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Quaternary International



ISSN: 1040-6182 (1873-4553)
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary - Geography, Physical - Earth-Surface Processes
APC costs unknown

Recent articles

1 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29557289
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): M.A. Galindo-Pellicena, J.L. Arsuaga, J.M. Carretero

The main objectives of this work are to distinguish the wild and domestic form of Sus from the Metal Age at the El Portalón site, to determine the osteometric variation within the suid population in the habitat context found in the different levels of the El Portalón site, in comparison with the change in pig size from the Neolithic to the Iron Age in the context of the Iberian Peninsula, and to infer pig management systems through zooarchaeological analysis. A total of 280 suid bone remains have been analysed from the Chalcolithic level (101 bone remains) and the Bronze Age level (177 bone remains) recovered from the El Portalón site. A decrease in pig size from the Chalcolithic to the Bronze Age has been observed, similarly to pig populations from the Neolithic to the Iron Age in sites found on the Iberian Peninsula. Although scant data are available, a move towards an exploitation of older individuals and a slight increase in females compared to males is observed from the Chalcolithic to the Bronze Age in the pig population found at the El Portalón site. These suggestions correspond to pig management from the Neolithic to the Iron Age in the Iberian Peninsula context.

2 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29557290
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Boo-Keun Khim, Seungwon Shin, Jin Cheul Kim, Hiroyuki Takata, Sangmin Hyun, Daekyo Cheong

Multi-proxy sediment properties reveal that three cores (ND-01, ND-02, and ND-03) from the lower delta plain of the Nakdong River Delta, southeastern Korea, are characterized by the same stratigraphic lithologic successions consisting of a upper sand unit (10–15 m thick and <1 ka), a middle mud unit (∼20 m thick and 1–9 ka), a lower sand unit (6–9 m thick and 9–10 ka), and a lower mud unit (10–15 m thick and>10 ka) overlying weathered gravelly fluvial sediments and weathered bedrock. The sediment properties of each lithologic unit are controlled by the balance between the marine influence from Holocene sea level rise and the freshwater influence from Nakdong River discharge. In particular, the middle mud unit is characterized by distinct peaks in CaCO3 content, P/T ratios (the ratio of planktonic foraminifera to the sum of benthic and planktonic foraminifera), total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents, and δ13Corg values at 7–8 ka, which indicates that the maximum marine forcing during the sea level rising and the greatest influence of the Tsushima Warm Current during the evolution of the river-mouth coastal depositional system from an estuarine to a deltaic environment. Although the vertical stacking of lithologic successions is stratigraphically consistent within the lower delta plain, the precise temporal evaluation and comprehensive depositional evolution in the Nakdong River Delta including the upper delta plain and the prodelta zones remain a topic of future investigation.

3 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29557292
Publication date: Available online 3 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Mahadev, Atul K. Singh, Manoj K. Jaiswal

High magnitude floods are generally associated with wet periods or shift in climate. Recent events of increased flooding in southern India raises the question of these to be either associated with human impact or a general climate shift. Due to lack of instrumental/historical records beyond a certain period, one need to look for fluvial records e.g. slack water deposit, levees deposit and signature of high discharge events. Luminescence dating dates the last daylight exposure of sediments. Therefore, dating of young extreme fluvial events may be challenging due to presence of significant remnant geological luminescence resulting in overestimation of ages. The present work examines this in a variety of fluvial deposits e.g. channel sediment, overbank deposit and flood plain deposits of ephemeral system of rivers in southern India to reconstruct past flooding events. The study demonstrated successful application of various age models often used in optical dating i.e. Common Age model (CAM), Minimum Age Model (MAM) and least 5% on the calculated equivalent doses obtained in heterogeneously bleached sediment and suggests that optical dating of fluvial sediments with heterogeneous bleaching can give dependable outcomes when proper age models are utilized. Results suggests duration of the extreme floods occurred during 50–60, 100–120, 180–200, 280–300 and 750–800 years ago. The gap indicates effect of Little Ice Ages (LIA) and several flooding events at 750–800 years ago indicate the end of Medieval Warm Period (MWP). The results indicate that the flooding events increase at the boundary of major climatic changes probably because these changes are associated with an increase in the depressions and cyclonic activity. The recent increase in flooding events which are associated with depressions and cyclonic activity could be an early warning of either a major climate shift or human impact.

4 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29557294
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Alexander A. Shchetnikov, Elena V. Bezrukova, Galina G. Matasova, Alexey Yu Kazansky, Varvara V. Ivanova, Guzel A. Danukalova, Ivan A. Filinov, Fedora I. Khenzykhenova, Evgeniya M. Osipova, Natalia E. Berdnikova, Ivan M. Berdnikov, Evgeniy O. Rogovskoi, Ekaterina A. Lipnina, Galina A. Vorobyeva

The complex study of the 3.5-m thick section of the multi-genetic sediments of the Late Paleolithic Tuyana site (Tunka rift valley, Baikal region) resulted in a first detailed record of the change in environment and climate of the ancient humans’ habitation in the Tunka rift valley in late Pleistocene and Holocene in the interval of>36 ka cal BP until Late Holocene. Sedimentation processes in the section are characterized by multiple remobilizations. Redeposition traces are most strongly expressed in МIS 3 sediments. Apparently, an intensive transient removal of slope sediments took place here at МIS 2. The common tendency of the natural environment and habitation conditions of the ancient humans in the Tunka valley show domination of the open and relatively dry tundra-steppe with areas of forests vegetation in the end of MIS 3, mostly dry steppes with limited forest-tundra and tundra associations in MIS 2 with the spread of boreal taiga in Holocene. Tunka rift valley around 50 ka cal BP had already been settled by humans and was visited by them during the periods of relatively favorable climatic conditions: during the MIS 3 optimums and in Middle Holocene. The Tuyana Paleolithic complexes have extensive analogies with the Aurignacian industries of Eurasia. The closest similarities could be drawn with the complexes of Kulbulakien culture in Middle Asia and Kazakhstan. The Tuyana site is currently the most eastern occurrence of the Aurignacian culture in Eurasia.

5 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29598691
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): O.G. Stepanova, V.A. Trunova, E. Yu Osipov, E.E. Kononov, S.S. Vorobyeva, E.V. Parkhomchuk, P.N. Kalinkin, E.E. Vorobyeva, K.E. Vershinin, S.A. Rastigeev, A.P. Fedotov

In the present study, we have reconstructed glacier dynamics based on the high (1–0.5 mm) resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometry scanning, the Fourier-transform infrared technique and 14C-dating used in the analyses of the lake bottom sediments, fluvioglacial deposits and a peat bog situated on East Siberian Mountains (East Sayan, Baikal, Barguzin and Kodar Ridges) between 51.723°N, 100.601°E and 56.885°N, 117.580°E. We have found what the largest glacier deposits on the Baikal shoreline, so-called Tompuda end moraine, formed in two stages. The first stage occurred until ca. 12 cal ka BP; then, there was a short pause. The second stage ended by 9.5 cal ka BP. Azarova glacier (Kodar Ridge) retreated upwards the Kodar Ridge by ca. 11 cal ka BP. It may indicate that the Bølling-Allerød warming was very evident, and it was a trigger for these deglacial events in East Siberia. It is most likely that “remains” of the Late Pleistocene glaciers were cardinally shrunk or fully disappeared during the Holocene Thermal Optimum in the southern part of East Siberia. Climate conditions were suitable for glacier formation after 3 cal ka BP. However, if there were new glaciers in the Middle Holocene, their sizes were likely to be less than 1 km2. For this reason, these glaciers should have completely melted during the Roman and Medieval Warm Periods. It is most likely, small glaciers observed at present in the south of East Siberia were mainly formed during the Little Ice Age.

6 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29598692
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): M. Kuitems, T. van Kolfschoten, A.N. Tikhonov, J. van der Plicht

The range of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) covered the northern circumpolar region, over time varying in size and space due to changes in regional climatic conditions. The species survived multiple glacial cycles, but got extinct around the end of the last glacial, between ∼21,000 and 4,000 years ago. Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) data of woolly mammoth fossils from western Eurasia and Alaska, show considerable variation during periods of global climatic change and towards time of regional extinction. In North-eastern Siberia, the woolly mammoth survived several millennia longer. The fossil record from North-eastern Siberia yields, therefore, crucial ecological information about the living conditions of the woolly mammoth and plays an important role in the debate about the cause of its extinction. The current dataset comprises an unprecedented amount of δ13C and δ15N data of directly radiocarbon-dated woolly mammoth skeletal samples from North-eastern Siberia, including numerous Holocene samples from Wrangel Island. This study shows that the δ13C and δ15N values of the woolly mammoth remained amazingly stable in this region throughout the last ∼50,000 years of its existence.

7 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29598693
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): José Ramos-Muñoz, Antonio Barrena-Tocino, Juan Jesús Cantillo Duarte, Eduardo Vijande-Vila, Pablo Ramos-García

In the geohistorical region of the Strait of Gibraltar, which includes the south of the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, important research has been carried out in recent years. This research has allowed us to document the presence of human groups as early as the Middle Pleistocene.
Classical anthropology refers to these groups using various terms Homo Neanderthalensis in the south of Europe and Homo sapiens sapiens in North Africa). The current records exhibit important similarities concerning lithic technology (the so-called ‘Mode 3’, ‘Mousterian’ or ‘Middle Stone Age’), and the exploitation of marine resources.
From an anthropological or cultural perspective, both groups were hunter-gatherers with similar lifestyles. Bearing these similarities in mind, three hypotheses are here presented.

8 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29634562
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Vaida Šeirienė, Petras Šinkūnas, Miglė Stančikaitė, Dalia Kisielienė, Laura Gedminienė

A number of interglacial sections discovered in the eastern part of Lithuania and suggested as Snaigupėlė Interglacial were attributed to the Saalian Complex Stage of Middle Pleistocene. However, the exact stratigraphical position and correlation of these interglacial sections are still arguable. Recent investigations were performed to get a clearer insight into the stratigraphy and sedimentation palaeoenvironment of the Snaigupėlė Interglacial sediments outcropping in Buivydžiai section and included complex proxies: pollen, plant macrofossils, diatoms, loss on ignition, magnetic susceptibility and optically stimulated luminescence dating. Interglacial sediments occur at the lowermost part of the exposure and reach more than 7 m thick. Palaeobotanical investigations confirm deposition of studied sediments during the different climatic stages of the interglacial. An attempt at correlation between the Buivydžiai section vegetational changes with vegetational succession obtained from north-central Europe allowed finding out some similarities with the Schöningen/Lublinian Interglacial. The OSL dating results do not contradict such a proposition as the two sand samples lying below the interglacial gyttja show sedimentation of this layer during the 300.5 ± 20.9 ka and 317.3 ± 21.8 ka time or MIS 9. However, recently obtained data are insufficient for grounding the correlation of studied section. Certainly, additional chronostratigraphic investigations would be valuable and may contribute to the solution of the sediment age and correlation problem.

9 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29634563
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Maureece J. Levin

In Micronesia, and more broadly in the Pacific Islands, human-introduced plants, especially vegetatively-propagated root/tuber and tree crops, form a large part of local diets. Archaeobotanists working in the region often employ phytolith analysis to understand the landscapes these plants help create, the role that they play in human migration and settlement, and socio-cultural aspects of food production systems. However, to more fully understand the benefits and limitations of this method, it is necessary to develop and analyze regional, archaeologically-oriented phytolith reference collections, as has been done in other regions of the world. This paper presents an analysis of one such reference collection to more fully understand the potential and limitations of phytolith analysis in the archaeology of the Pacific Islands, specifically oriented towards the island of Pohnpei, Micronesia. In this analysis, 77 plant taxa were processed, individual phytolith morphologies were recorded, and plants and plant parts were categorized according to phytolith production. Results confirm that phytoliths in the taxa of this region are abundant and specific, and can be used for both understanding landscape use and the function of artifacts and features. However, there are some notable limitations that may be specific to the Pacific region and the crops that grow here.

10 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29682455
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Olga Korsakova

This paper presents available litho-/chrono-/biostratigraphy data on sediment sequences in the Kola region derived from Russian publications. Based on this compilation, key sections have been suggested for primary stratigraphic subdivisions, or Horizons, according to the General Quaternary Stratigraphic chart of Russia. The regional Quaternary scheme is correlated with the International Chart. Summarizing the available data, 10 geological sections have been proposed as key sites/sections for the Middle and Upper/Late Neopleistocene Horizons. In different sections in the southern Kola Peninsula, the most ancient deposits correspond to the Chekalinsky (Early Saalian, MIS 9) Horizon, which is identified by ESR dating and multi-proxy data, and also to the Moskovsky (Late Saalian, MIS 6) Horizon specified according to litostratigraphic data. The Last interglacial-glacial cycle relates to the Mikulinsky (entire MIS 5), Podporozhsky (MIS 4), Leningradsky (MIS 3) and Ostashkovsky (MIS 2) Horizons. Two marine events identified in key sections on the coastal Kola Peninsula correspond to the Last Interglacial Mikulinsky (MIS 5) Horizon. They are referred to as the Ponoi and Strelna Beds in the regional stratigraphic classification. The third marine unit is correlated to the Interstadial Leningradsky (MIS 3) Horizon. Key sections in the central and western Kola region provide the interglacial and interstadial terrestrial sequences. There is a high probability that litho-/biostratigraphy data and a single numerical IR-OSL dating testify to the Glacial Podporozhsky (MIS 4) Horizon deposits in coastal natural outcrops and boreholes in the Lovozero Tundra Mountains. Key sections of the Ostashkovsky (MIS 2) Horizon have not been referred to in the formal Kola region stratigraphy yet.

