flavonoid, quercetin-3-O-β-glucuronide, as confirmed by NMR and HRMS spectra. This compound showed not only a higher activity than other flavonoids with the same aglycone moiety, but was also higher than doxycycline (positive control), the only Federal Drug Administration-approved collagenase inhibitor. The approach employed in this study, namely the integration of metabolomics and bioactivity-guided fractionation, showed great potential as a tool for plant selection and identification of bioactive compounds in natural product research.
38 show abstract
Crocus sativus is a spice with various pharmacological properties. Crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal are the main compositions of saffron that have recently been considered in the therapy of many diseases. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed presence of these compounds in our saffron extract. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of saffron on burn wound healing at an in vivo model. Saffron was topically applied on burn wounds in rats; the percentage of wound closure, wound contraction, and the levels of main cytokines and growth factors were measured. The saffron extract was also applied to evaluate the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells using in vitro scratch assay and resulted in active proliferation and migration of the HDF cells in a dose-dependent manner. A clear enhanced healing was observed in the saffron-treated wounds compared to the silver sulfadiazine and negative control groups. Decreased expression of interleukin-1β and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) during the inflammatory phase demonstrated the role of saffron in promoting wound healing. In addition, enhanced TGF-β1 expression during the proliferative phase and basic fibroblast growth factor during the remodeling phase represented regenerative and anti-scarring role of saffron, respectively. Our histological and biochemical findings also confirmed that saffron significantly stimulated burn wound healing by modulating healing phases. Therefore, saffron can be an optimal option in promoting skin repair and regeneration. Application of this herbal medicinal drug should be encouraged because of its availability and negligible side effects.
39 show abstract
A phytochemical study of the roots of Pongamia pinnata afforded 29 flavanones and flavanols, including 7 previously undescribed compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopy data. The absolute configurations of the compounds were assigned via analysis of the specific rotations and electronic circular dichroism spectra, application of Mosherʼs method, and by comparing the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism spectra. The isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. All of the isolated compounds exhibited inhibitory effects against nitric oxide production, and most of them showed obvious anti-inflammatory activities (IC50
40 show abstract
Cardamonin exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory and antitumor, which are correlated with the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB and the mammalian target of rapamycin, respectively. However, whether the anti-inflammatory effects of cardamonin are mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin remains unknown. In this study, ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells were cultured with lipopolysaccharide to induce inflammation, and the inhibitory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of cardamonin were investigated using specific inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin and the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway (rapamycin and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, respectively). Our results indicated that cardamonin inhibited the viability of normal and lipopolysaccharide-pretreated SKOV3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In accordance with rapamycin, the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream target, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, was inhibited by cardamonin, while pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate substantially blocked nuclear factor-kappaB activation and mildly inhibited the phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1. Pretreated with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, the effect of cardamonin on the mammalian target of rapamycin signalling was not affected, but the expression of inflammatory factors was further reduced. In cells pretreated with rapamycin, the inhibitory effects of cardamonin were completely suppressed with regards to the phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, TNF-α, and interleukin-6, and nuclear factor-kappaB p65 protein expression was decreased. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of cardamonin are correlated with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition.
41 show abstract
A phytochemical study of n-hexane, CHCl3, and CHCl3-MeOH extracts of Aphanamixis polystachya leaves led to the isolation of 10 compounds. Five of them turned out to be new natural compounds, including two mexicanolide-type (1, 2) and three polyoxyphragmalin-type (3–5) limonoids, together with two known andirobin-type limonoids (6, 7) and three phenolic derivatives. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods to be 8-hydro-14,15-en-cabralin (1), 3-deacetyl-8-hydro-cabralin-14,15-en-3-one (2), 20,22-dihydroxy-21,23-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran khayanolide A (3), 1-deacetyl-3-dehydroxy-3-oxokhaysenelide E (4), and meliaphanamixin A (5). All compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. The ability of the isolated limonoids to interact with the molecular chaperone Hsp90 was tested. Compounds 6 and 7 were the most active.
