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    About

Journal of Experimental Botany

OUP

1950-

ISSN: 0022-0957 (1460-2431)
Plant Sciences - Plant Science - Physiology
APC costs unknown

Recent articles

1 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593788
This article comments on:Kim J, Yang R, Chang C, Park Y, Tucker ML. 2018.
The root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) produces a functional mimic of the Arabidopsis IDA signaling peptide. Journal of Experimental Botany 69, 3009–3021


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2 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593789
This article comments on:Abu-Abied M, Belausov E, Hagay S, Peremyslov V, Dolja V, Sadot E. 2018.
Myosin XI-K is involved in root organogenesis, polar auxin transport and cell division. Journal of Experimental Botany 69, 2869–2881


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3 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593790

Temperate maize was domesticated from its tropical ancestor, teosinte. Whereas temperate maize is an autonomous day-neutral plant, teosinte is an obligate short-day plant that requires uninterrupted long nights to induce flowering. Leaf-derived florigenic signals trigger reproductive growth in both teosinte and temperate maize. To study the genetic mechanisms underlying floral inductive pathways in maize and teosinte, mRNA and small RNA genome-wide expression analyses were conducted on leaf tissue from plants that were induced or not induced to flower. Transcriptome profiles reveal common differentially expressed genes during floral induction, but a comparison of candidate flowering time genes indicates that photoperiod and autonomous pathways act independently. Expression differences in teosinte are consistent with the current paradigm for photoperiod-induced flowering, where changes in circadian clock output trigger florigen production. Conversely, differentially expressed genes in temperate maize link carbon partitioning and flowering, but also show altered expression of circadian clock genes that are distinct from those altered upon photoperiodic induction in teosinte. Altered miRNA399 levels in both teosinte and maize suggest a novel common connection between flowering and phosphorus perception. These findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying a strengthened autonomous pathway that enabled maize growth throughout temperate regions.
4 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593791

Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 69, No. 6 pp. 1335–1353, 2018, doi:
10.1093/jxb/ery069



5 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593792

Storage nitrogen (N) is a buffer pool for maintaining leaf growth and synthesizing photosynthetic proteins, but the dynamics of its forms within the life cycle of a single leaf and how it is influenced by N supply remain poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted to estimate the influence of N supply on leaf growth, photosynthetic characteristics, and N partitioning inthe sixth leaf of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) from emergence through senescence. Storage N content (N
store) decreased gradually along with leaf expansion. The relative growth rate based on leaf area (RGR
a) was positively correlated with N
store during leaf expansion. The water-soluble protein form of storage N was the main N source for leaf expansion. After the leaves fully expanded, the net photosynthetic rate (A
n) followed a linear–plateau response to N
store, with A
n stabilizing at the highest value above a threshold and declining below the threshold. Non-protein and SDS (detergent)-soluble protein forms of storage N were the main N sources for maintaining photosynthesis. For the leaf N economy, storage N is used for co-ordinating leaf expansion and photosynthetic capacity. N supply can improve N
store, thereby promoting leaf growth and biomass.
6 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593793

INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA) is a signaling peptide that regulates cell separation in Arabidopsis including floral organ abscission and lateral root emergence. IDA is highly conserved in dicotyledonous flowering plant genomes. IDA-like sequences were also found in the genomic sequences of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., which are globally deleterious pathogens of agriculturally important plants, but the role of these genes is unknown. Exogenous treatment of the Arabidopsis ida mutant with synthetic peptide identical to the M. incognita IDA-like 1 (MiIDL1) protein sequence minus its N-terminal signal peptide recovered both the abscission and root architecture defects. Constitutive expression of the full-length MiIDL1 open reading frame in the ida mutant substantially recovered the delayed floral organ abscission phenotype whereas transformants expressing a construct missing the MiIDL1 signal peptide retained the delayed abscission phenotype. Importantly, wild-type Arabidopsis plants harboring an MiIDL1-RNAi construct and infected with nematodes had approximately 40% fewer galls per root than control plants. Thus, the MiIDL1 gene produces a functional IDA mimic that appears to play a role in successful gall development on Arabidopsis roots.
7 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593794