11 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29682456
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Vladimir G. Trifonov, Alexey S. Tesakov, Alexandra N. Simakova, Dmitry M. Bachmanov

Majority of researchers consider the Arabian-Caucasus region as a corridor for migration of earliest hominins from their African motherland to Eurasia. The paper is devoted to geological position of main stratified localities of the earliest Paleolithic industries in the Arabian-Caucasus region and estimation of environment of creators of these industries. The following early Paleolithic localities are analyzed: ‘Ubeidiya in Israel, middle Orontes River, Halabiyeh-Zalabiyeh area in the Euphrates River valley, and Aïn al Fil in Syria, Dursunlu in Central Turkey, Şambayat, Bostancık, Eskimalatya, and Kovancılar in Eastern Turkey, Karakhach, Muradovo, Agvoric, and Jradzor in NW Armenia, Dmanisi in Southern Georgia, the Azykh cave in Nagornyi Karabakh, Muhkai II in Dagestan, and Kermek in the Taman Peninsula. The evolution of large and small mammals and palynological data on changes of vegetation from the Late Pliocene to the early Middle Pleistocene are studied to determine the age of the earliest Paleolithic industries and climatic conditions of that epoch. Combined analysis of paleontological, paleomagnetic and radio-isotopic data and geological correlation of the sections available for the Halabiyeh-Zalabiyeh, Şambayat, Kovancılar, Karakhach, Dmanisi, Muhkai II, and Kermek localities shows that their age is ranged in time interval ca. 2.0–1.7 Ma. The 1.7–1.6 Ma age of the lowest layers of ‘Ubeidiya with Oldowan-type artefacts probably marks the end of this epoch. Removal of topographic effects of the late Calabrian and younger tectonic uplifts and offsets on major strike-slip faults shows that the topography of the late Gelasian – early Calabrian was much lower and less differentiated and main river systems were more passable than in the present time. The climate of the end of Gelasian was wet and relatively warm, with meadow-steppe and forest-steppe savanna-type vegetation in basins and valleys and coniferous and coniferous–broad-leaved forests in the mountains. Abundance of vegetation was supported by water resources of numerous rivers, lakes, and springs in the intermountain basins and valleys that were controlled partly by fault activity. This stimulated abundance of herbivorous mammals. In spite of relative aridisation at the beginning of Calabrian, vegetation continued to be freely available for herbivores. Hominin dispersal into the region was supported by rich resources of herbivores during the late Gelasian – early Calabrian time.

12 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29682457
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): K.M. Cohen, P.L. Gibbard

A substantially updated version of the correlation table showing chronostratigraphical subdivisions of late Cenozoic geological time, spanning the last 2.7 million years is presented. It provides scientists, students, professionals and the general public with a ready reference to stratigraphical terms and schemes in use in different areas for similar periods. The updates comprised the status of Quaternary chronostratigraphic subdivision, the combined age-modelled geomagnetic and isotope records from ocean drilling records, and revised regional correlation schemes, notably for eastern Europe. The paper describes the chart in its 2019 QI-500 form and contains sections on its types of usage and formal subdivision status, besides reference and description of the contents of the various columns. The paper also describes and discusses the resolution of correlations in younger and older parts of the last 2.7 Ma.

13 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29682458
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Liang-Chi Wang, Zih-Wei Tang, Huei-Fen Chen, Hong-Chun Li, Liang-Jian Shiau, Jyh-Jaan Steven Huang, Kuo-Yen Wei, Chih-Kai Chuang, Yu-Min Chou

Paleo-typhoon activity and its correlation with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) during the late Holocene has been reported by numerous studies, but our understanding of the impacts of typhoons as natural disturbance events on subtropical forest ecosystems remains unclear. In this study, we used a multi-proxy method, including pollen, grain size, and the ratios of Sr/Ti and Rb/Ti from XRF-scanning measurements, on a sediment core from Tunlumei Pond (TLM) to reconstruct vegetation dynamics and the records of natural disturbances, such as heavy rainfalls, earthquakes, or typhoons, in central alpine Taiwan during the past 2400 calibrated years before the present (cal yr BP, where “present” refers to 1950 AD). The trend in variation between the percentages of upper montane forests and PC1 value indicates that the cold/dry climate changed to a warm/humid climate from 1800 cal yr BP upward, corresponding to the Roman Warm Period. This local change might be corresponded to regional trend and relative to the East Asian summer monsoon fluctuation. Coarse grain particles associated with the transition of the pollen zone indicate frequent and/or strong natural disturbances at 1510 cal yr BP and the impacts of the early Little Ice Age (LIA) during 530–480 cal yr BP. The palaeoecological record of TLM provides very useful information for both decision making and policy planning in present and future subtropical forest management, as well as restoration after a catastrophic event.

14 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29714258
Publication date: Available online 17 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): G.A. Leonova, A.E. Maltsev, V.N. Melenevsky, S.K. Krivonogov, L.M. Kondratyeva, V.A. Bobrov, M.Y. Suslova

Sapropels, biogenic lake sediments, are characterized by a reduction type of diagenesis, during which decomposition of organic compounds, modification of the pore water chemical composition and precipitation of authigenic minerals, mostly pyrite, occur. Pyrolysis data indicate that organic matter undergoes radical transformations already in the uppermost sapropel layers, and composition of the organic matter in the sediments is principally different from the composition of the organic matter of live organisms, which produce the sediments. The sapropels lose labile protein–carbohydrate compounds in the horizon of unconsolidated sediment (0–5 cm), and kerogen appears, whose macromolecular structures start to develop in the very early stages of diagenesis. Various physiological groups of microorganisms provide diagenetic transformations of the organic matter, where heterotrophic, ammonifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria play key role. Their effect is well-seen from the pore water transformation: a decrease in concentrations of SO4
2– and consequent increase of reduced Fe and S as pyrite in the solid phase of the sediment. Comparative analysis shows that, unlike in lakes of the Baikal area, sapropels in southern West Siberia are affected by more active sulfate reduction, which can depend on both the composition of the organic matter and the SO4
2– concentration in the pore waters.

15 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29753382
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Bonnie W. Styles, Mona Colburn

We incorporated faunal datasets from 1950s to 1980s excavations at Modoc Rock Shelter (11R5), a deeply stratified archaeological site in the central Mississippi River valley of southwestern Illinois, into the Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR) as part of a National Science Foundation-funded research project in which nine collaborators in the Eastern Archaic Faunal Working Group (EAFWG) ingested and analyzed faunal datasets from 23 archaeological sites to test hypotheses about changing use of aquatic resources during the Archaic Period (10,000─3000 RCYBP) in the interior Eastern United States. The use of tDAR resulted in the online digital preservation of Modoc Rock Shelter data accumulated by different researchers over five decades from multiple areas of excavation and also provided tools to integrate and synthesize the data. To ensure comparability of Modoc Rock Shelter datasets made by researchers using different coding schemes, we mapped variable attributes to existing and newly created tDAR ontologies. Following the EAFWG taphonomic protocol, we examined evidence for differential bone preservation and destruction caused by weathering, gnawing and chewing, butchering, fragmentation, burning, and bone density-mediated attrition for cultural components of the West Shelter and Main Shelter at Modoc. We also examined potential taphonomic biases caused by differences in recovery techniques, contexts excavated, and settlement function. With due consideration of taphonomic biases, we analyzed variability related to cultural factors and/or environmental change. Using the tDAR integration tool, we compared resource use for the cultural components in the two shelters. Our studies bear out earlier findings that Early Archaic hunter-gatherers at Modoc Rock shelter collected numerous small mammals, especially tree squirrels. Deer hunting and aquatic resource use generally increased during the Middle Archaic; and use of fauna was more specialized in the Late Archaic field camps. We relate these shifts in exploitation to landscape evolution, including stabilization of river systems, development of floodplain lakes, and the opening of the forest in the middle Holocene, as well as to changes in demography and settlement strategies.

16 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29873219
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Lin Qi, Yansong Qiao, Haitao Yao, Yan Wang, Shasha Peng, Shuaibin Yang

Eolian deposits in the Zoigê basin at the northeastern region of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were analyzed for their major-trace elements and SmNd isotopic compositions to explore the provenance and weathering intensity. The results are compared with the data from the Lingtai section (LT) in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Eolian deposits from different sections in the Zoigê basin have resembling geochemical compositions, reflecting similar provenance. Their major element compositions are close to those of the UCC, and their UCC-normalized major-trace element abundances and chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) abundances are similar to the LT samples. However, the SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, Zr, Hf, Sc, Co, V, Ni concentrations and SiO2/TiO2, TiO2/Al2O3, Co/Th, La/Sc, Th/Sc, εNd(0), 147Sm/144Nd ratios of the Zoigê sections are quite different from those of the LT section, which suggests different provenances for the eolian deposits in these two regions. The relatively high abundances of SiO2, Zr, Hf and low abundances of trace elements indicate that local sediments on the TP are the major contributors to the eolian deposits in the Zoigê basin. Eolian deposits from the Zoigê basin have experienced the early Na and Ca removal stage, and chemical weathering parameters suggest a moderate weathering condition in the source and deposition regions.

17 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29873220
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): William J. Pestle, Christina Torres-Rouff, Francisco Gallardo Ibanez, Gloria Andrea Cabello, Erin K. Smith, Alejandro Clarot

While the village of Quillagua, a riparian oasis in the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile, is of limited modern importance, there is strong evidence to support the contention that during different prehistoric periods the village was a frontier between the populations of the Pampa, the Pacific Coast, the Loa River, and the Salar of Atacama. Indeed, it can be argued that it served as a node for systems of inter-regional exchange. Archaeological evidence indicates that this frontier function may have its origins as early as the Formative Period (1000 B.C.-A.D. 400), a crucial era of regional cultural change. Scholarship from across the social sciences suggests that frontier/border spaces can be dynamic zones of cultural innovation and that prolonged inter-group contact at such spaces can change perception and behavior, notions that we test through isotopic analysis and multi-source mixture modeling of individuals from two distinct precincts of Formative Period Quillagua. Ultimately, based on our paleodietary reconstructions, we find that some individuals from Quillagua were not simply engaged in systems of inter-regional economic exchange, but that their involvement likely fomented the creation of novel cultural forms.

18 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29873221
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Britta J.L. Jensen, Alwynne B. Beaudoin, Michael A. Clynne, Jordan Harvey, James W. Vallance

Volcanic ash deposits (tephra) in western Canada are instrumental in providing independent chronologic control for many archaeological and paleoenvironmental sites. In Alberta, tephra are a key chronologic tool in a region where radiocarbon dates are often unreliable because of the prevalence of carbonate-rich bedrock and other “old carbon” sources, such as coal. However, many studies using tephra for age control, particularly archaeological projects, identify tephra simply through field characteristics or light microscopy. In both Alberta and British Columbia, many radiocarbon dates that were used to date key tephra deposits were bulk conventional ages on peat and lake sediments, which are not always reliable. These factors have led to uncertainty in the age and number of Bridge River and Mount St. Helens (MSH) set Y tephra present in the region and incomplete distribution maps. New major-element geochemical analyses from archaeological and sedimentary sites across south-central Alberta, complemented by new analyses of tephra from British Columbia and Saskatchewan, refine the distribution of the Bridge River, MSH Yn and Mazama tephra. New geochemical data, radiocarbon dates, and a detailed overview of proximal MSH set Y stratigraphy and geochemistry show that only one MSH layer, Yn, is present in this region, rather than two MSH set Y tephra as previously suggested. Additionally, re-assessment of age data combined with new geochemical analyses confirm that there is also only one Bridge River tephra. A Bayesian modelled age estimate is determined for MSH Yn based on new AMS dates on the tephra and vetted existing conventional ages, providing a revised age estimate for MSH Yn of 3805–3535 cal BP (mean of 3660 cal BP).

19 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29913013
Publication date: Available online 29 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Adrian M. Lister, Anthony J. Stuart

The giant deer, Megaloceros giganteus, is one of the most celebrated of late Quaternary megafaunal species. Here we present new radiocarbon data on the pattern of its extinction, and compare this, on a region-by-region basis, with evidence of environmental change and human occupation. Following strict auditing criteria for the acceptance of radiocarbon dates, 51 dates are published here for the first time, bringing the total number of accepted dates for the species to 134. For western Europe, extirpation around the start of the Younger Dryas stadial is corroborated. Previous early-to mid-Holocene records for the Urals and Siberia are augmented by new dates that together provide an almost continuous radiocarbon record from the late-glacial to the mid-Holocene. Newly-rediscovered skeletal material of giant deer from the Maloarchangelsk region of European Russia has provided the latest date for the species known so far, and extends the mid-Holocene range substantially westward almost to Ukraine. The relatively narrow overall distribution of M. giganteus through its history, and direct palaeoecological evidence, demonstrate the species’ requirement for a mixed, partially open habitat providing both graze and browse. Its extirpation from western Europe remains strongly linked to deterioration of climate and productivity in the Younger Dryas, while its disappearance from more eastern areas correlates chronologically with the spread of closed forest. However, these intervals also coincide with the arrival of (probably sparse) human populations in the regions occupied by giant deer in Ireland and across Russia. The pattern of distributional changes leading to the Holocene restriction of giant deer populations strongly suggests environmental causation, but a contribution of human hunting to the extirpation of terminal populations cannot be ruled out.