42 show abstract
Baicalin is the main flavonoid from the roots of an important medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis, which shows a variety biological activities. Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease that affects the skin. The unmet need of psoriasis is that many patients do not respond adequately to available clinical treatment. In this study, we found that baicalin showed inhibited dermal inflammation in a murine model of psoriasis via topical application of imiquimod. After a 5-day topical imiquimod application, baicalin or the control vehicle cream was to applied to the lesions of BALB/c mice for a further 4 days. The erythema, scaling, and thickness of the epidermal layer significantly improved in the baicalin-treated mice. The levels of interleukin-17A, interleukin-22, interleukin-23, and tumor necrosis factor in the skin significantly decreased after baicalin treatment. Baicalin also inhibited imiquimod-induced interleukin-17A production in skin draining lymph node cells. The infiltration of γδ T cells into the skin lesions induced by imiquimod was also suppressed after baicalin treatment. These results suggest that baicalin inhibited skin inflammation through the inhibition of the interleukin-17/interleukin-23 axis in a murine model of psoriasis.
43 show abstract
Piperlongumine is an amide alkaloid found in Piperaceae species that shows a broad spectrum of biological properties, including antitumor and antiparasitic activities. Herein, the leishmanicidal effect of piperlongumine and its derivatives produced by a biomimetic model using metalloporphyrins was investigated. The results showed that IC50 values of piperlongumine in promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania amazonensis were 7.9 and 3.3 µM, respectively. The IC50 value of piperlongumine in the intracellular amastigote form of L. amazonensis was 0.4 µM, with a selectivity index of 25. The piperlongumine biomimetic derivatives, Ma and Mb, also showed leishmanicidal effects. We also carried out an in vitro metabolic degradation study showing that Ma is the most stable piperlongumine derivative in rat liver microsome incubations. The results presented here indicate that piperlongumine is a potential leishmanicidal candidate and support the biomimetic approach for development of new antileishmanial derivatives.
44 show abstract
Native mass spectrometry detection of ligand-protein complexes allowed rapid detection of natural product binders of apo and calcium-bound S100A4 (a member of the metal binding protein S100 family), T cell/transmembrane, immunoglobulin (Ig), and mucin protein 3, and T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif) domains precursor protein from extracts and fractions. Based on molecular weight common hits were detected binding to all four proteins. Seven common hits were identified as apigenin 6-C-β-D-glucoside 8-C-α-L-arabinoside, sweroside, 4′,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone-6-C-rutinoside, loganin acid, 6-C-glucosylnaringenin, biochanin A 7-O-rutinoside and quercetin 3-O-rutinoside. Mass guided isolation and NMR identification of hits confirmed the mass accuracy of the ligand in the ligand-protein MS complexes. Thus, molecular weight ID from ligand-protein complexes by electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry allowed rapid dereplication. Native mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry is a tool for dereplication and metabolomics analysis.
45 show abstract
This study investigated the effects of ombuoside on L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Ombuoside did not affect cell viability at concentrations of up to 50 µM for 24 h, and ombuoside (1, 5, and 10 µM) significantly inhibited L-DOPA-induced (100 and 200 µM) decreases in cell viability. L-DOPA (100 and 200 µM) induced sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) for 6 h, which were significantly decreased by cotreatments with ombuoside (1, 5, and 10 µM). L-DOPA (100 and 200 µM) alone significantly increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) phosphorylation for 6 h and cleaved-caspase-3 expression for 24 h, both of which were partially, but significantly, blocked by ombuoside (1, 5, and 10 µM). In addition, ombuoside (1, 5, and 10 µM) significantly restored the L-DOPA-induced (100 and 200 µM) decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity for 24 h. Taken together, these findings indicate that ombuoside protects against L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting L-DOPA-induced increases in sustained ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation and caspase-3 expression and L-DOPA-induced decrease in SOD activity in PC12 cells. Thus, ombuoside might represent a novel neuroprotective agent that warrants further study.