Leaf senescence involves degenerative but active biological processes that require balanced regulation of pro- and anti-senescing activities. Ethylene and cytokinin are major antagonistic regulatory hormones that control the timing and progression rate of leaf senescence. To identify the roles of these hormones in the regulation of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis, global gene expression profiles in detached leaves of the wild type, an ethylene-insensitive mutant (ein2/ore3), and a constitutive cytokinin response mutant (ahk3/ore12) were investigated during dark-induced leaf senescence. Comparative transcriptome analyses revealed that genes involved in oxidative or salt stress response were preferentially altered in the ein2/ore3 mutant, whereas genes involved in ribosome biogenesis were affected in the ahk3/ore12 mutant during dark-induced leaf senescence. Similar results were also obtained for developmental senescence. Through extensive molecular and physiological analyses in ein2/ore3 and ahk3/ore12 during dark-induced leaf senescence, together with responses when treated with cytokinin and ethylene inhibitor, we conclude that ethylene acts as a senescence-promoting factor via the transcriptional regulation of stress-related responses, whereas cytokinin acts as an anti-senescing agent by maintaining cellular activities and preserving the translational machinery. These findings provide new insights into how plants utilize two antagonistic hormones, ethylene and cytokinin, to regulate the molecular programming of leaf senescence.
8 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593795

Chloroplast development is a highly complex process and the regulatory mechanisms have not yet been fully characterized. In this study, we identified Early Chloroplast Development 1 (ECD1), a chloroplast-localized pentatricopeptide repeat protein (PPR) belonging to the PLS subfamily. Inactivation of ECD1 in Arabidopsis led to embryo lethality, and abnormal embryogenesis occurred in ecd1/+ heterozygous plants. A decrease in ECD1 expression induced by RNAi resulted in seedlings with albino cotyledons but normal true leaves. The aberrant morphology and under-developed thylakoid membrane system in cotyledons of RNAi seedlings suggests a role of ECD1 specifically in chloroplast development in seedlings. In cotyledons of ECD1-RNAi plants, RNA-editing of rps14-149 (encoding ribosomal protein S14) was seriously impaired. In addition, dramatically decreased plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-dependent gene expression and abnormal chloroplast rRNA processing were also observed. Taken together, our results indicate that ECD1 is indispensable for chloroplast development at the seedling stage in Arabidopsis.
9 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593796

In numerous countries, Gaeumannomyces species, within the Magnaporthaceae family, have previously been implicated in the suppression of take-all root disease in wheat. A UK arable isolate collection (n=47) was gathered and shown to contain Gaeumannomyces hyphopodioides and an unnamed Magnaporthaceae species. A novel seedling pot bioassay revealed that both species had a similar ability to colonize cereal roots; however, rye (Secale cereale) was only poorly colonized by the Magnaporthaceae species. To evaluate the ability of 40 elite UK winter wheat cultivars to support soil inoculum of beneficial soil-dwelling fungi, two field experiments were carried out using a naturally infested arable site in south-east England. The elite cultivars grown in the first wheat situation differed in their ability to support G. hyphopodioides inoculum, measured by colonization on Hereward as the subsequent wheat in a seedling soil core bioassay. In addition, the root colonization ability of G. hyphopodioides was influenced by the choice of the second wheat cultivar. Nine cultivars supported the colonization of the beneficial root fungus. Our findings provide evidence of complex host genotype–G. hyphopodioides interactions occurring under field conditions. This new knowledge could provide an additional soil-based crop genetic management strategy to help combat take-all root disease.
10 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593797

Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is the most serious disease affecting the yield of the agriculturally and economically important crop Brassica napus (rapeseed). In this study, Oryza sativa polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 2 (OsPGIP2) was found to effectively enhanced rapeseed immunity against S. sclerotiorum infection. Leaf extracts of B. napus plants overexpressing OsPGIP2 showed enhanced S. sclerotiorum resistance by delaying pathogen infection. The constitutive expression of OsPGIP2 in rapeseed plants provided a rapid and effective defense response, which included the production of reactive oxygen species, interactions with S. sclerotiorum polygalacturonases (SsPG3 and SsPG6), and effects on the expression of defense genes. RNA sequencing analysis revealed that the pathogen induced many differentially expressed genes associated with pathogen recognition, redox homeostasis, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades, hormone signaling pathways, pathogen-/defense-related genes, and cell wall-related genes. The overexpression of OsPGIP2 also led to constitutively increased cell wall cellulose and hemicellulose contents in stems without compromising seed quality. The results demonstrate that OsPGIP2 plays a major role in rapeseed defense mechanisms, and we propose a model for OsPGIP2-conferred resistance to S. sclerotiorum in these plants.
11 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593798

Dormancy cycling controls the seasonal conditions under which seeds germinate, and these conditions strongly influence growth and survival of plants. Several endogenous and environmental signals affect the dormancy status of seeds. Factors such as time, light, and temperature influence the balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA), two phytohormones that play a key role in seed dormancy and germination. High temperatures have been shown to increase ABA level and prevent seed germination, a process known as thermoinhibition. High temperature can also cause the acquisition of secondary dormancy, preventing germination of seeds upon their return to favorable germination conditions. The mechanisms and conditions linking thermoinhibition and secondary dormancy remain unclear. Phytochromes are photoreceptors known to promote seed germination of many plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrate a role for PHYD in modulating secondary dormancy acquisition in seeds exposed to high temperature. We found that a functional PHYD gene is required for the germination of seeds that experienced high temperature, and that ABA- and GA-related gene expression during and after pre-incubation at high temperatures was altered in a phyD mutant. We further show that the level of PHYD mRNA increased in seeds pre-incubated at high temperature and that this increase correlates with efficient removal of the germination repressor PIL5.
12 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593799

Fatty acid hydroperoxides can generate short-chained volatile aldehydes that may participate in plant defence. A grapevine hydroperoxide lyase (VvHPL1) clustering to the CYP74B class was functionally characterized with respect to a role in defence. In grapevine leaves, transcripts of this gene accumulated rapidly to high abundance in response to wounding. Cellular functions of VvHPL1 were investigated upon heterologous expression in tobacco BY-2 cells. A C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion of VvHPL1 was located in plastids. The overexpression lines were found to respond to salinity stress or the bacterial elicitor harpin by increasing cell death. This signal-dependent mortality response was mitigated either by addition of exogenous jasmonic acid or by treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases. By feeding different substrates to recombinantly expressed enzyme, VvHPL1 could also be functionally classified as true 13-HPL. The cognate products generated by this 13-HPL were cis-3-hexenal and trans-2-hexenal. Using a GFP-tagged actin marker line, one of these isomeric products, cis-3-hexenal, was found specifically to elicit a rapid disintegration of actin filaments. This response was not only observed in the heterologous system (tobacco BY-2), but also in a grapevine cell strain expressing this marker, as well as in leaf discs from an actin marker grape used as a homologous system. These results are discussed in the context of a role for VvHPL1 in a lipoxygenase-dependent signalling pathway triggering cell death-related defence that bifurcates from jasmonate-dependent basal immunity.
13 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593800

In plants, unisexual flowers derived from developmental sex determination form separate stamens and pistils that facilitate cross pollination. In cucumber and melon, ethylene plays a key role in sex determination. Six sex determination-related genes have been identified in ethylene biosynthesis in these Cucumis species. The interactions among these genes are thought to involve ethylene signaling; however, the underlying mechanism of regulation remains unknown. In this study, hormone treatment and qPCR assays were used to confirm expression of these sex determination-related genes in cucumber and melon is ethylene sensitive. RNA-Seq analysis subsequently helped identify the ethylene responsive factor (ERF) gene, CsERF110, related to ethylene signaling and sex determination. CsERF110 and its melon ortholog, CmERF110, shared a conserved AP2/ERF domain and showed ethylene-sensitive expression. Yeast one-hybrid and ChIP-PCR assays further indicated that CsERF110 bound to at least two sites in the promoter fragment of CsACS11, while transient transformation analysis showed that CsERF110 and CmERF110 enhance CsACS11 and CmACS11 promoter activity, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that CsERF110 and CmERF110 respond to ethylene signaling, mediating ethylene-regulated transcription of CsACS11 and CmACS11 in cucumber and melon, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanism involved in its regulation is thought to be conserved in these two Cucumis species.
14 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593801