20 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29913014
Publication date: Available online 28 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Tiit Hang, Viktor Gurbich, Dmitri Subetto, Vera Strakhovenko, Maksim Potakhin, Nataliya Belkina, Mikhail Zobkov

Onega Ice Lake developed in front of the receding Late Weichselian ice margin in Russian Karelia. Glacial varves that formed in Onega Ice Lake have been earlier studied by means of varve counts, palaeomagnetism and 14C AMS dates from small lakes north of modern Lake Onega and from Lake Onega proper. Synchronous changes in magnetic parameters and similar stratigraphy of these varve records together with the existence of basin-wide marker interval of pink-coloured varves have been used for core-to-core correlation and palaeogeographic interpretations. Unfortunately, there are missing varve-to-varve correlations between these cores. We present a 1155 yr long local varve chronology based on 3 parallel overlapping cores from two small lakes in the Zaonezhsky Peninsula at the northern coast of Lake Onega. Varve counts and matching of varve series were made from digital images. Following the textural, structural, colour and thickness changes of varves within Onega Ice Lake varve series, six characteristic varve units are identified. These clay units reflect changing sedimentary conditions at the time of accumulation that in general can be interpreted as a progressively increasing distance to the retreating ice margin. Variations in varve thickness superimposed on that overall trend, namely two episodes of abrupt and consistent decrease in varve thickness, do not correspond to known lake-level changes or shifts in outflow directions. AMS chronology for deglaciation of Lake Onega basin gives some evidences for correlation of above intervals of decreased varve thickness with the GI-1c2 and GI-1B cold events in NGRIP δ 18O event stratigraphy but further age estimations are needed to confirm presented correlations. Interval of reddish-brown varves – earlier described also as the ‘pink horizon’ – was observed in all studied sequences, and according to varve correlation, at the same stratigraphical level, which proves its basin-wide synchronous appearance. Ca 100 km south of our study area, Saarnisto and Saarinen (2001) reported ca 200 more varves compared to our results. Visual correlation of varve thickness graphs places these extra varves to the proximal part of the series and indicate a rapid ice recession from the main lake basin to the northern Lake Onega area with the ice recession rate ca 500 m per year.

21 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29913015
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Hassan Abdulmonem, Usoltseva Мarina, Rasskazov Sergei, Chuvashova Irina, Titova Lyubov

A subsequent formation of oligotrophic tectonic paleo-lakes Bodon-1 and Bodon-2 is reconstructed through study of fossil diatom flora in sediments of the upper stratum of the Tankhoy Formation in the south of Barguzin Valley. The first lake is characterized by the development of Middle – Late Miocene planktonic species- Aulacoseira sp. 1 and 2 (diatom zones 1 and 2), then – of the species Pseudoaulacoseira moisseeviae (diatom zone 3). The second lake is identified due to Early Pliocene species A. islandica, A. сanadensis and Eunotia polyglyphoides (diatom zone 4). The diatom flora of zone 3 of paleo-lake Bodon-1 is correlated to similar zone in paleo-lakes in Vitim Plateau. It was assumed, that these lakes were formed simultaneously with the paleo-lake Mukhal on the Vitim plateau (ca. 13–12 million years ago) and the paleo-lake Yuzhnoe (ca. 10–9 million years ago and later).

22 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29944614
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Jiqiang Lyu, Shuhong Mo, Pingping Luo, Meimei Zhou, Bing Shen, Daniel Nover

It is important to understand the relative contributions of climate change and human activities to changes in runoff to sustainably manage water resources in the arid Loess Plateau, China. In this study, Chabagou River Basin in the central arid region of the Loess Plateau was selected to investigate changes in runoff, within which a series of soil conservation measures have been implemented since the late 1950s. We applied the non-parametric Kendall test (MK) and the Bayesian change point (BCP) method to identify trends and potential change points in hydro-meteorological data sequences. The results of the MK test revealed no significantly abrupt variation has been detected in annual hydro-meteorological data sequences, while a number of potential change points were identified using the BCP method applying different posterior probabilities. We also systematically review two commonly applied quantitative methods that draw on both empirical statistics and hydrological modeling to quantify the impact of climate change, human activities and meteorological variation on mean annual runoff at spatiotemporal scales based on precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff-precipitation coefficients, and soil water throughout the river basin. The results of this study show that climate change and normal climate variability are responsible for about 80% of the decrease in runoff, mainly due to reduced precipitation, while human activities was responsible for <20% of reductions in runoff. The results also show that soil conservation measures have influenced hydrological processes at spatiotemporal and that runoff within the Chabagou River Basin (CRB) is more sensitive to spatial distribution of soil conservation measures than meteorological factors. The relative contributions to runoff variations that derive from climate change, human activities and meteorological variation were calculated in this study, but interactions between climate change and human activities is complex, and not easy to be separated.

23 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29944615
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Ying Guan, Xiaomin Wang, Fagang Wang, John W. Olsen, Shuwen Pei, Zhenyu Zhou, Xing Gao

Here, we discuss the earliest microblade sites in China and the development of microblade technology in greater Northeast Asia. The Xishahe site was discovered in Huliu River terrace deposits in the Nihewan Basin, North China. Chronometric dating indicates the site was first occupied ca. 29–28 ka cal BP, while the microblade remains date to about 27 ka cal BP. Xishahe has yielded some of the earliest radiocarbon dated microblade technology in China, and evidence suggests that its appearance and disappearance are positively correlated with climate change. The microblade technology identified at Xishahe is different from other, younger microblade sites in China, specifically those associated with the mature wedge-shaped core technique. Further, although the Xishahe microblade cores are well-shaped with platform preparation and could successfully produce parallel-sided flakes, the overall morphology of these cores was highly variable and lacked standardization. Obvious technological differences can be seen in microblade assemblages dating to periods before and after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca. 24–18 ka cal BP).

24 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29978402
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Avtandil Okrostsvaridze, Sun-Lin Chung, Yu-Chin Lin, Irakli Skhirtladze

Late Cenozoic subaerial volcanic highland crop out in Eastern Anatolia and the western part of the Lesser Caucasus, part of which, located in Georgia, is known as Samtskhe-Javakheti. The Samtskhe-Javakheti highland (∼4500 km2) is cut by the Mtkvari river canyon, where, into the thick pyroclastic flow in twelfth-century is hewn the unique city Vardzia. Despite this, characteristics of the pyroclastic flow, such as scale, source, type, genesis, isotopic age and evaluation of destructive geological processes of the Vardzia rock-cut city have not been well studied. Our research has shown that the Mtkvari pyroclastic flow is exposed at a distance of about 35 km from the Karzameti fortress to the Khertvisi fortress, it is inclined northward by 2-4°, and its thickness increases to the north from 40 m up to 80 m. These rocks represent welded, weakly welded and non-welded ignimbrites of the andesitic-dacitic composition. Isotopic parameters of these rocks (ɛNd varies between +3 and + 4, and 87Sr/88Sr between 0,70341 and 0.70450) indicate that they originated as a result of fractionation of mantle derived melts. As a result of field work, we interpret the Mtkvari ignimbrites as products of megacaldera collapse (modern Niala fields), which nowadays is filled by postcaldera domes of andesitic composition and Quaternary sediments. The result of zircon dating using the U-Pb method with LA-ICP-MS technology is 7.52 ± 0.21 Ma, which corresponds to the Late Miocene epoch. Geological research of the Vardzia rock-cut city has revealed that it is hewn into weakly welded ignimbrites and for which reason these rocks are under the intensive affecting of weathering and erosion processes. At the same time, the city is completely included in a tectonic block of 900 m length which is detached from the main body of rocks and is gradually subsiding towards the Mtkvari canyon. Nowadays Vardzia block is lowered by 30.6 m in comparison with bordering blocks. In addition, this block is split into several micro-blocks by a joint set, thus reducing its stability. The situation is worsened by the active deep fault running along the Vardzia rock-cut city, which represents a potential earthquake source.

25 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29978403
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): E.V. Zinovyev, A.V. Borodin, A.A. Kotov, S.E. Korkin

Insect, tadpole shrimp and plant macrofodssil assemblages dated to different intervals of MIS5 are presented for three sites in the northern part of the West Siberian plain: Karymkarskyi sor, Belaya Gora and Kiryas. The beetle faunas suggest a relatively warm climate associated with boreal forest and marsh communities of the middle and southern taiga type; this interpretation is in agreement with the paleobotanical studies. Evidence of warm climate is provided by the occurrence of the carabid beetle Trechus secalis, found in Karymkarskyi sor and Belaya Gora sites. This fossil occurrence is referred substages to MIS5e and MIS5c on the basis of TL and U/Th dates, and coincides with the presence of bark beetle remains at the Kiryas locality. Both plant macrofossils from the Belaya Gora locality and tadpole shrimp remains from Kiryas site do not include species indicative of warmer-than-present climate, despite the presence of residues of woody plants. Our data were compared with paleobotanical data from a number of locatities in the central and northern parts of the West Siberian plain that have been dated to MIS5 on the basis of TL and Th/U dates. Most of these sites yielded paleobotanical data indicative of relative warm climate and forest vegetation. The exception is the Elizarovo point site, where the palynological data indicate periglacial environments. Insect, crustacean and plant macrofossil data are well correlated with the results of studies of fossil insect and paleobotanical data from other regions of Northern Eurasia and may confirm warm and humid climate during some periods of MIS5 (substages 5e and 5c) and distribution of forest landscapes and corresponding insect complexes.

26 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 29978404
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Piao Yao, Bin Zhou, YueHan Lu, Yong Yin, YongQiang Zong, MinTe Chen, Zachary O'Donnell

The persistence and prevalence of microplastics in the environment have raised concerns among scientists, the general public, and environmental regulatory agencies, and a large number of studies on microplastics in sediments have been published. We reviewed those studies focused on understanding the spatial and temporal variations, biological effects, and analytic methods of microplastics in sediments. Microplastics are widely distributed in marine and freshwater sediments. The distribution of microplastics is mainly influenced by anthropogenic input and environmental processes that determine the transportation, transformation and accumulation. The appearance of microplastics in sedimentary records has been proposed as a stratigraphic marker for the onset of the Anthropocene Epoch. Our current understanding of biological effects of microplastics is based mainly on field research and laboratory-scale experiments using unrealistic concentration and limited forms of microplastics. Future studies should consider environmentally relevant concentration, the diverse composition and form of microplastics present in the natural environment. Density separation method for separation of microplastics in sediments is the most commonly used, and component identification by optical analysis (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, Raman spectra etc.) are important analytic methods. Yet the separation method remains to be standardized across laboratories. Other separation methods include electrostatics separation, organic solvent extraction and magnet separation. We recommend the combination of density separation, electrostatic separation and organic solvent separation to improve the separation efficiency of microplastics and to standardize the analytic process for sediment microplastics in future studies.

27 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30015467
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Geunsang Lee, Mikyoung Choi, Wansik Yu, Kwansue Jung

The geo-spatial information in the river area is essential for river management such as river planning, flood analysis, and sediment load analysis. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has been actively studied to acquire three-dimensional terrain data. However, the UAV acquired river terrain data is a digital surface model (DSM) that includes the height of a tree or grass in a river. It is different from the digital elevation model (DEM) required by river surveys. In this study, the ground point was extracted by using point cloud point obtained from UAV with Terra Scan software, and the DEM were constructed using the region growth algorithm. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the DEM data, the TRUE value of 100 test points was obtained by using virtual reference station (VRS) and total station survey equipment. As a result, the standard deviation of DSM and DEM were ±3.84 m and ±0.12 m, respectively. Furthermore, the cross section of DEM showed similar elevation values with cross section in the report of basic plan for Gap River. Therefore, DEM can be secured by applying the UAV point cloud based on region growth algorithm, and it can be effectively used for the river management tasks.

28 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30015468
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Ian W. Croudace, Ludvig Löwemark, Rik Tjallingii, Bernd Zolitschka

The introduction and application of high resolution XRF core scanners has made an enormous contribution to palaeoclimate science over the last two decades. These core scanners have become essential analytical tools for the investigation of sedimentary and other natural cumulative records of environmental change. Their widespread adoption by the environmental and geoscience communities has had a significant impact on the ability to systematically record high resolution chemical profiles in marine and lake sediments and soils. The range of applications has broadened beyond sedimentology and palaeoclimatology and now extends into scanning samples of speleothems, corals, mumiyo mounds, rocks, sedimentary nodules, archaeological artefacts, tree sections and melt segregations. Other areas exploiting the capability of XRF core scanners are mineral exploration, geotechnical characterisation, soil remediation studies and carbon capture and storage research. As a consequence of their ability to efficiently determine detailed, non-destructive elemental records in sediments and soils, scientific papers published since the year 2000 now number more than 1000.

29 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30015469
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Rim Trabelsi, Takuya Matsumoto, Kamel Zouari, Mahdi Trabelsi, Bhishm Kumar

To investigate paleoclimate conditions and mean annual ground temperatures at the time of infiltration, concentrations of dissolved atmospheric noble gases, 18O, 2H and 14C were studied in Sfax deep groundwater in southeastern of Tunisia. Carbon-14 corrected ages are up to 40 Ka BP suggesting that most of this water infiltrated during Late Pleistocene. Noble gas temperatures (NGTs) clearly show the presence of water that infiltrated under much cooler conditions than at present. According to the NGT's, the mean annual temperature in this mid latitude coastal site during the last glacial maximum (LGM) was 5.5 ± 1.0 °C colder than during the Holocene. This transition of Holocene –Pleistocene is well marked by a depletion of oxygen-18 isotope composition by 1.5‰ when compared to the modern rain water signature. Furthermore, the amount of excess air, which is closely linked to the magnitude of groundwater table fluctuations, provides further information on drought and wet period alternations during Late Pleistocene in Northern Africa.