46 show abstract
Although traditionally used to improve indigestion, diarrhea, dysentery, and constipation, the therapeutic effects of Citrus aurantium on intestinal inflammation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects and to identify the active components of a hydroalcoholic extract of C. aurantium (HECA) on ulcerative colitis. HECA was prepared with 70% ethanol solution in water and extracted at 37 °C for 12 h in triplicate, filtered through a sieve, and lyophilized. Phytochemical identification of HECA was performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups based on the treatment conditions. Ulcerative colitis was induced by administration of 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 d. Body weight, clinical signs, colon length, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels, and histopathological findings were evaluated. In UPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis, the identified phytochemical components of HECA included four alkaloids, seven coumarins, 18 flavonoids, two lignans, two phenolics, and 10 terpenoids. HECA markedly protected against body weight loss and colon shortening. In pathological examination, HECA alleviated DSS-related mucosal inflammatory lesions in the colon. Moreover, HECA markedly reduced the expression levels of interleukin-6, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in colonic inflammation. Taken together, HECA has potential to relieve mucosal inflammation in the colon, suggesting that the putative active ingredients are responsible for the anti-ulcerative effects.
47 show abstract
Madecassoside (MS) and asiaticoside (AS) along with their aglycones, madecassic acid (MA) and asiatic acid (AA), are considered the major neuroactive triterpenoid constituents of Centella asiatica. In this study, we aimed to compare MS, AS, MA, and AA for their neurite outgrowth activities and mechanisms in Neuro-2a cells. Immunofluorescent cell staining showed MS and AS significantly increased the percentage of neurite-bearing cells (%NBC) and the neurite length with higher potency than MA and AA. The triterpenoid glycosides induced sustained extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, while their aglycones activated only transient signaling of ERK1/2. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation significantly abolished not only cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation but also the increment of %NBC and neurite length in MS- and AS-treated cells. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation did not produce similar blockage of CREB activation and neurite outgrowth in MA- and AA-treated cells. On the other hand, inactivation of protein kinase B (Akt) resulted in a suppression of neurite lengthening in all studied triterpenoids. This is the first study discerning the different signaling pathways of neurite outgrowth activity induced by C. asiatica triterpenoid glycosides and aglycones. Neurite outgrowth activity of the glycosides MS and AS was found to involve the activation of sustained ERK phosphorylation leading to CREB activation, while ERK activation was not associated with MA- and AA-induced neurite outgrowth. In addition, Akt activation was evident to be more involved in neurite elongation process.
48 show abstract
Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors have been used as a first-line medicine for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. In the search for new phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors from natural sources, we found that the 95% ethanol extract of Derris scandens stem showed phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of about 7 µg/mL. Seven isoflavones and a coumarin constituent isolated from this plant were investigated for phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitory activity. The results showed that osajin (8), 4′,5,7-trihydroxybiprenylisoflavone (4), and derrisisoflavone A (2) had the ability to inhibit phosphodiesterase 5 with IC50 values of 4, 8, and 9 µM, respectively. These compounds exhibited selectivity on phosphodiesterase 5 over phosphodiesterase 1, however, the selectivity on phosphodiesterase 5 over phosphodiesterase 6 was low. In order to quantitatively determine these bioactive constituents in D. scandens extract, LC-QTOF-MS method has been developed and validated. The limit of quantitation values in the range of 0.1 – 5 µg/mL were obtained. The assay showed satisfactory precision and accuracy. The results from our method showed that the 95% ethanol extract of D. scandens stem was comprised of all eight compounds, with derrisisoflavone A (2) and lupalbigenin (3) presenting as the major constituents.