miR156 is a highly conserved plant miRNA and has been extensively studied because of its versatile roles in plant development. Here, we report a novel role of miR156 in regulating somatic embryogenesis (SE) in citrus, one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. SE is an important means of in vitro regeneration, but over the course of long-term sub-culturing there is always a decline in the SE potential of the preserved citrus embryogenic callus, and this represents a key obstacle for citrus biotechnology. In this study, the SE competence of citrus callus of wild kumquat (Fortunella hindsii) was significantly enhanced by either overexpression of csi-miR156a or by individual knock-down of the two target genes, CsSPL3 and CsSPL14, indicating that the effect of miR156-SPL modules was established during the initial phases of SE induction. Biological processes that might promote SE in response to miR156 overexpression were explored using RNA-seq, and mainly included hormone signaling pathways, stress responses, DNA methylation, and the cell cycle. CsAKIN10 was identified as interacting protein of CsSPL14. Our results provide insights into the regulatory pathway through which miR156-SPL modules enhance the SE potential of citrus callus, and provide a theoretical basis for improvement of plant SE competence.
15 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593802

The high energy cost and apparently low plasticity of C4 photosynthesis compared with C3 photosynthesis may limit the productivity and distribution of C4 plants in low light (LL) environments. C4 photosynthesis evolved numerous times, but it remains unclear how different biochemical subtypes perform under LL. We grew eight C4 grasses belonging to three biochemical subtypes [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] under shade (16% sunlight) or control (full sunlight) conditions and measured their photosynthetic characteristics at both low and high light. We show for the first time that LL (during measurement or growth) compromised the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) to a greater extent in NAD-ME than in PEP-CK or NADP-ME C4 grasses by virtue of a greater increase in carbon isotope discrimination (∆P) and bundle sheath CO2 leakiness (ϕ), and a greater reduction in photosynthetic quantum yield (Φmax). These responses were partly explained by changes in the ratios of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)/initial Rubisco activity and dark respiration/photosynthesis (R
d/A). Shade induced a greater photosynthetic acclimation in NAD-ME than in NADP-ME and PEP-CK species due to a greater Rubisco deactivation. Shade also reduced plant dry mass to a greater extent in NAD-ME and PEP-CK relative to NADP-ME grasses. In conclusion, LL compromised the co-ordination of the C4 and C3 cycles and, hence, the efficiency of the CCM to a greater extent in NAD-ME than in PEP-CK species, while CCM efficiency was less impacted by LL in NADP-ME species. Consequently, NADP-ME species are more efficient at LL, which could explain their agronomic and ecological dominance relative to other C4 grasses.
16 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593803

Gradients exist in the distribution of storage proteins in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm and determine the milling properties and protein recovery rate of the grain. A novel image analysis technique was developed to quantify both the gradients in protein concentration, and the size distribution of protein bodies within the endosperm of wheat plants grown under two different (20 or 28 °C) post-anthesis temperatures, and supplied with a nutrient solution with either high or low nitrogen content. Under all treatment combinations, protein concentration was greater in the endosperm cells closest to the aleurone layer and decreased towards the centre of the two lobes of the grain, i.e. a negative gradient. This was accompanied by a decrease in size of protein bodies from the outer to the inner endosperm layers in all but one of the treatments. Elevated post-anthesis temperature had the effect of increasing the magnitude of the negative gradients in both protein concentration and protein body size, whilst limiting nitrogen supply decreased the gradients.
17 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593804