30 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30029138
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Geethanjali K, Hema Achyuthan, M.K. Jaiswal
31 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30056348
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Menso de Jong, Jean E. Moran, Ate Visser

Identification of paleowater in aquifers tapped for the public water supply is important both for sound water management, because paleowater is likely to be withdrawn unsustainably in high demand regions in the absence of large scale artificial recharge operations, and for contamination susceptibility assessment, because paleowater is typically isolated from contamination sources. In this study, paleowater, which herein includes pre-Holocene groundwater and also water that recharged well before the onset of significant human alteration of the hydrologic system in California, is identified using three key isotopic indicators of groundwater residence time: tritium (3H), radiocarbon (14C), and radiogenic helium-4 (4Herad).
We compared results of these three tracers from a unique data set of more than 2000 wells that are predominantly long-screened drinking water production wells. Although considerable uncertainty is associated with calculated apparent ages for individual samples, non-parametric statistical tests indicate that the composite set of isotopic indicators support classification of samples into categories that allow identification of wells most likely to produce paleowater. Approximately 7% of the wells included in the study show strong evidence for producing paleowater, with screens extending greater than 146 m below ground surface, in which 3H activity is less than 1 pCi/L, 14C activity is less than 40.9 pmC, and 4Herad concentration exceeds 7.4 × 10−8 cm3STP/gwater. An additional 22% of wells produce mixed-age water with a component of paleowater, with screens extending greater than 95 m below ground surface, in which 3H is less than 5 pCi/L, and 14C activity is less than 95.91 pmC.
Wells in desert basins of southeastern California and wells in the southwestern quadrant of the Central Valley are most likely to produce paleowater that is pre-Holocene in age. Very few wells in the northwestern portion of the state, the foothills and Sierra Nevada regions, and coastal basins with intensive artificial recharge activities are categorized as producing paleowater. Climate is the primary control on paleowater occurrence, with arid portions of the state that were wetter during the Pleistocene having the largest number of wells categorized as producing paleowater. Secondarily, paleowater is found at the end of very long flow paths in confined aquifers, e.g., in the center of the Northern Sacramento Valley. In contrast, paleowater may be masked in areas where unconfined or semi-confined conditions allow substantial mixing between modern recharge and paleowater. Modern, artificially recharged water has replaced very old groundwater on a large scale in urban coastal basins.

32 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30056349
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): M. Richard, C. Falguères, E. Pons-Branchu, D. Richter, T. Beutelspacher, N.J. Conard, C.-J. Kind

The Swabian Jura is a key region for the early Aurignacian. Sites such as Geißenklösterle, Hohle Fels and Hohlenstein-Stadel have produced the earliest evidence of figurative and musical art, such as ivory figurines and flutes made of bone and ivory, attributed to Homo sapiens. To date, radiocarbon (14C) and thermoluminescence dating have been applied in the region, providing a precise chronology for the Upper Palaeolithic levels, especially the Aurignacian. At Hohlenstein-Stadel, Upper and late Middle Palaeolithic levels were dated using 14C. This study focuses on the chronology of the Middle Palaeolithic levels of this site using electron spin resonance (ESR) on herbivorous tooth enamel, in order to constrain the timing of the earliest human occupation at the cave, attributed to Neanderthals. An age was also obtained for the early Aurignacian level, allowing a comparison with available 14C ages. Furthermore, U-series dating was applied to three samples from a flowstone located at the base of the sequence, in order to provide a maximum age (terminus post quem) for the beginning of human occupation at the cave. ESR results obtained on the Middle Palaeolithic levels ranged from 40 ± 5 ka to 35 ± 3 ka (weighted mean ages), suggesting that these levels were deposited during a short period of time. The Early Aurignacian level (Geological Horizon, GH, Au) was dated by ESR to 34 ± 11 ka, in agreement with previously published 14C dates, despite a large error range due to the heterogeneity of the sedimentological environment. The flowstone overlying the oldest deposit at the base of the stratigraphy was dated to between 351 ± 10 ka (MIS 10–9) and 229 ± 10 ka (MIS 7), providing a maximum age for the deposits. These new chronological data confirm that Neanderthals occupied Hohlenstein-Stadel during MIS 3. Radiocarbon ages suggest that the replacement of Neanderthals by Homo sapiens occurred during a brief period of time, probably before or during Heinrich Stadial 4 (around 40–38 ka).

33 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30056350
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Natalia E. Ryabogina, Alexey S. Afonin, Sergey N. Ivanov, Hong-Chun Li, Pavel A. Kalinin, Sergey N. Udaltsov, Svetlana A. Nikolaenko

This paper presents the first result of a study of two long-term natural archives in the southwestern part of the Western Siberian Plain. Bchron age models based on 17 AMS dates allowed us to determine a chronology of changes in properties of lake and peat deposits. Significant changes in the Holocene were identified according to geochemical indices, accumulation rates, and compositions of the plant macrofossils of sediment cores in Lake Kyrtyma and Oshukovskoe peat bog. Sediments with a low content of organic matter and maximum weathering accumulated in the Late Glacial, below the border of the Holocene. The transition to the Holocene manifested as a black organic gyttja with ostracods and marked warming ∼12–11.2 ka BP. At about 11.2–10.1 ka BP it was replaced by the Preboreal oscillation. Subsequent changes in lake sedimentation were associated with general warming and an unstable hydrological regime. An increase in humidification ∼8.2 ka BP was reflected by lake level rise and contributed to swamping of the watersheds. The aridest Holocene phase at ∼7.1–5.5 ka BP was reliably recorded by geochemical data, but poorly reflected in the stratigraphy of both profiles. Subsequent cooling and the resulting decrease in evaporation began at ∼5.5–4.9 ka BP. A pronounced cardinal shift in sedimentation conditions due to a gradual increase in precipitation was recorded at ∼4.9–2.8 ka BP, though short-term fluctuations towards dryness were also marked at ∼3.5–3.3 ka BP. The most significant increase in humidification and cooling began at 2.8 ka BP. Geochemical indices in the lacustrine sediments are climate sensitive and allowing us to obtain enough reliable data associated with changes in sedimentation environments. The stratigraphy of peat reflected the nuances of climatic changes less clearly and primarily demonstrated the stages of bog self-development; however, sphagnum peat provided a better-resolution record.

34 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30056351
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Sujeong Park, Jaesoo Lim, Hyoun Soo Lim

To test past climate change in central Korea in terms of latitudinal differences over the Korean Peninsula, we reconstructed relative abundances between C3 and C4 plants in Hanam area based on sedimentary total organic carbon isotope values (δ13CTOC) of a 2.8 m long trench in an archeological site and compared these data with climate changes at different latitudes of Korea. During marine isotope stage 3 (MIS3) corresponding to past 60,000–25,000 years, the millennial-timescale fluctuations of the δ13CTOC values in Hanam were more similar to those in Hongcheon located in the inner mountain area of central Korea than those in Cheollipo area in west coast of Korea. Periods with significantly decreased δ13CTOC values representing decreased C4 plants under wetter climates in these two inland areas are comparable with millennial-timescale Dansgaard–Oeschger (D-O) warming events recorded in Greenland ice cores, suggesting strong climatic teleconnection between East Asia and subpolar areas during the last glacial period. During MIS1 (Holocene), the changes in vegetation and climate in Hanam have been influenced by the long-term summer monsoon changes. Regarding past latitudinal change in aridity or humidity over Korea, during the middle Holocene, δ13CTOC values in areas of central South Korea gradually decreased, suggesting moving to a more humid climate. This is contrary to the increasing δ13CTOC values in southern South Korea indicating more dry climates. Furthermore, it is likely that there were two severe dry climates at different times at different latitudes (1,000 cal BP in Hanam in northern South Korea and 2,500 cal BP in Geoje in southern South Korea), suggesting possible different climate changes at millennial timescales over Korea.

35 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30056352
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Marcus Richter, Sumiko Tsukamoto, Hao Long

The reliability of quartz electron spin resonance (ESR) dating using the Ti centre was tested through a comparison of the ESR ages of loess from the Luochuan site, Chinese loess plateau, with reference ages. Instead of the commonly used multiple-aliquot additive dose (MAAD) protocol, the single-aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) protocol was used to calculate the equivalent dose (De) values of five samples, with expected ages ranging from


ka (L1) to


ka (L6). The apparent ages, ranging from




ka, were then corrected for thermal signal loss, using the lifetime of the Ti centre, ∼1.7 × 106 years, previously calculated for a sample from the same site. The corrected ages ranged from


ka to


ka. For the youngest two samples both apparent and corrected ages overestimated the expected ages, which was presumably caused by incomplete signal resetting before burial. The apparent age of the oldest sample showed an age underestimation of ∼20%, but after the thermal signal loss from the Ti centre was corrected for, the age was consistent with the reference age. Both apparent and corrected ages of L3 and L4 are in good agreement with expected ages. We show, that with careful consideration of the thermal stability and bleachability of samples, reliable age calculation using the Ti centre is possible.

36 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30084330
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Seok Hwi Hong, Tae Soo Chang, Gwang-Soo Lee, Jin Cheul Kim, Jooah Choi, Dong-Geun Yoo

The depositional environments of the Jeju Strait shelf since the last interglacial period are analyzed using sedimentary structures, grain size textures, sediment color, and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ages of vibro-cores. The shelf deposits can be divided into 12 sedimentary facies grouped into four depositional units: 1) shelf sand, 2) estuarine sand/mud, 3) fluvial sand/mud, and 4) shelf sand/mud. Each unit is separated by a sharp and unconformable erosion boundary. Unit 1 shows massive to slightly bedded sandy shells with oyster fragments, representing a shelf environment during sea-level highstand. The OSL date of the base of the unit is 124.4 ± 10.0 ka. Unit 2 is characterized by thin periodic parallel laminated mud, suggesting tidal signatures in tidal flats. Sediments are typically moderate brownish, suggesting extreme weathering after deposition. The OSL dates of this unit range from 81.1 ± 5.3 to 74.2 ± 4.7. Unit 3 consists of lower cross-bedded sand and laminated mud with fining-upward successions. It is interpreted as the product of channel deposits in a fluvial environment during a sea-level falling. The OSL ages of Unit 3 range from 50.6 ± 2.9 to 26.1 ± 1.6 ka, belonging to the Weichselian glacial period. The uppermost unit (Unit 4) is composed of homogeneous mud and massive sand with molluscan shell fragments in the modern shelf environment during sea-level highstand. OSL and 14C-AMS ages range from 0.32 ± 0.02 to 11.2 ± 0.1 ka. Consequently, the late Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentary facies in this area consist of marine and non-marine environments, which mainly correspond to sea-level changes.

37 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30084331
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Mărgărit-Mircea Nistor

The present contribution aimed to propose a method to determine the groundwater vulnerability to climate change at spatial scale of Europe. This approach combines the aquifers geology, terrain morphology, and quality monitoring status of Nitrate (NO3) and Arsenic (As) with the environmental data of climate and land cover to generate the groundwater vulnerability map of Europe. High-resolution climate models and land cover were the basis of the groundwater models construction in different temporal windows periods. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology was used for multi-layers analysis, groundwater vulnerability calculation, and model validation. Intense agriculture in many regions contributes to increase of chemicals concentration in groundwater. By the ‘New Implemented Spatial-Temporal On Regions–Groundwater Vulnerability’ (NISTOR–GWV) Index, a complex methodology was applied including the quantity (water availability, potential infiltration map) and quality (aquifers data, land cover, quality monitoring points) approaches layers. Crosscovariance Cloud, General QQPlot, and double pixel pairs moving window (DPPMW) methods were used to calibrate and validate the construction model of NISTOR–GWV Index. The areas with high and very high groundwater vulnerability classes spread in the central and northwestern side of Europe, South of British Islands, agricultural areas and large plains territories (North European Plain, Po Plain, Romanian Plain), while in the mountains and hilly areas, the medium, low and very low vulnerability was identified. Significant improvement in the spatial groundwater vulnerability modelling could be achieved, on long-term period at continental scale, with contribution for management strategies and plans in hydrology and environmental fields.

38 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30084332
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Paweł Rutkiewicz, Ireneusz Malik, Małgorzata Wistuba, Aleksandra Osika

In the preliminary research by using DTMs from airborne LIDAR data we found an unexpectedly high concentration of charcoal hearth remains which can potentially provide new data on historical ferrous metallurgy. Our study (based on LIDAR data) was designed to determine the number and distribution of charcoal hearth remains along three water courses used for powering iron smelters in the past: the Kłodnica River, Czarna River and Mała Panew River (southern Poland). The second aim was to characterise the relief and internal structure of selected charcoal hearth remains, to perform radiocarbon dating of selected charcoal hearth remains located near historic ferrous metallurgy centres and to compare dating results with historical data. We also checked what tree species were used for charcoal production. In the three areas under study a total of 208,085 charcoal hearth remains have been identified. The majority of charcoal hearth remains have been found along the Mała Panew River (74.9%, 184 charcoal hearth remains per 1 km2 on average). A typical charcoal hearth in the areas under study was 14 m in diameter, c 2 m high with a volume of c 205 m3. Around the central mound of each charcoal hearth remains, 4 to 9 depressions are present (each 2–3 m in diameter and around 0.5 m deep). Most of the radiocarbon dates obtained for the charcoal hearth remains analysed correspond well with historical data on the development of the nearest individual smelting centres. However, in some cases radiocarbon dates from charcoal hearth remains can serve as indications that the smelting plants may have been established earlier than historical sources suggest or that charcoal was used for another kind of activity. All charcoal samples taken in the areas under study originated from wood of coniferous species, mainly from Scots pine.