49 show abstract
As part of a screening for new antiparasitic natural products from Iranian plants, n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from the aerial parts of Perovskia abrotanoides were found to exhibit strong inhibitory activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Leishmania donovani. The activity was tracked by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based activity profiling. Preparative isolation by a combination of silica gel column chromatography and HPLC afforded 17 diterpenoids (1–17), including 14 abietane-, two icetexane-, and one isopimarane-type derivatives. Among these, (5R,10S)-11-hydroxy-12-methoxy-20-norabieta-8,11,13-triene (2), 12-hydroxy-norabieta-1(10),8,11,13-tetraene-1,11-furan (6), and 12-methoxybarbatusol (9) were new compounds, the structure of which was established by comprehensive spectroscopic data analysis (one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, electronic circular dichroism). The antiprotozoal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against T. b. rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, L. donovani, and Plasmodium falciparum. Selectivity indexes (SI) were calculated in comparison to cytotoxicity on rat myoblast (L6) cells. Particularly active were 7α-ethoxyrosmanol (4) with an IC50 of 0.8 µM against T. b. rhodesiense (SI 14.9) and an IC50 of 1.8 µM (SI 6.9) against L. donovani, ferruginol (8) with an IC50 of 2.9 µM (SI 19.2) against P. falciparum, and miltiodiol (10) with an IC50 of 0.5 µM (SI 10.5) against T. b. rhodesiense. None of the compounds exhibited selective toxicity against T. cruzi (SI ≤ 1.6).
50 show abstract
High-field NMR is an expensive and important quality control technique. In recent years, cheaper and simpler low-field NMR has become available as a new quality control technique. In this study, 60 MHz 1H-NMR was compared with GC-MS and refractometry for the detection of adulteration of essential oils, taking patchouli essential oil as a test case. Patchouli essential oil is frequently adulterated, even today. In total, 75 genuine patchouli essential oils, 10 commercial patchouli essential oils, 10 other essential oils, 17 adulterants, and 1 patchouli essential oil, spiked at 20% with those adulterants, were measured. Visual inspection of the NMR spectra allowed for easy detection of 14 adulterants, while gurjun and copaiba balsams proved difficult and one adulterant could not be detected. NMR spectra of 10 random essential oils differed not only strongly from patchouli essential oil but also from one another, suggesting that fingerprinting by low-field NMR is not limited to patchouli essential oil. Automated chemometric evaluation of NMR spectra was possible by similarity analysis (Mahalanobis distance) based on the integration from 0.1 – 8.1 ppm in 0.01 ppm increments. Good quality patchouli essential oils were recognised as well as 15 of 17 deliberate adulterations. Visual qualitative inspection by GC-MS allowed for the detection of all volatile adulterants. Nonvolatile adulterants, and all but one volatile adulterant, could be detected by semiquantitation. Different chemometric approaches showed satisfactory results. Similarity analyses were difficult with nonvolatile adulterants. Refractive index measurements could detect only 8 of 17 adulterants. Due to advantages such as simplicity, rapidity, reproducibility, and ability to detect nonvolatile adulterants, 60 MHz 1H-NMR is complimentary to GC-MS for quality control of essential oils.
51 show abstract
A microemulsion system was developed and investigated as a novel oral formulation to increase the solubility and absorption of Salicis cortex extract. This extract possesses many pharmacological activities, in particular, it is beneficial for back pain and osteoarthritic and rheumatic complaints. In this work, after qualitative and quantitative characterization of the extract and the validation of an HPLC/diode array detector analytical method, solubility studies were performed to choose the best components for microemulsion formulation. The optimized microemulsion consisted of 2.5 g of triacetin, as the oil phase, 2.5 g of Tween 20 as the surfactant, 2.5 g of labrasol as the cosurfactant, and 5 g of water. The microemulsion was visually checked, characterized by light scattering techniques and morphological observations. The developed formulation appeared transparent, the droplet size was around 40 nm, and the ζ-potential result was negative. The maximum loading content of Salicis cortex extract resulted in 40 mg/mL. Furthermore, storage stability studies and an in vitro digestion assay were performed. The advantages offered by microemulsion were evaluated in vitro using artificial membranes and cells, i.e., parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and a Caco-2 model. Both studies proved that the microemulsion was successful in enhancing the permeation of extract compounds, so it could be useful to ameliorate the bioefficacy of Salicis cortex.