In interactions between poleroviruses and their hosts, few cellular proteins have been identified that directly interact with the multifunctional virus P0 protein. To help explore the functions of P0, we identified a Brassica yellows virus genotype A (BrYV-A) P0BrA-interacting protein from Nicotiana benthamiana, Rubisco assembly factor 2 (NbRAF2), which localizes in the nucleus, cell periphery, chloroplasts, and stromules. We found that its C-terminal domain (amino acids 183–211) is required for self-interaction. A split ubiquitin membrane-bound yeast two-hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that NbRAF2 interacted with P0BrA, and co-localized in the nucleus and at the cell periphery. Interestingly, the nuclear pool of NbRAF2 decreased in the presence of P0BrA and during BrYV-A infection, and the P0BrA-mediated reduction of nuclear NbRAF2 required dual localization of NbRAF2 in the chloroplasts and nucleus. Tobacco rattle virus-based virus-induced gene silencing of NbRAF2 promoted BrYV-A infection in N. benthamiana, and the overexpression of nuclear NbRAF2 inhibited BrYV-A accumulation. Potato leafroll virus P0PL also interacted with NbRAF2 and decreased its nuclear accumulation, indicating that NbRAF2 may be a common target of poleroviruses. These results suggest that nuclear NbRAF2 possesses antiviral activity against BrYV-A infection, and that BrYV-A P0BrA interacts with NbRAF2 and alters its localization pattern to facilitate virus infection.
18 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593805

Fruit ripening represents a process that changes flavor and appearance and also a process that dramatically increases fruit softening. Fruit softening and textural variations mainly result from disruptions to the cell walls of the fruit throughout ripening, but the exact mechanisms and specific modifications of the cell wall remain unclear. Plant-specific GRAS proteins play a critical role in development and growth. To date, few GRAS genes have been functionally categorized in tomato. The expression of a novel GRAS gene described in this study and designated as SlFSR (fruit shelf-life regulator) specifically increased during fruit ripening, but was significantly decreased in the tomato mutant rin (ripening inhibitor). RNAi repression of SlFSR resulted in reduced expression of multiple cell wall modification-related genes, decreased the activities of PG (polygalacturonase), TBG (tomato β-galactosidase), CEL (cellulase), and XYL (β-D-xylosidase), and significantly prolonged fruit shelf-life. Furthermore, overexpression of SlFSR in mutant rin gave rise to up-regulated expression of multiple cell wall modification-related genes, such as PG, TBG4, CEL2, XYL1, PL, PE, MAN1, EXP1, and XTH5, and significantly shortened the fruit shelf-life. These findings reveal some of the genetic mechanisms underlying fruit cell wall metabolism and suggest that the SlFSR gene is another potential biotechnological target for the control of tomato fruit shelf-life.
19 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593806

The effects of leaf dorsoventrality and its interaction with environmentally induced changes in the leaf spectral response are still poorly understood, particularly for isobilateral leaves. We investigated the spectral performance of 24 genotypes of field-grown durum wheat at two locations under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Flag leaf reflectance spectra in the VIS-NIR-SWIR (visible–near-infrared–short-wave infrared) regions were recorded in the adaxial and abaxial leaf sides and at the canopy level, while traits providing information on water status and grain yield were evaluated. Moreover, leaf anatomical parameters were measured in a subset of five genotypes. The spectral traits studied were more affected by the leaf side than by the water regime. Leaf dorsoventral differences suggested higher accessory pigment content in the abaxial leaf side, while water regime differences were related to increased chlorophyll, nitrogen, and water contents in the leaves in the irrigated treatment. These variations were associated with anatomical changes. Additionally, leaf dorsoventral differences were less in the rainfed treatment, suggesting the existence of leaf-side-specific responses at the anatomical and biochemical level. Finally, the accuracy in yield prediction was enhanced when abaxial leaf spectra were employed. We concluded that the importance of dorsoventrality in spectral traits is paramount, even in isobilateral leaves.
20 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593807