39 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30084333
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): E. Pleuger, J.-Ph. Goiran, H. Delile, A. Gadhoum, H. Abichou, A. Wilson, E. Fentress, I. Ben Jerbania, F. Ghozzi, N. Fagel

According to ancient literary tradition, Utica is considered to be one of the first three Phoenician foundations in the Western Mediterranean, supposedly founded in 1101 BC by Levantines from Tyre. In the Phoenician and Roman periods, it was an important merchant coastal town, on a promontory facing the sea. Over the centuries Utica lost its access to the sea, and its ports silted up as a consequence of the activity of the wadi Medjerda, which flowed to the south of the city. Despite over a century of investigation by archaeologists and associated researchers, the location of the city’s harbour structures from the Phoenician and Roman periods remains unknown, buried under sediments resulting from the progradation of the Medjerda. Based on the study of sedimentary cores, the research presented here highlights the existence of a long maritime façade to the north of the Utica promontory in Phoenician and Roman times. A deep-water marine environment is attested in the former bay from the 6th mill. BC and the depth of the water column along the northern façade was still 2 m around the 4th – 3rd c. BC. Another core to the east of the Kalaat El Andalous promontory showed the possibilitythat this sector was a sheltered harbour during the Phoenician and Roman periods. This paper illustrates the contribution of geoarchaeology to address this archaeological problem and to understand the relations of this important port city with the sea.

40 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30109577
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Yun Zhu, Guoliang Lei, Zhizhong Li, Xiuyang Jiang, Jianhui Jin, Liang-Chi Wang

We used pollen and grain-size data from a peat bog in Xiansan, Fujian Province, southeastern China, to reconstruct a high-resolution record of vegetation change, climatic dynamics, and human impact over the last 1330 cal BP. During 1330–1200 cal BP, we infer the existence of a swamp bog with dense cypress forests, based on dominant Cupressaceae pollen, suggesting cold and dry conditions during this early period. Fine-grained sediment and higher percentages of wetland pollen and fern spores suggest intermittent-lake conditions, indicating a wet Medieval Warm Period (MWP; 1200–730 cal BP). The increase in coniferous forest and montane shrub-meadow pollen indicate a cold and dry climate during the early to mid-Little Ice Age (LIA; 730–370 cal BP), but coarse-grained sediments associated with more abundant wetland taxa pollen indicate a shallower intermittent-lake landscape, reflecting relatively humid periods during 620–560 cal BP and 400–450 cal BP. During the last 370 cal BP, a rapid increase in the secondary forest component and a gradual decrease in the pollen-inferred floristic diversity index suggest that the natural vegetation was converted to secondary vegetation, as a result of severe anthropogenic disturbance in the montane region of Fujian Province. The reconstructed regional precipitation trend prior to this period was mainly correlated with East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity, which is related to variation in solar irradiation.

41 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30109578
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Ritika Kaushal, Prosenjit Ghosh, Anil K. Pokharia

Several hypotheses have been proposed to solve the conundrum of the cause of transition of Harappan civilization to a de-urbanised form in its Late Phase. In view of this, high-resolution off-site palaeoclimatic records along with archaeological findings provide strong evidence of an abrupt climate change ∼4000 yr BP (before present) that coincides with the civilization's transition. The present study investigates whether this climatic shift recorded in palaeoclimate archives (speleothem, lake and marine sediments) at remote locations can be traced to the human settlements of Harappan civilization. This was accomplished by analyzing the remains of rice cereal-a highly water sensitive crop. The analysis involved measuring carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (δ13C, δ15N) of well-preserved rice grains recovered from archaeological sites belonging to the Harappan civilization and other contemporary regional cultures, representing the time windows between 4520 and 3400 yr BP. The parameter of intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) was used as an index for water availability in the rice growth environment and was ascertained based on δ13C values measured in the bulk grain organic matter (OM). The observed WUEi values ranged between 49 and 69 μmol mol−1 and captured the variation in water availability. The δ15N values ranged from 5‰ to 6.5‰, thereby allowing us to confirm the role of climate in controlling δ13C variation in the archaeological grains. The present findings will extend usage of archaeobotanical cereal remains to deduce environmental changes at human settlements and will further our understanding of the process of cultural adaptation in response to decline in southwest monsoon at the Middle-Late Holocene boundary.

42 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30109579
Publication date: 10 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 509
Author(s): Sandra M. Braumann, Stephanie Neuhuber, Markus Fiebig, Joerg M. Schaefer, Esther Hintersberger, Christopher Lüthgens

Burial dating with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides and luminescence dating techniques have become two powerful tools to temporally constrain Quaternary deposits. A combination of both methods at the same geological setting has rarely been realized to date, although their viable time frames overlap by several tens of thousands of years. When Middle Pleistocene sediments with depositional ages ranging around ca. 120 ka to ca. 300 ka are targeted, both methods are employed, but come towards their lower and upper limits, respectively. A combined dating approach can be worthwhile at this age range and allows not only exploring the edges of both methods, but holds the opportunity to do a cross-check of results at an age spectrum, where both dating techniques are at risk to become fuzzy.
Here we present a case study where numerical ages of two Middle Pleistocene terraces located in the Vienna Basin were generated by combining burial and luminescence dating. A variety of processes, such as changing sediment input rates, erosion, and tectonics controlled the formation of fluvial terraces in the basin and shaped its complex modern surface. Age correlation of the evolved mosaic of blocks and dislocated sediment bodies is challenging and requires quantitative geochronological information in order to establish a coherent terrace stratigraphy. Luminescence and burial samples originating from two fluvial terraces, the lower Gaenserndorf terrace (GDT) and the higher Schlosshof terrace (SHT), were analyzed and evaluated. Luminescence and burial ages at the GDT site are in good agreement and suggest a depositional age of 140 ± 170 ka bracketed by pIRIR225 luminescence ages ranging from 120 ± 10 ka to 260 ± 30 ka. Luminescence samples at the SHT site are in saturation, but provide minimum ages, which are coherent with the burial dating result of 340 ± 170 ka. The new numerical ages indicate that the vertical offset between the GDT site and the SHT site was not purely caused by fault activity, but suggest two independent episodes of sediment accumulation.
Besides providing new insights into the stratigraphic and morphological configuration of the central Vienna Basin area, the cosmogenic nuclide data set is compelling from a methodological point of view. At the GDT site, several samples exhibited 26Al/10Be nuclide ratios exceeding the surface production ratio of 6.75. Even though affected samples were excluded from burial age calculations, a detailed investigation on possible scenarios, which could have caused an upwards shift of 26Al/10Be ratios, was carried out.

43 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30109580
Publication date: 10 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 509
Author(s): Markus Fiebig, Guzel Danukalova, Khachatur Meliksetian
44 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30109581
Publication date: 10 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 509
Author(s): Olga Korsakova, Anatoly Molodkov, Yadviga Yelovicheva, Vasily Kolka

A unique Middle to Late Pleistocene site is situated in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula on the right bank of the lower Varzuga River, providing for the first time valuable evidence concerning Middle Pleistocene climate change and a marine transgression event during this period. The corresponding strata are exposed in a 2-km-long natural outcrop traceable along the abrupt slope of the river valley where the fluvial erosion and slumping have dissected a remnant elongated hill. Middle Pleistocene marine deposits compose here the basal part of the sedimentary succession. Lithological, sedimentological and structural field study accompanied by ESR dating of mollusc shells taken from marine sediments and a detailed palynological investigation have been carried out.
The basal part of the Varzuga section is represented by superposition of consolidated clay, loam, sandy loam with subfossil mollusc shells, and small lenses of coarse-grained sand, and pebbles (Unit 1). Marine shells were ESR dated between 319.0 ± 38.5 ka and 316.0 ± 23.6 ka. Glacial diamicton and glacifluvial sands (Unit 2), probably also Middle Pleistocene in age, overlay the marine sediment with sharp contact. The uppermost part of the sequence consists of the Late Pleistocene marine sediments, glacial diamicton, glacifluvial sand, and presumably Late Glacial and early Holocene lacustrine deposits. One hundred samples of marine (Unit 1) and lowermost part of glacial (Unit 2) deposits were palynologically reinvestigated. On the basis of detailed palynostratigraphy, 19 pollen assemblage zones were identified. Recurring vegetative assemblages characterized by increasing quantity of Betula with occurrence of mesophilous and thermophilous components (Alnus, Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Carpinus, Corylus, Osmunda, Nuphar, Nymphaea) indicate five Middle Pleistocene warm events, mostly during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9.

45 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30109582
Publication date: 10 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 509
Author(s): Fedora Khenzykhenova, Ekaterina Lipnina, Guzel Danukalova, Alexander Shchetnikov, Eugenija Osipova, Elena Semenei, Erdem Tumurov, Dmitry Lokhov

New investigations performed on the area around the famous Palaeolithic site of Mal'ta (Baikal Siberia) shed new light on the complete sequence of the deposits enclosing the site. Changes in the human habitat are traced through MIS 5 to MIS 2; the initial cluster of artefacts and faunistic remains of MIS 3 age is found in situ. Cultural layers of older age have been newly discovered The full faunal biodiversity, including three mollusc species, one fish species, three bird species, two species of Eulipotyphla, three Lagomorpha species, fourteen rodents and four large mammal species, has been established within time intervals corresponding to MIS 5, MIS 3, and MIS 2.

46 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30109583
Publication date: 10 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 509
Author(s): Zhenkui Gu, Changxing Shi, Hui Yang, Haifang Yao

There are ten ephemeral tributaries of the Yellow River in the Inner Mongolia of China. As their catchments are covered by loose materials and are dominated by an intense interaction between wind and water erosion, these tributaries have had a high sediment yield and alluvial fans have been formed at the confluences of the tributaries with the Yellow River. However, there is a lack of understanding in the deposition model of the alluvial fans and the roles of fluvial and aeolian processes in sediment accumulation. In this paper, we used Ground Penetrating Radar (100 MHz) and sediment cores to investigate the sediments in channels and alluvial fans of four out of the ten tributaries. Radar reflection profiles of sedimentary strata are dominated by horizontal or sub-horizontal layers with a large scale, showing that the fluvial deposition on the alluvial fans has been dominated by a vertical accretion pattern. The reflection features like reflection free, inclined reflections, discontinuous, undulate, chaotic, sinuous reflections and channel fill exist to a lesser extent. A few GPR profiles send signs of intense erosion, and the one near the apex of an alluvial fan reveals that erosion had been active likely during the early Holocene and the channel position should be relatively fixed. The information extracted from this profile and the widely exposed late Pleistocene strata in the upper parts of the alluvial fans according to the geological map of the study area indicates that sediment accumulation has been slow in the upper alluvial fans since the early Holocene. The sediment cores indicate that sedimentary strata under the alluvial fans are mainly composed by sand and silt deposited in a fluvial environment and rarely reworked by wind actions. Also according to the core data, the sediment deposits in the west fans were coarser than those in the east fans, likely suggesting that the hydrodynamic force of the western tributaries was stronger than that of the east ones. The hydrodynamic environment of the tributaries was usually unstable historically and hyperconcentrated flows might occur with a higher frequency in one of the tributaries in history.

47 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30109584
Publication date: 10 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 509
Author(s): E.A. Shalaeva, V.G. Trifonov, V.A. Lebedev, A.N. Simakova, A.V. Avagyan, L.H. Sahakyan, D.G. Arakelyan, S.A. Sokolov, D.M. Bachmanov, A.A. Kolesnichenko, A.V. Latyshev, E.V. Belyaeva, V.P. Lyubin, P.D. Frolov, A.S. Tesakov, E.K. Sychevskaya, G.V. Kovalyova, M. Martirosyan, A.I. Khisamutdinova
48 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30109585
Publication date: 10 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 509
Author(s): Ya.I. Trikhunkov, E.A. Zelenin, Е.А. Shalaeva, А.V. Marinin, Е. Yu Novenko, P.D. Frolov, А.О. Revunova, A.V. Novikova, А.А. Kolesnichenko

The Northwestern Caucasus has been developing at the periphery of the collision zone of the Scythian Plate and Georgian Massif. Study of the Quaternary terraces of the largest mountain rivers, flowing across the folded ridges and depressions, is one of the main sources for the estimation of the uplift rate of active tectonic structures. Remote sensing, field geodesy, tectonophysics, palaeontological and archaeological studies, as well as the correlation of river terraces with known and well-dated marine terraces, have provided new data on the age of river terraces. These data have made it possible to estimate the age of tectonic deformation and the uplift rate of active folded and faulted structures. These deformations are directly expressed in the topography of the area, and continue to evolve under conditions of contemporary lateral compression predominating in the Northwestern Caucasus. The field data provide evidence of the beginning of deformation and uplift, which started at the end of the Middle Pleistocene and later accelerated during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene time.