52 show abstract
Three new bisindole alkaloids, 3′-(2-oxopropyl)-19,20-dihydrotabernamine (1), 3′-(2-oxopropyl)-ervahanine B (2), 19,20-dihydrovobparicine (3), and 20 known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Tabernaemontana bufalina. The structures of these alkaloids were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of 1–3 were determined by the circular dichroic exciton chirality method. Compounds 1–23 were screened for their cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines, A-549 and MCF-7. Ten compounds (1–3, 10, 14, 16, 17, 19, 22, and 23) exhibited inhibitory effects against the two human cancer cells with IC50 values of 1.19 ~ 6.13 µM.
53 show abstract
Hypoxis hemerocallidea (African potato) is a popular medicinal plant that has been used traditionally for the treatment of various disorders. Some HIV/AIDS patients use this traditional medicine together with their antiretroviral therapy. This study aimed to determine the impact of selected H. hemerocallidea materials (i.e., a commercial product, an aqueous extract, and biomass reference plant material) on the bidirectional permeability of indinavir across Caco-2 cell monolayers as well as the bioavailability of indinavir during an acute, single administration study in Sprague-Dawley rats. All of the selected H. hemerocallidea test materials demonstrated inhibition effects on indinavir efflux across Caco-2 cell monolayers, albeit to different extents. An increase in the bioavailability of indinavir was obtained in vivo when administered concomitantly with the H. hemerocallidea materials, albeit not statistically significantly. The change in bioavailability directly correlated with the in vitro permeability results. It can therefore be concluded that the change in permeability and bioavailability of indinavir was caused by efflux inhibition and this effect was dependent on the type of H. hemerocallidea material investigated, which was found to be in the following order: commercial product> aqueous extract> reference plant material. The clinical significance of the combined effect of efflux and metabolism inhibition by H. hemerocallidea should be determined in another in vivo model that expresses the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme.
54 show abstract
Giant knotweeds of the genus Reynoutria (syn. Fallopia)–Reynoutria japonica, Reynoutria sachalinensis, and a hybrid of them, Reynoutria x bohemica–are noxious invasive plants in Europe and North America. R. japonica is a traditional East Asian (Japan and China) drug (Polygoni cuspidati rhizoma). Recently, it has been included in European Pharmacopoeia as one of the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method with diode array detector and time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the profiling of rhizomes from European invasive populations and Polygoni cuspidati rhizoma purchased in China. Twenty-five compounds were identified, mainly stilbenes, anthraquinones, flavan-3-ols, and phenylpropanoid esters. Tatariside B, hydropiperoside, vanicoside C, a new compound (3,6-O-di-p-coumaroyl)-β-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(2′-O-acetyl-6′-O-feruloyl)-β-glucopyranoside) were reported for the first time in these raw materials. Six compounds from three phytochemical classes–stilbenes: piceid and resveratrol; anthraquinones: emodin and physcion; hydroxycinnamic sucrose esters: vanicosides A and B–were quantified using the validated method. R. japonica from China contained twice as many stilbenoids than samples from Poland (piceid 14.83 mg/g dm vs. 7.45 mg/g and resveratrol 1.29 mg/g vs. 0.65 mg/g). R. sachalinensis rhizomes contained lower quantities of anthraquinones and no detectable stilbenes, which together with higher amounts of hydroxycinnamic glycosides makes it easily distinguishable from the other two. The phytochemical profile of R. x bohemica was intermediate between the two parent species.