A model system of 10–12 day-old, two-branched (2-B) pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Adagumsky) seedlings was used to study the roles of endogenous auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs) in the interaction between the shoots. The IAA export activity (IEA) from shoots was 2-fold higher in one-branched (1-B) plants with one shoot removed than in the 2-B plants, while tZ-type cytokinin contents in xylem sap were 4-fold greater in the 1-B plants than in 2-B plants. Exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine introduced into the vascular stream of one shoot enhanced its IEA. Therefore, xylem cytokinin appears to control both growth and IEA in branches. In the hypocotyls of 1-B and 2-B plants, IAA contents were equal in both cases, while the levels of tZ-type cytokinins were different. These data do not agree with the well-supported role of auxin in down-regulating CK content. The observed paradox may be explained by assuming that a steady-state IAA level in the hypocotyls is feedback regulated via xylem cytokinin, which controls the delivery of IAA from the shoots. As a result, the level of IAA in the hypocotyl is most likely maintained at a threshold below which a decrease in auxin content can switch on CK synthesis that will increase xylem cytokinin levels, thereby stabilizing the level of IAA in the hypocotyl. Therefore, our results suggest that correlative inhibition in the 2-B pea system is a function of an IAA/CK feedback loop, in which cytokinin essentially acts as a second messenger for IAA.
21 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593808

Published evidence indicates that nearly 60% of blueberry-producing countries experience yield instability. Yield is a complex trait determined by genetic and environmental factors. Here, using physiological and biochemical approaches, we tested the hypothesis that yield instability results from year-to-year environmental variation that limits carbon assimilation, storage and partitioning. The data indicate that fruit development depends primarily on the daily production of non-structural carbohydrates by leaves, and there is no accumulation of a starch buffer to allow continuous ripening under conditions limiting for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis was saturated at moderate light irradiance and this was mainly due to stomatal and biochemical limitations. In a dynamic light environment, photosynthesis was further limited by slow stomatal response to increasing light. Finally, labelling with 13CO2 at specific stages of fruit development revealed a relatively even distribution of newly assimilated carbon between stems, roots and fruits, suggesting that the fruit is not a strong sink. We conclude that a significant component of yield variability results from limitations in photosynthetic efficiency that are compounded by an inability to accumulate starch reserves in blueberry storage tissues in a typical northern European environment. This work informs techniques for improving agronomic management and indicates key traits required for yield stability in such environments.
22 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593809

Jasmonates are signaling compounds that regulate plant responses to stress. Jasmonic acid (JA) is the direct precursor of the bioactive plant hormone JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile), the ligand of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1–jasmonate ZIM-domain (COI1–JAZ) co-receptor complex. JA, its methyl ester, and three furanonyl esters were recently isolated from the grapevine pathogen Lasiodiplodia mediterranea. The JA ester lasiojasmonate A (LasA) is the first reported naturally occurring JA-furanone, and its mode of action has not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that LasA activates many JA-regulated responses in planta, including protein degradation, gene expression, and physiological processes. These in vivo effects require LasA conversion into JA, formation of JA-Ile, and its recognition by the plant JA-Ile perception complex. These findings suggest a mode of action of the natural fungal LasA as an inactive JA pool that can be transformed into the bioactive JA-Ile form. We propose that fungal production of JA derivates such as LasA occurs at late infection stages to induce plant JA responses such as cell death, and can facilitate fungal infection.
23 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593810

The interplay between myosin- and auxin-mediated processes was investigated by following root development in the triple myosin knockout mutant xi-k xi-1 xi-2 (3KO). It was found that the 3KO plants generated significantly more lateral and adventitious roots than the wild-type plants or the rescued plant line expressing functional myosin XI-K:yellow fluorescent protein (YFP; 3KOR). Using the auxin-dependent reporter DR5:venus, a significant change in the auxin gradient toward the root tip was found in 3KO plants, which correlated with the loss of polar localization of the auxin transporter PIN1 in the stele and with the increased number of stele cells with oblique cell walls. Interestingly, myosin XI-K:YFP was localized to the cell division apparatus in the root and shoot meristems. In anaphase and early telophase, XI-K:YFP was concentrated in the midzone and the forming cell plate. In late telophase, XI-K:YFP formed a ring that overlapped with the growing phragmoplast. Myosin receptors MyoB1 and MyoB2 that are highly expressed throughout the plant were undetectable in dividing cells, suggesting that the myosin function in cell division relies on distinct adaptor proteins. These results suggest that myosin XIs are involved in orchestrating root organogenesis via effects on polar distribution of auxin responses and on cell division.
24 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593811