49 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30109586
Publication date: 10 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 509
Author(s): L.V. Popova, L.C. Maul, I.V. Zagorodniuk, Yu.M. Veklych, P.S. Shydlovskiy, N.V. Pogodina, K.M. Bondar, T.V. Strukova, S.A. Parfitt

Ground squirrels were an important member of the Pleistocene steppe-tundra mammal community. They evolved ecological specialisations and exhibit behaviours that make them particularly informative subjects to study palaeoenvironmental constraints affecting species distribution and speciation. Interspecific competition and isolating geographical barriers are considered as the principal factors that define species range boundaries.
The present paper provides a first comprehensive compilation of the living and extinct Spermophilus species in Europe. These data suggest ‘patchwork quilt’ model for the expansion and spatial distribution of ground squirrel species. Here we consider mainly small-sized Spermophilus species because large-sized (e.g., S. superciliosus) ground squirrels consist another ‘patchwork quilt’, which overlap the first one. This overlapping of the species ranges is possible because of the size difference that lowers interspecific competition (Hutchinson's rule).
We consider two main types of range boundaries. One type includes roughly ‘sub-parallel’ boundaries that oscillate in concert with climatic and vegetational changes (a case of climatically controlled competitive exclusion). The other type consists of roughly ‘sub-meridional’ boundaries corresponding to geographical barriers (e.g., water barriers, mountain ridges); these boundaries are rather stable. Examples of ‘sub-parallel range modifications include: oscillations of boundaries between S. pygmaeus and S. suslicus; the immigration of S. citellus into the Pre-Carpathian area; the branching of S. suslicus from S. pygmaeus; the regional appearance of the Late Pleistocene species S. severskensis and S. citelloides. Examples of ‘sub-meridional events’ are: the crossing of the Danube by S. citellus; the appearance of an isolated population of S. pygmaeus on right bank of the Dnieper during the Late Pleistocene to Middle Holocene; a crossing of the Dnieper river by S. pygmaeus, which resulted in the appearance of S. odessanus; the intrusion of eastern populations of S. pygmaeus into the Trans-Volga areas.

50 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30140000
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Tekla M. Schmaus, Paula N. Doumani Dupuy, Michael D. Frachetti

Understanding seasonal mobility patterns in prehistoric pastoral groups is essential to understanding regional dynamics. In this paper, we present data on the seasonality of site use in southeast Kazakhstan during the Bronze and Iron Ages. The data for this study come from the settlements of Begash and Tasbas. Begash has previously been described as a winter settlement, while Tasbas provides evidence for agricultural production and was initially considered a summer settlement. We performed analysis of cementum annulations on 49 caprine teeth from Begash and 29 caprine teeth from Tasbas. We demonstrate that occupation at Begash was not strictly limited to winter, and that occupation at Tasbas was year-round. These results demonstrate more variation in seasonal occupation patterns than was previously expected, which indicates more complexity in mobility patterns as well. Introducing additional variation and complexity in seasonal movement means that we will need to revise our models of mobile pastoral economies in the Bronze and Iron Ages. The results of this study lead to questions about what factors influenced movement, and how variability in mobility patterns affected larger social structures and interactions between populations in Central Eurasia in prehistory.

51 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30140001
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Sanda Balescu, Diana Jordanova, Laurence Forget Brisson, François Hardy, Sébastien Huot, Michel Lamothe

The key reference loess sequence of Viatovo in NE Bulgaria, lying within the lower Danube basin, records climatic and environmental changes over the last 800 ka. This 20 m thick loess sequence consists of seven loess units (L1 to L7) intercalated by six paleosols (S1 to S6) below the modern soil (S0). The Matuyama-Brunhes palaeomagnetic boundary has been identified in the lowest loess unit (L7). This reference loess sequence remains so far undated by radiometric techniques. Its chronostratigraphy relies only on pedostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic evidence. This contrasts with the adjacent reference loess sequences of SE Romania (Tuzla, Mostistea, Mircea Vodă) whose luminescence chronology is now securely established up to MIS 8.
The aim of this study is to validate the chronostratigraphic framework of the Viatovo loess sequence using the luminescence dating method. For this purpose, the luminescence method is applied to the three upper loess units (L1, L2, L3) from two adjacent sites: the reference site of Viatovo and the nearby site of Kaolinovo, both located in the Ludogorie region (NE Bulgaria) and showing the same superposition of loess (L1 to L7) and interbedded paleosols. Luminescence dating (Infrared stimulated luminescence; IRSL) was carried out using the feldspar fine sand-size grain fraction (60–80 μm), applying the IRSL50 and the pIRIR290 dating techniques. For the equivalent dose (De) determination we used both the SAR post-infrared infrared (pIRIR290) protocol on single aliquots and the multiple-aliquot additive dose (MAAD IRSL50) protocol. The pIRIR290 ages and the fading corrected MAAD-IRSL50 ages are self-consistent. It demonstrates for the first time, that the three upper loess layers (L1, L2, L3) at Viatovo and Kaolinovo were deposited during the marine isotope stages (MIS) 2–4, 6 and 8, thus constraining the youngest well-developed paleosol (S1, a chernozem) to the Last Interglacial. These IRSL50 and pIRIR290 ages are in good agreement with the luminescence ages obtained for (1) the two upper loess layers (L1, L2) from the Harletz sequence in NW Bulgaria and (2) the three upper loess units (L1, L2, L3) from the adjacent SE Romanian loess sequences.
The luminescence chronology of the loess sequences is presented along with the pedogenic and magnetic property data. The pedostratigraphic records of the NE Bulgarian and SE Romanian loess sequences show the same palaeoclimatic trends, with progressive aridification during interglacial periods (from S6 to S0).

52 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30159982
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): P.L. Gibbard

A flowering of research into the natural environment and particularly geology took place in Italy in the eighteenth century. New concepts of the composition and formation of mountains and the structure of the Earth arose from regional field investigation of the lithology and palaeontology of the rocks, geomorphology and their relative position. Classification of mountains and the rocks from which they were formed developed rapidly following the critical insights into basic geological foundation principles by the Florentine scientist N. Steno. From this classification, a broad system of stratigraphical sequence gradually emerged in the form of a relative chronology based on the position and relative properties of the rocks. This led to the proposal of the terms “primary” (or “primitive”), “secondary,” and “tertiary” to describe the nature of mountains and in addition the terms began to be used as stratigraphic units. By the middle of the eighteenth century, the mining engineer and field geologist Giovanni Arduino, following two decades of fieldwork in the Venetian and Tuscan mountains, made a remarkable contribution when he proposed a classification of mountain and rocks in northern Italy. His scheme divided the mountains and rocks into four basic units or “ordini” which were based on lithology, position and internal structure, yet excluded fossil evidence. The three orders of mountains and a fourth of the plains, were respectively: “Primary” (underlain by “Primitive or Primaeval” schist considered to be the earliest rocks), “Secondary” and “Tertiary”. His youngest division, the “Fourth Order” or “quarto ordine” comprised alluvial and estuarine deposits that underlie river valleys or plains. His recognition of the “Fourth Order” was the first time that deposits representing the Quaternary had been identified and defined as a discrete sequence. In this way, Arduino's classification system of divisions laid the foundations of modern stratigraphy.

53 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30159983
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): James L. Theler, Matthew G. Hill
54 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186721
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Feng-Chun Yang

The Mun River is located in the Khorat Plateau of mainland Southeast Asia. The watershed covers more than one third of this area. However, how the ancient river developed is still not so clear. In this study, a sandpit along the ancient river terrace at Bam Som, Tha Chang subdistrict, Chaloem Phra Kiat district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand is investigated with respect to the stratigraphy and sedimentology. The physical features of the sediment (particle size, sphericity, and sorted level) at different depths are analyzed and described. The layers composing the stratigraphic profile are classified based on the sedimentary profiles. Twenty two sampling layers classified into 3 members are recognized over 14 m depth. Three distinct river development cycles along the vertical section are identified along the vertical section. The stratigraphic stages correspond to the sedimentary members are suggested with the substances fining upwards. Generally, the stage at the bottom is shallow lake or flood plain deposit, the middle section represents a stage which is channel river deposit, and the upper section represents a stage which is dry land to aeolian deposit. Pollen records match well with fluvial development. The ancient river dynamics reconstruction is an approach to analysis the palaeoenvironment and will provide more information.

55 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186722
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Sayuri Naito, Nagayoshi Katsuta, Shin-ichi Kawakami, Yoshimitsu Koido, Hiroshi Shimono

Late Holocene histories of vegetation, human activity, and climate inland of the Nobi Plain, central Japan, were investigated using pollen, charcoal, and chronological (radiocarbon and pottery) analyses of the Arao-Minami archaeological sediment layers. This site was home to a large regional community from the Yayoi to Kofun periods. Agricultural production of buckwheat began before the Middle Yayoi (≈200 BC). Cultivated Poaceae increased in the warm period at ca. 2.1–1.7 cal ka BP (ca. 150 BC to ca. 250 AD), based on the pollen-based climate indices. This can be regarded as intensified wet rice agriculture occurring at this period because the archaeological examinations report the existence of paddy-field remains and rice phytoliths from the Late Yayoi to Early Kofun. This period approximately corresponds to the Roman Warm Period. Primary natural forests, such as Quercus subg. Lepidobalanus, Quercus subg. Cyclobalanopsis, Cupressaceae, and Cryptomeria, as well as cultivated Poaceae gradually decreased from ca. 1.7 to ca. 1.1 cal ka BP (ca. 250 AD to 700 AD), which corresponds to the Dark Age Cold Period. In contrast, an expansion of Pinus conifer forests and temporal rises of accumulation rates occurred in this period. Based on the evidences, we propose that the agriculture at this site temporarily changed to slash-and-burn cultivation at a nearby mountain, associated with the cold climate. In the warm period from ca. 1.2 cal ka BP (ca. 750 AD), cultivated Poaceae increased again, suggesting a return to wet rice agriculture around the site. In this paper, we conclude that ancient people who lived inland of the Nobi Plain adapted to global climate changes.

56 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186723
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 510
Author(s): Sanja Faivre, Lidija Galović, Pál Sümegi, Marin Cvitanović, Katalin Náfrádi, Nada Horvatinčić

This study provides a reconstruction of the 1.5 ka palaeoenvironmental evolution of the small, and presently dry, Milna valley on the island of Vis. Sediments from the valley were studied using multi-proxy approach, applying sedimentological, mineralogical, petrological, anthracological, malacological, 14C and land cover analyses, in regard to climatic, vegetation, and hydrological changes.
The mineral composition of the siliciclastic detritus from the Milna valley points to the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone in Bosnia as its dominant source of origin, eroded by the Neretva River, and deposited in the form of alluvial sediments in the Central Adriatic area. However, Cetina and Drin Rivers may have also contributed some of the sediments. Regional aeolian resedimentation of the material occurred during Pleistocene, which later accumulated and became preserved in the Milna valley. Beside the Dinaride Ophiolite Zone, part of the mineral composition is influenced by minerals from the Alpine region and by neutral to basic volcanism, probably of Italian origin.
During the Dark Age Cold Period (DACP) the Milna valley was covered by forests of the Pinus sylvestris group, within which cold-resistant and closed forest habitat preferring species (molluscs) lived. This forested environment probably lasted until the Little Ice Age (LIA) period when fires occurred in the 15th and 16th centuries. The opening of the landscape corresponded to the resettling of the population from the interior to the coast and to the expansion of vineyards on the island. The deforestation enabled the formation of torrential flows and deposition of unsorted sediments. Most of the pebbles are rounded clasts of the Middle Cretaceous (Cenomanian) dolomite in which the valley is formed. However, pebbles which are not present in outcrops of the Milna valley have also been identified. After the LIA, the valley became dry again and has been continuously under anthropogenic impact ever since. Different cartographic sources enable the further tracing of land cover changes from the beginning of the 19th century to present day. The analysis revealed that the highest anthropogenic impact on the landscape occurred in the second part of the 19th century, after which afforestation started. Moreover, the major issue today relates to changes influenced by the current relative sea level rise. This study adds to the knowledge on coastal fluviokarst valley evolution in typical Mediterranean conditions, relating our understanding of Holocene deposition, human activity, and land cover changes on the island of Vis.

57 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186724
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 510
Author(s): Faruk Ocakoğlu, Mehmet Serkan Akkiraz

As one of the rare terrestrial archive with continuous sedimentation back to almost 1 Ma in Anatolia, the Eskişehir Graben was investigated in outcrops and cores by multi-proxy analysis regarding chronology and paleoclimatology. The present study comprises significant implications for both the impact of climate changes on fluvial systems in the timescales of the Milankovitch band and the controversial age and rate of the crustal extension in western Anatolia. Our findings indicate that LOI950 and δ18Ocarb, which are indicators for the amount of soil carbonate and paleo-temperature respectively are collectively capable of distinguishing between glacial and interglacial periods in the predominantly floodplain deposits of the graben infill. Secondarily, LOI550 and δ13Ccarb values further help this discrimination via primary production and composition of vegetation cover respectively. Pollen data, albeit highly discontinuous due to poor preservation under subaerial conditions, point out a steppe-like vegetation cover where the forest components expand particularly in the wet interglacial periods. In the other hand, the chronological frame provided by astronomical calibration of certain proxy-records strongly suggest that the Eskişehir Fault Zone initiated as a boundary fault of a half-graben some 900 ka. The rate of vertical movement on its southern branch since the last 70 ka is unexpectedly high (2.3 mm/a), a phenomenon that requires urgent risk assessment analysis in the vicinity of the Eskişehir city.

58 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186725
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 510
Author(s): Zsolt Kasztovszky, Katalin T. Biró, István Nagy-Korodi, Sándor József Sztáncsuj, Attila Hágó, Veronika Szilágyi, Boglárka Maróti, Bogdan Constantinescu, Sándor Berecki, Pavel Mirea

Macroscopic characteristics, such as hardness, relatively easy workability, transparency, translucency, and shiny black colour of the Carpathian 1 (C1) type obsidian, which is one significant variety of the Carpathian obsidians made, it highly valuable in the Prehistoric times. It was transported several hundreds of kilometres away from the geological source, becoming wide-spread in the Eastern part of the Carpathian Basin as well.
Seventy-two pieces of Prehistoric (Neolithic to Bronze Age) obsidian artefacts (tools, arrow heads, chips and fragments) found in different parts of Romania (Transylvania, Banat and Muntenia) have been investigated by non-destructive prompt-gamma activation analyses. The aim of the study was to determine the provenance of their raw materials. The geochemical composition of the artefacts showed high similarity with that of the obsidian samples collected at outcrops from the Slovakian side of the Tokaj Mountains. Based on characteristic major and trace element concentrations, most of the studied Romanian obsidian artefacts are characterized as C1 type obsidians. However, some archaeological pieces from Banat and Muntenia have been identified as Carpathian 2 (C2, Tolcsva-Erdőbénye and Mád) type. Based on the PGAA results, any other provenance, such as Lipari, Melos, Sardinia, Yali, Antiparos or Armenia can be excluded with high significance. Our results suggest that in parallel with the predominance of the C1 type obsidian raw material in the Transylvanian Basin, simultaneous use of C2 type obsidian raw material can be shown outside Transylvania (in Banat and Muntenia) and especially during the Neolithic. This can imply different connections and raw material supply routes from the Tokaj Mountains to Transylvania and to the southern regions during the Neolithic and the Copper Age.