55 show abstract
Use of herbal dietary supplements by the public is common and has been happening for centuries. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has a limited scope of regulation over marketed herbal dietary supplements, which may contain toxic botanical compounds that pose a public health risk. While the Food and Drug Administration has made efforts to prohibit the sale of unsafe herbal dietary supplements, numerous reports have proliferated of adverse events due to these supplements. This literature review investigates bioactive plant compounds commonly used in herbal dietary supplements and their relative toxicities. Using primarily the National Library of Medicine journal database and SciFinder for current reports, 47 toxic compounds in 55 species from 46 plant families were found to demonstrate harmful effects due to hepatic, cardiovascular, central nervous system, and digestive system toxicity. This review further contributes a novel and comprehensive view of toxicity across the botanical dietary market, and investigates the toxicity of the top ten botanical dietary supplements purchased in the United States of America to gauge the exposure risk of toxicity to the public. The criteria of measuring toxicity in this review (plant compound, family, quantity, and toxicity effects) across the entire market in the United States, with special attention to those supplements whose exposure to the consumer is maximal, provides a unique contribution to the investigation of botanical supplements.
56 show abstract
Increased expression of microRNA 155 (miR-155) results in a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and impaired endothelial function. Factors that have been shown to increase expression of miR-155 may be mitigated by WS 1442, an extract of hawthorn leaves and flowers (Crataegus special extract) that contains a range of pharmacologically active substances including oligomeric proanthocyanidins and flavonoids. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of WS 1442 on the expression of miR-155 and eNOS in the presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were studied after the exposure to TNF-α, with or without simvastatin (positive control) and WS 1442. The expression levels of eNOS, phosphorylated eNOS, and miR-155 in the different HUVEC treatment groups were determined by western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. To evaluate the effect of WS 1442 on the eNOS activity, the medium and intracellular nitrate/nitrite (NO) concentrations were also analyzed using a colorimetric Griess assay kit. The results demonstrated that TNF-α upregulated miR-155 expression and decreased eNOS expression and NO concentrations. WS 1442 also increased miR-155 expression and decreased eNOS expression but, unlike TNF-α, increased phosphorylated eNOS expression and NO concentrations. Surprisingly, WS 1442 increased miR-155 expression; however, WS 1442 mitigated the overall negative effect of miR-155 on decreasing eNOS expression by increasing expression of phosphorylated eNOS and resulting in an increase in NO concentrations. In the setting where miR-155 may be expressed, WS 1442 may offer vascular protection by increasing the expression of phosphorylated eNOS.
57 show abstract
Athrixia phylicoides, known as “bush tea”, grows abundantly in South Africa. An infusion of the leaves is used as a beverage and to treat a multitude of health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical variation within A. phylicoides and to identify characteristic compounds for quality control. Samples from 12 locations in South Africa were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the aligned ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry data indicated two groups on the resulting dendrogram, representing 48 samples. Five marker compounds, identified through visual inspection and the construction of a discriminant analysis model, were evident on the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS profiles. Four of these compounds were isolated and identified, three as hydroxy methoxyflavones and the fourth as a coumarate, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array method was developed and validated for the determination of the marker compounds using the isolates as standards. The limits of detection for the four compounds ranged from 0.92 – 2.50 µg/mL. Their recoveries at three concentration levels (1.00, 10.0, and 100 µg/mL) were between 97.0 and 101%, while acceptable intra- and inter-day precision was obtained as reflected by percentage relative standard deviation values below 2.24%. The concentrations of all the marker compounds were found to be higher in samples corresponding to Group 1 of the dendrogram than in those from Group 2. This may be attributable to differences in altitude, climate, and some edaphic factors. Identification of these marker compounds will make a valuable contribution towards the quality control and sustainable commercialisation of bush tea.