In flowering plants, various RNA editing events occur in the mitochondria and chloroplasts as part of post-transcriptional processes. Although several pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins and multiple organellar RNA editing factors (MORFs) have been identified as RNA editing factors, the underlying mechanism of PPRs and the cooperation among these proteins are still obscure. Here, we identified a rice dual-localized PPR protein, OsPGL1. The loss of function of OsPGL1 resulted in defects in both chloroplast RNA editing of ndhD-878 and mitochondrial RNA editing of ccmFc-543, both of which could be restored in transgenic complementation lines. Despite synonymous editing of ccmFc-543, the loss of editing of ndhD-878 caused a failed conversion of serine to leucine, leading to chloroplast dysfunction and defects in the photosynthetic complex; the results of additional experiments demonstrated that OsPGL1 directly binds to both transcripts. Interactions between three OsMORFs (OsMORF2/8/9) and OsPGL1 both in vitro and in vivo were confirmed, implying that OsPGL1 functions in RNA editing via an editosome. These findings also suggested that OsMORFs assist with and contribute to a flexible PPR–RNA recognition model during RNA editing. These results indicate that, in cooperation with PPRs, OsPGL1 is required for RNA editing. In addition, our study provides new insights into the relationship between RNA editing and plant development.
25 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593812
Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 64, No. 4, pp. 1145–1152, 2013. doi:
10.1093/jxb/ers398



26 show abstract
0022-0957 * 1460-2431 * 26593813

Cuticular wax is a major component of the surface cuticle of plants, which performs crucial functions in optimizing plant growth. Histone acetylation regulates gene expression in diverse biological processes, but its role in cuticular wax synthesis is not well understood. In this study, we observed that mutations of the Arabidopsis thaliana histone acetyltransferase GENERAL CONTROL NON-REPRESSED PROTEIN5 (GCN5) impaired the accumulation of stem cuticular wax. Three target genes of GCN5, ECERIFERUM3 (CER3), CER26, and CER1-LIKE1 (CER1-L1), were identified by RNA-seq and ChIP assays. H3K9/14 acetylation levels at the promoter regions of CER3, CER26, and CER1-L1 were consistently and significantly decreased in the gcn5-2 mutant as compared to the wild-type. Notably, overexpression of CER3 in the gcn5-2 mutant rescued the defect in stem cuticular wax biosynthesis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that GCN5 is involved in stem cuticular wax accumulation by modulating CER3 expression via H3K9/14 acetylation, which underlines the important role of histone acetylation in cuticular wax biosynthesis.

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  • Pre-print on author's personal website, employer website, free public server or pre-prints in subject area
  • Post-print on author's personal website immediately
  • Post-print in Institutional repositories or Central repositories after 12 months embargo
  • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
  • Published source must be acknowledged
  • Must link to publisher version
  • Set phrase to accompany archived copy (see policy)
  • The publisher will deposit in PubMed Central on behalf of NIH authors
  • Publisher last contacted on 19/02/2015


More Sherpa/Romeo information

APC Discount

For this journal no deals have been made concerning APC discount

More information on Open Access publishing

Impact

Journal Citation Reports (2017)

Impact factor: 5.354
Q1 (Plant Sciences (14/222))

Scopus Journal Metrics (2017)

SJR: 2.822
SNIP: 1.757
Impact (Scopus CiteScore): 0.578
Quartile: Q1
CiteScore percentile: 97%
CiteScore rank: 10 out of 389
Cited by WUR staff: 1468 times. (2014-2016)

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