59 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186726
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 510
Author(s): Piero Ceruleo, Mario Federico Rolfo, Fabrizio Marra, Carmelo Petronio, Leonardo Salari, Maurizio Gatta

The Paleolithic period in central Italy is currently undergoing an extensive revision due to a significant chronological re-examination of many archaeological sites. Recently, several lower Palaeolithic sites 20 km NW of Rome previously dated within MIS 9 (335–300 ka) (i.e. La Polledrara di Cecanibbio, Torre in Pietra, Castel di Guido, Malagrotta and four sites along Via Aurelia) have been geochronologically reassessed between 412 and 325 ka. These sites, in which abundant fauna, artifacts and hominin remains have been found, are remarkably well preserved. A combination of geological factors and the peculiar geodynamic conditions of this region, where tectonics, volcanism and glacio-eustatic forcing worked in concert, allowed for the exceptional conservation of the remains In this paper we provide a review of these sites and analyze their depositional contexts, showing that rapid filling of the fluvial incisions during glacial terminations, combined with sudden emplacement of volcanic deposits, caused the sealing of the archaeological materials accumulated at the bottom of the paleo-valleys. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of these sites as well as to provide the archaeological implications of their new chronology and depositional contexts. Results allow to reconsider the hominin presence in central Italy and highlight the importance to integrate archaeological investigations with modern geological studies, combining sedimentological, geochronological, geomorphological and chronostratigraphical methods.

60 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186727
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 510
Author(s): Pedro Lopez-García, Denisse L. Argote, Charlie Beirnaert

We propose a combination of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and chemometrics to discriminate between Mesoamerican obsidian sources and to assign archaeological artifacts of unknown origin to their respective deposits using a procedure that does not require any type of calibration or reference standards. A set of 109 samples of known origin and a total of 257 samples of unknown origin were analyzed with a portable XRF spectrometer. The resultant spectra were used as spectral signatures for the chemometric data analysis. First, we applied spectral pre-treatment techniques, such as CluPA algorithm for peak alignment and the Savitzky-Golay and Extended Multiplicative Signal Correction for data smoothing and noise removal, combined with methods for the selection of a spectral range containing the variables with the most relevant information (iPLS and). The full spectrum of the obsidian samples was divided into 20 subintervals, fitting a local regression model (PLS) to each subinterval. The performance was evaluated by the Root Mean Square Error of Cross-Validation, the Root Mean Square Error of Prediction and the correlation coefficient. The selected spectral regions were then analyzed with ROBPCA algorithm for the discrimination of outliers and the projection of the observations in the PCA space. For the classification, we propose a robust procedure (RSIMCA) which is based on a ROBPCA method for high-dimensional data. The classification rules were obtained by using the orthogonal and the score distances, from which it is possible to distinguish samples that belong to a given group. Using the proposed methodology, we were able to provide evidence about which variables were meaningful for the classification and provided information about group membership or provenance. This approach proves to be a valid technique for the quantitative analysis of XRF spectra.

61 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186728
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 510
Author(s): S.P. Prizomwala, Gunjan Yadav, Tarun Solanki, Archana Das, Gaurav Chauhan, Nisarg Makwana

Sedimentary sequences often provides ample of clues to reconstruct the past climatic as well as tectonic perturbations undergone by a region, however owing to similar residual products the differentiation is an intricate issue. We report the aggradation and incision phases along the Northern Hill Range (NHR), Kachchh; one of the most seismically active, but poorly explored, intraplate environments on earth. The northerly draining fluvial sequences in the NHR, exhibit a variety of valley fill, channel fill and strath terrace sequences over the hanging wall block of one the most seismically active reverse faults in the world ∼ Kachchh Mainland Fault (KMF). The study of these sequences owing to its position, enables us to reconstruct the uplift history of the KMF as well as scrutinize the signatures of climatic and tectonic events in sedimentation since the last glacial period. Based on detailed stratigraphy and OSL chronology, we identified five cyclic phases of aggradation and incision during the last 24 ka period. The NHR experienced two aggradation phases during 24–10 ka and 8–4 ka period in response to climate change. Simultaneously, the KMF experienced at least two phases of uplift 1)> 24 ka and <4 ka, which led to landscape modification at regional scale inform of terrace formation. Global events such as Early Holocene Optima and 4.2 ka arid phase are also archived in form of strong erosional phase in the fluvial sequences of NHR. Although due to paucity of archives and discreet nature of sedimentary succession in dryland environments, the actual causal mechanism for the incision at 4 ka period remains ambiguous. The longterm minimum average uplift rate of the eastern KMF varies from 0.1 to 1.0 mm/a, which is directly linked to the longterm deformation rate, often experienced in such intraplate setting. The study exemplifies the fluvial response, of transport deficit dryland environments, to external perturbations and their application in reconstructing palaeo extreme events.

62 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186729
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 510
Author(s): Aleksander Pluskowski, Daniel Makowiecki, Mark Maltby, Eve Rannamäe, Lembi Lõugas, Liina Maldre, Linas Daugnora, Stuart Black, Gundula Müldner, Krish Seetah

From the end of the 12th century, crusading armies unleashed a relentless holy war against the indigenous pagan societies in the Eastern Baltic region. Native territories were reorganised as new Christian states (Livonia and Prussia) largely run by a militarised theocracy, dominated by the Teutonic Order. The new regime constructed castles, encouraged colonists, developed towns and introduced Christianity, incorporating the conquered territories into Latin Europe. At the same time, the theocracy sought to maximise the exploitation of natural resources to sustain its political and military assets, as well as provision its subjects. Arguably the most important resource was represented by animals, which were exploited for a range of primary and secondary products. Excavations across the eastern Baltic have uncovered tens of thousands of faunal remains from archaeological contexts on either side of the crusading period. Traditionally studied in isolation, the zooarchaeological data is here for the first time compared across the conquered territories, supported with isotopic analyses and integrated with other paleoenvironmental and historical sources, revealing how the new regime appropriated and intensified existing livestock husbandry practices, whilst accentuating earlier trends in declining biodiversity. At the same time, agricultural changes led to improved feeding regimes, resulting in noticeable changes in the size of stock in some regions.

63 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186730
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 510
Author(s): Valentina Borgia
64 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186731
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 510
Author(s): Xiumei Li, Mingda Wang, Juzhi Hou

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) climate change has been suggested to be modulated by the Asian monsoon and the westerly jet at seasonal, decadal, millennial and glacial-interglacial scales, which demonstrated evident regional variation. However, due to the lack of high resolution climate records, how the climate changed and how the regional environment was influenced by the monsoon and the westerlies on the western Tibetan Plateau (WTP) during the late Holocene remains unclear. Here we present multiple palaeo-climatic proxy records in sediment core from Xiada Co in the WTP for the past 2000 years, based on the relative distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), n-alkanoic acid average chain length (ACL) and percent aquatic inputs (Paq), XRF, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic carbon (TIC) concentration. The centennial-scale variation of the climate records captures well-known climatic events over the past 2000 years, for example, the cool-dry ‘Little Ice Age’ (LIA) and the warm-wet ‘Medieval Warm Period’ (MWP). Besides, the multi-proxy indicated a severe dry event during 350-250 cal yr BP and a cool-wet climate during the past 200 years. This study concludes that Xiada Co was mainly influenced by the Indian monsoon during the past 2000 years. In addition, the temperature variability appears to correspond to solar irradiance changes, suggesting a significant solar influence on temperature variability in the WTP. Our results suggest that the abrupt drought near 320 cal yr BP may be the key factor leading to the demise of the Guge Kingdom.

65 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30186732
Publication date: 20 March 2019

Source: Quaternary International, Volume 510
Author(s): Carolina Guedes, Eric Robert, Caroline Bachelet

Since the 1980s, a French-Brazilian archaeological mission has studied the economic, social, cultural and symbolic dimensions of the oldest prehistoric settlements found to date in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. The ongoing examination of these habitats, settlements and rock-art sites seeks to better understand the territories and cultures of the precolonial groups who inhabited the southernmost part of Mato Grosso.
In the course of these decades, systematic prospections in the region of the Vermelho River uncovered over a hundred sites decorated with both figurative and non-figurative paintings, drawings and carvings that depict images such as animals, humans and signs.
This article analyzes the most recent discoveries of rock-art sites identified on the banks of the Vermelho and Gavião rivers. It contextualizes the region and the researches undertaken in its territory, and outlines the previous approaches and the methodology adopted at its rock-art sites. It then describes these rock-art sites and discusses the originality and the symbolic continuity of the marks left by precolonial groups in their landscape.

66 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30214258
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Wei Jiang, Shui-Ming Hu, Zheng-Tian Lu, Florian Ritterbusch, Guo-min Yang

The study of paleogroundwater on a timescale of several thousands to a million years is interesting both in terms of understanding the aquifer system itself and water resource management. It may also provide valuable information about the paleoclimate. In their seminal work, Loosli and Oeschger (1969) identified 81Kr as an ideal age tracer for paleogroundwater up to one million years old. Since then radiokrypton dating has been a desirable tool. Recent developments in the Atom Trap Trace Analysis method have made radiokrypton dating available to the earth science community at large. In this paper we will show the current status for radiokrypton dating with an emphasis on sample size reduction. The latest advancements have allowed analysis with only 20 kg of water. Moreover, we will review selected studies that have been carried out on some large aquifers with old groundwater around the world using this new tool.

67 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30240898
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Rim Trabelsi, Kamel Zouari, Siwar Kammoun, Rafaa Trigui Mohamed

Assessment of the recharge is of strategic importance for a sustainable development of the aquifer resource, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. This study synthesizes and compares the results of isotope hydrology investigations obtained for different aquifer systems in Tunisia. The δ2H, δ18O values and 14C, and 3H contents are distinct in unconfined and confined groundwater and vary from northern to southern parts of Tunisia reflecting different recharge conditions. Low δ2H and δ18O values of deep confined groundwater in the southern and central parts agrees with groundwater residence times that suggest an important phase of recharge during the Holocene and Pleistocene under paleo-climatic conditions that are quite humid from the current. The study of paleo-groundwater signals of these aquifers indicates that the transition from the end of the Pleistocene to the Holocene is associated with a much humid climate to give a widespread age signal in southern and central deep groundwater in Tunisia. Furthermore, the current climatic conditions are the determining factors in the recharge process of Tunisia aquifers. So, they allow only very low recharge rates of most aquifers. As a result, paleo-water is dominating in many groundwater basins particularly where the extraction of water exceeds the present recharge.

68 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30240899
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Thiago Fossile, Jessica Ferreira, Dione da Rocha Bandeira, Sérgio Dias-da-Silva, André Carlo Colonese

Sambaquis are archaeological shell mounds and middens formed by pre-Columbian populations inhabiting the Atlantic Forest coast of Brazil between the Middle and Late Holocene. Beyond their recognized cultural values, sambaquis are valuable biological archives for tracking changes in past biodiversity and informing modern conservation studies and management. In this contribution we reviewed the published record of faunal remains from archaeological sites located in Babitonga Bay, in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Through a literature review covering 110 sites, we assembled a comprehensive survey of terrestrial and marine taxa exploited by human groups in this area between ca. 5500 and 370 years ago. A total of 244 species were recorded, of which 14 are currently endangered and 12 are no longer present in Babitonga Bay. This zooarchaeological synthesis provides snapshots of past biodiversity, adding a novel contribution to current debates around the conservation biology of one of the world's most threatened tropical biomes.

69 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30240900
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Fedora Khenzykhenova, Kunio Yoshida, Takao Sato, Alexander Shchetnikov, Evgenia Osipova, Guzel Danukalova, Varvara Ivanova, Alexandra Simakova, Ivan Filinov, Elena Semenei, Oyuna Namzalova, Erdem Tumurov, Dmitry Malikov

Multidisciplinary research was carried out at the new Late Pleistocene Bokhan site in the Baikal region (Fore-Baikal) including geochemical and petrochemical X-ray fractions, palynological and palaeozoological studies, and AMS-dating. Four palynological complexes show a development of vegetation from open meadow-steppe landscapes that are replaced by meadow steppe with small areas of tundra vegetation to pine and pine-birch boreal forests. The fauna included molluscs, reptile and mammals of tundra, steppe and taiga inhabitants. It is a so-called no-analogue fauna extant analogy of species composition which reflects tundra-steppe landscapes in conditions of cold and dry climate during Sartanian time (MIS 2) (layers 1–2) and tundra-forest-steppe landscapes with more comfortable climatic conditions, during the end of The Pleistocene (layer 3).