58 show abstract
The present study aimed to determine whether hesperidin, a plant-based active flavanone found in citrus fruits, can prevent high glucose-induced retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell impairment. Cultured human RPE cells (ARPE-19) were exposed to a normal glucose concentration (5.5 mM) for 4 d and then soaked in either normal (5.5 mM) or high (33.3 mM) concentrations of D-glucose with or without different concentrations of hesperidin (10, 20, or 40 µM) for another 48 h. The survival rates of the cells were measured using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay. With the help of a fluorescent probe, the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated. Colorimetric assay kits were used to assess the antioxidant enzyme activities, and western blotting was used to measure the expression of apoptosis-related protein. Hesperidin was effective in inhibiting high glucose-induced ROS production, preventing loss of cell viability, and promoting the endogenous antioxidant defense components, including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione, in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, high glucose triggered cell apoptosis via the upregulation of caspase-9/3, enhancement of cytochrome c release into the cytosol, and subsequent interruption of the Bax/Bcl-2 balance. These detrimental effects were ameliorated by hesperidin in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that through the scavenging of ROS and modulation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, hesperidin may protect RPE cells from high glucose-induced injury and thus may be a candidate in preventing the visual impairment caused by diabetic retinopathy.
59 show abstract
Within the food and pharmaceutical industries, there is an increasing legislative requirement for the accurate labeling of the productʼs origin. A key feature of this is to indicate whether the product is of natural or synthetic origin. With reference to this context, we have investigated three alkaloids commonly exploited for human use: nicotine, atropine, and caffeine. We have measured by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry the position-specific distribution of 13C at natural abundance within several samples of each of these target molecules. This technique is well suited to distinguishing between origins, as the distribution of the 13C isotope reflects the primary source of the carbon atoms and the process by which the molecule was (bio)synthesized. Our findings indicate that labeling can be misleading, especially in relation to a supplied compound being labeled as “synthetic” even though its 13C profile indicates a natural origin.
60 show abstract
Isoflavones have been reported to stimulate muscle growth. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine anabolic activity and associated molecular mechanisms of a soy extract (SoyEx), isoflavone aglycones, and a mixture simulating the composition of SoyEx in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 cells were differentiated into myotubes. The effects of SoyEx, genistein, daidzein, glycitein, and the mixture of genistein-daidzein-glycitein (Mix) on myotube diameter and number were determined. In addition, the expression of genes and proteins associated with anabolic activity was analyzed. Treatment with SoyEx, genistein, and Mix led to a significant increase of myotube diameter and an increase of the number of myotubes per area compared to the control cell. The increase of diameter by SoyEx was antagonized by an antiestrogen, not by an antiandrogen. Furthermore, gene expressions of insulin growth factor (IGF)-1 and its receptor (IGF-1R), as well as protein expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC), were significantly increased by SoyEx, genistein, and Mix. The effects induced by genistein and Mix were comparable to SoyEx. In conclusion, SoyEx displays an anabolic activity in C2C12 myotubes by binding to ER and modulating IGF-1 and MHC expression. Our studies with isoflavone aglycones and Mix indicate that the isoflavone aglycone with the highest anabolic bioactivity in SoyEx is genistein.
61 show abstract
Shikonin is the main active principle in the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for its anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. Recent research highlights shikoninʼs antitumor properties and capacity to prevent acute ulcerative colitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of shikonin to prevent, in vivo, the early phases of colorectal cancer development, with special focus on its cytotoxic mechanism in vitro. We employed the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium model of colitis in Balb/C mice. Body weight and drinking were monitored throughout the experiment, and length of colon and lesions of the colon were recorded on termination of the experiment in all of the experimental groups. Colons underwent histological evaluation and biochemical analyses [myeloperoxidase activity assay, measurement of interleukin-6, evaluation of proinflammatory enzymes (cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase), and nuclear factor-κB activation by Western blot]. Caco-2 cells were used to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of shikonin on proliferation, cytotoxicity, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Our results reveal that shikonin significantly protected the intestinal tissue of our animals by preventing the shortening of the colorectum and ulcer formation in a dose-dependent manner. Shikonin attenuated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and myeloperoxidase activity, and inhibited the production of interleukin-6 and activation of nuclear factor-κB. It induced Bcl-2 and inhibited caspase 3. In conclusion, shikonin acts as a chemopreventive agent in the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium model through inhibition of the proinflammatory milieu generated during the disease, an important risk factor in cancer development.
62 show abstract
Four new dolabellane-type diterpene alkaloids, glandulamines A – D (1 – 4), together with twelve known compounds (5 – 16), were isolated from the seeds of Nigella glandulifera using repeated column chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. The structures of 1 – 16 were elucidated based on NMR data analysis, HRMS experiments and other spectroscopic interpretations. The absolute configuration of 5 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for the first time. Compounds 10 and 12 showed human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 61.1 ± 5.3 and 45.9 ± 3.0 µM, respectively. Molecular docking of the active compound 12 and positive control teriflunomide on the inhibitor-binding site of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase was subsequently performed to visualize the interaction pattern. In addition, compounds 8 and 10 exhibited inhibitory effects against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production with inhibition rates of 61 and 41%, respectively, at the concentration of 10 µM. Compounds 9 and 12 showed cytotoxic activities with cell viability varying from 29 ~ 57% at 100 µM against T98G, U87, U251, and GL261 glioma cancer cell lines. These data provide new insights on the pharmacologically active compounds of this plant widely used in folk medicine.
63 show abstract
Foot odour (bromodosis) is an embarrassing and perplexing condition mostly caused by bacteria of the Brevibacterium species. Essential oils are a credible option as an affordable treatment of odour and contribute towards antimicrobial efficacy. Therefore, this study sets out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of essential oil combinations against odour-causing bacteria. The broth microdilution method was used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of 119 essential oil combinations, and the fractional inhibitory index was calculated to determine the interactive profile. Combinations that resulted in synergy in 1 : 1 ratios were further evaluated in different concentrations, and isobolograms were plotted to determine the influence of the ratio on overall activity. Numerous combinations could be identified as having synergistic interactions against the Brevibacterium spp. and no antagonism was observed. The combination of Juniperus virginiana (juniper) and Styrax benzoin (benzoin) demonstrated synergy against all three Brevibacterium spp. tested and J. virginiana was the essential oil responsible for the majority of the synergistic interactions. The results reported here confirm the promising potential of the majority of these oils and selected combinations in treating and controlling bromodosis.
64 show abstract
Botanical medicines have been utilized for centuries, but it remains challenging to identify bioactive constituents from complex botanical extracts. Bioassay-guided fractionation is often biased toward abundant or easily isolatable compounds. To comprehensively evaluate active botanical mixtures, methods that allow for the prioritization of active compounds are needed. To this end, a method integrating bioassay-guided fractionation, biochemometric selectivity ratio analysis, and molecular networking was devised and applied to Angelica keiskei to comprehensively evaluate its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. This approach enabled the identification of putative active constituents early in the fractionation process and provided structural information for these compounds. A subset of chalcone analogs were prioritized for isolation, yielding 4-hydroxyderricin (1, minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤ 4.6 µM, IC50 = 2.0 µM), xanthoangelol (2, MIC ≤ 4.0 µM, IC50 = 2.3) and xanthoangelol K (4, IC50 = 168 µM). This approach allowed for the identification of a low-abundance compound (xanthoangelol K) that has not been previously reported to possess antimicrobial activity and facilitated a more comprehensive understanding of the compounds responsible for A. keiskei’s antimicrobial activity.
65 show abstract
Five new botryane sesquiterpenes (1–5), one new cyclopentadepsipeptide (9), and two new xanthones (11 – 12), together with 11 known compounds, were isolated from Trichoderma oligosporum. The structures of the new compounds were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity of 1–19 was evaluated against K562, A549, and ASPC cell lines. Compounds 5, 8, 11, 17, and 18 showed cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line with more than 50% inhibition at 12.5 µM. As to A549 cell line, compound
8 showed the strongest cytotoxicity with approximately 50% inhibition at 25.0 µM. No compounds showed cytotoxicity against the ASPC cell line.

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Impact factor: 2.494
Q1 (Integrative & Complementary Medicine (6/27))
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