70 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30272669
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Niels Schrøder

Fluctuations in sea level influence the condition of coastal groundwater aquifers. In this paper the palaeo-hydrology of Anholt and part of Zealand and its dependence on the sea level history of Kattegat will be analyzed.
The Late and Postglacial Sea-Level Changes in Kattegat are outlined and the consequences analyzed for Late and Postglacial ice movement and for two different coastal aquifers: a simple unconfined aquifer at the island Anholt, and a complex confined Limestone aquifers around Roskilde on Zealand.
Data are presented which provide a description of how sea level changes have influenced and formed the island Anholt. This geological history can be used to provide information on the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The center of Anholt was covered by the sea at 6 ka and has now an ideal Ghyben-Herzberg freshwater lens. This means that the present equilibrium between the saltwater and freshwater has been established in less than 6000 years.
Limestone aquifers on Zealand show no ideal Ghyben- Herzberg freshwater lens. Detailed 3-D mapping of a study area, around Roskilde- and Isefjord, has revealed how low sea-levels (around 50–30 ka) cause development of karst structures and deep erosion channels in the limestone (later filled with high permeable sand and gravel). These channels drain the groundwater to subsea springs, working as natural pumps, resulting in a freshwater “lens” much thinner than the equilibrium.

71 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30272670
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Edouard Masson-MacLean, Claire Houmard, Rick Knecht, Isabelle Sidéra, Keith Dobney, Kate Britton

The reconstruction of diet, subsistence strategies and animal-human relationships are integral to understanding past human societies, adaptations and resilience - especially in the circumpolar Arctic. Even in relatively recent periods, climatic excursions may have posed specific challenges for hunter-gatherer groups living at latitudinal and climatic extremes, and archaeological research in Arctic North America is increasingly looking to better understand the impact of past climate change on human groups. Here, through a unique multi-proxy approach (zooarchaeology, bone technology and stable isotope analysis), we explore human subsistence strategies, adaptation and resilience at Nunalleq, a recently excavated pre-contact Yup'ik coastal site in southwest Alaska. The main phase of occupation of the site (16th-17th centuries AD) corresponds with one of the coolest periods of the Little Ice Age – a climatic interval from the early 14th century through the mid-19th associated with global and more localised cooling events. The analyses reveal a subsistence strategy centred around the exploitation of three major resources, including salmon, marine mammals and caribou, supplemented by secondary resources such as birds and medium mammals. This tripartite resource base (salmon, marine mammals, caribou) is similar to that seen at other Thule-era sites in Alaska and likely permitted a flexibility in resource use in the face of changes in resource availability (and competition over resources) during the Little Ice Age. Comparison of the different datasets, however, reveals variability and nuance in the use of animals for both dietary and broader subsistence needs. While caribou represent a vital and heavily-exploited resource at Nunalleq (evident from both the zooarchaeology and the bone technology), they did not represent a key dietary resource (indicated by stable isotope data). Instead, caribou played an integral and key part as a major source of raw material, especially antler, in order to manufacture the necessary acquisition technology to exploit primary coastal resources.

72 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30272671
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Chunhai Li, Shi-Yong Yu, Shuchun Yao, Ji Shen, Ming Ji, Rong Chen, Weiwei Sun, Chaohao Ling

Studying the response of vegetation to past climate changes may help better predict the potential impacts of future climate changes on the terrestrial ecosystems. Here we present a pollen record that covers the second half of the Holocene from the Nanling Mountains, southern China. Our record reveals six cooling events occurring during 5600−4800, 4400−4100, 3800−3300, 3200−2900, 1600−1400, and 500−380 cal yr BP in this area. These cooling events broadly correspond to the episodic weakening of the Asian summer monsoon and the Bond events in the North Atlantic realm, suggesting a common forcing mechanism. Given that temperature has an important effect on the vertical distribution of alpine vegetation in this area, the projected future warming may lead to a large upward shift of the upper forest line and a threat to the life of alpine tree species on the Nanling Mountains. For example, under the RCP8.5 scenario, mean surface air temperature is projected to increase by 4.9 °C by the end of this century. This magnitude of warming definitely would result in the disappearance of Tsuga chinensis in this area.

73 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30296348
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Juan José Rodríguez-Alba, Gonzalo Linares-Matás, José Yravedra

In this paper we analyse the taphonomic signatures of captive jaguars (Panthera onca) in order to explore the potential of experimental frameworks to distinguish between different felid agents in carnivore-altered palaeontological and archaeological bone assemblages. Many papers have considered carnivore ecology and the bone altering behaviour of different animals since the development of taphonomic research since the 1980's, as part of the hunter vs scavenging debate to understand early hominin sites. Hyenas have been the most studied carnivore, followed by felids and lastly canids. Within felids, lions and leopards have been the focus of most research, whereas other agents, such as jaguars or tigers are still relatively uncharacterised taphonomically. Here we present the results of an experimental feeding program to assess the nature and extent of alterations that captive jaguars can produce on horse (Equus ferus caballus) appendicular bones. Working with captive animals has some limitations, namely the generally greater extent of alterations on captive-analysed assemblages in relation to their wild counterparts. Despite this issue, we aim to start developing a broader referential framework of felid ethology that includes jaguars, a relevant taphonomic agent for understanding bone assemblages of the European and American Pleistocene.
Therefore, in this preliminary study on the taphonomy of jaguars, we aim to show their prowess as bone-altering agent, capable of generating tooth-marks on long limb bone diaphyses and epiphyseal deletion. The taphonomic behaviour of jaguars has not been documented experimentally in any detail so far.

74 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30296349
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): U. Tecchiati, L. Salvagno, A. Amato, M. De March, A. Fontana, S. Marconi, G. Rinaldi, A.L. Zanetti

Many sites dating from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age have been investigated in northern Italy and have provided important zooarchaeological data. These sites are mostly settlements, but also places of worship and necropoli. While there are few zooarchaeological studies for the north-western part of Italy, the north-east and the Po Valley have been better investigated. Particularly important are the pile-dwellings and the Terramare sites of the Po Valley as they have a long chronological span, the animal bone assemblages are large and, therefore, highly statistically reliable, and have been excavated relatively recently. There is evidence of functional and social differentiation in the Bronze Age which coincided with the evolution of more complex societies. The most common type of functional differentiation began when human communities started to settle and is visible in the zooarchaeological record. Until the end of the Copper Age, animal bone assemblages are characterized by the presence of both domestic animals and a relatively important proportion of wild animals. In the early Bronze Age, domestic animals dominated, if not entirely, the assemblages, and a growing interest in secondary products is evident. From the Middle Bronze Age, the foundation of semi-permanent settlements multiplied in the Alpine area, in the internal areas (secondary valleys and areas far from the main watercourses) and at medium-high altitudes. This was coupled with the seasonal occupation of sites at a high altitude, used for the practice of vertical transhumance (alpine pasture). This phenomenon implies the existence of a settlement hierarchy and, therefore, of forms of social stratification within the framework of the settlement system. Unfortunately, the few zooarchaeological studies of sites located in the Emilia Apennines do not currently allow us to confirm the existence of such links between the mountain sites and those on the plain. Nevertheless, other evidence, such as the introduction of the horse, which is attested from the late Early Bronze Age onwards, can be interpreted as proof of social differentiation; the horse was, in fact, considered a status symbol of the emerging warrior elite.
Very few animal burials, dated to the period studied, show the link between animal species (such as dog, cattle, deer) and cultural practices, although a number of examples of such a relationship are provided by the terramare necropoli. In conclusion, in light of current knowledge, it seems that zooarchaeology cannot confirm the existence of important forms of social stratification. This does not mean that they cannot necessarily be postulated: the complex use of territory and the evidently communal nature of funerary and cult ceremonies (which often involved animals) that characterize the Bronze Age make it difficult to exclude the existence of such stratification.

75 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30296350
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Somaru Ram, H.N. Singh, Ramesh Kumar Yadav, S.S. Nandargi, Manoj K. Srivastava

Tree-ring chronologies from different sites of western Himalaya have been used in this study to examine the climate variability/change over the region. The 1st principal component (PC1) which has been computed by multi species tree ring chronologies of western Himalaya is negatively correlated with heat index (HT), temperature (TM) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) but positively with the rainfall of the region during spring season. However, HT and PET showed the stronger influence on tree growth than temperature which has been used to reconstruct the spring season PET back to A.D. 1779. The extended periods of low PET have been found at ending phase of Little Ice Age (LIA) during 1827–1845. The reconstructed PET showed that the advance of the glaciers over the western Himalaya might have influence on reduction of downward shortwave radiation on the earth's surface; which may in turn cause low temperature and low PET over the region. The result indicates that longer tree ring chronologies from the western Himalaya are very useful to get valuable information on PET and glacier fluctuation during the last few centuries. The highest PET in the entire reconstruction was noticed during the year 1921 in the 20th century, which has been associated with lowest trees growth in the entire western Himalaya.

76 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30334873
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Jordi Rosell, Ruth Blasco, Maite Arilla, Yolanda Fernández-Jalvo

Different agents can lead to similar damage patterns, and different causes can result in the same type of modification. This phenomenon was defined by Lyman (1987) as a problem of equifinality, with which the researcher warned about the risks of making direct systematic correlations. The fact that a specific type of damage cannot be linked to a single actor, behaviour or ecological context is primarily applicable to damage associated with the direct consumption of carcasses. Some carnivores show physical and dental characteristics that could lead to bone modifications potentially like those generated by humans. For example, bears have a bunodont dentition and plantigrade locomotion –the latter allows them to frequently release and use their claws as “hands”. Here, we present the neo-taphonomical study of 17 ungulate carcasses eaten by wild brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) in the Spanish Pyrenees. Our observations express this equifinal problem due to the similarities between tooth marks and peeling generated by both bears and humans. This fact is especially significant, given that peeling and the combination of this damage with visible tooth marks were primarily associated with the feeding activities of humans and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and only anecdotally with other taphonomic agents, such as spotted hyenas. With this research, we try to show some equifinal phenomena that could occur in Pleistocene faunal assemblages as well, where the presence of both hominids and bears is documented.

77 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30334874
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Jing-Jing Sun, Hong-Chun Li, Jie Wang, Hong-Yan Zhao, Sheng-Zhong Wang, Hong-Kai Li, Qian-Nan Yang, Chun-Yen Chou, Sneha Kashyap

Peat properties including porosity, dry bulk density (DBD), ash content (and their XRD and SEM), TOC, humification and plant macrofossil were measured in the well dated, young peat profiles of Jinchuan Mire in southeast Jilin of China. Base on the properties and depositional rates (Li et al., 2019) of JC1 (50-cm long) and JCA (92-cm long), carbon accumulation rates (RCAs) have been calculated for different periods and processes of peatland development over the past 1000 years have been described. The long term variations of the RCAs between Jinchuan Mire and nearby Baijianghe Mire (Xia et al., 2019) during the past 1000 years matched reasonably well, reflecting similar carbon accumulation rates under the same climatic control even though the plant species could be very different in the two mires. Enhanced detrital content caused by surface runoff due to heavy rains with decline of wood% in plant remains probably reflect wet climates; and vice versa. In comparisons with regional climatic records, we describe the development of Jinchuan Mire as follow: (1) relatively warm and wet climates between 1000 CE and 1150 CE reflected by dominant herb species (>95%) with low wood% and no Sphagnum%, low DBD and detritus, and high TOC% and porosity. A dry climate occurred during 1150–1200 CE to lower the water table and enable growth of mosses in the mire. (2) Wet and cooling conditions during 1200–1370 CE supported well development of Sphagnum mosses and good development of the mire. (3) A climatic change from wet/cool to cold/dry between 1370 CE and 1440 CE caused disappear of Sphagnum mosses. (4) During the Little Ice Age (1440–1850 CE), cold and dry conditions led to poor peat development without Sphagnum mosses. (5) After 1850 CE, warm and wet conditions were in favor of aquatic herb growth. (6) Human impact caused anomaly peat accumulation with mainly tree species and detritus between 1950 and 1965. The peatland has been recovered from natural condition and development of Sphagnum mosses since 1965. Estimated RCAs in the hummock site and the lawn site are 320 gC/m2/y and 63 gC/m2/y, respectively during 1970–2010. Estimation of carbon accumulation over the entire peatland needs more work.

78 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30334875
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Apichaya Englong, Paramita Punwong, Katherine Selby, Rob Marchant, Paweena Traiperm, Nathsuda Pumijumnong

A 1500-year record of mangrove dynamics has been established from palaeoecological analyses on three cores from Salak Phet Bay, Koh Chang island in the eastern Gulf of Thailand. The occurrence of Rhizophora, accompanied by other mangrove species, suggested that Salak Phet Bay supported a mangrove community from at least 1500 cal yr BP. From 1500 cal yr BP the mangrove extent decreased indicating less inundation frequency, possibly in response to a sea-level fall until 1300 cal yr BP. Following this regression, sea-level rise resulted in an increased presence of mangrove taxa until 500 cal yr BP. The study documents that Salak Phet Bay was characterised by relatively low saline conditions based on the occurrence of the moist-loving species (Oncosperma) around 1500-500 cal yr BP. After 500 cal yr BP mangrove taxa gradually decreased and terrestrial herbaceous taxa, mainly grasses, increased suggesting that the frequency of marine inundation was reduced as sea level fell. Drier conditions were also recorded by an increase in terrestrial grasses and a decrease in Oncosperma after 500 cal yr BP. In the uppermost sediments the increased presence of Rhizophora is probably associated with recent global sea-level rise although changes in mangrove composition are possibly related to human activities within Koh Chang. The sedimentation rate and the mangrove migration at Koh Chang have kept pace over the past 1500 years but this may be challenged under predicted future rapid sea-level rise as accommodation space for mangroves to migrate inland is required to maintain viable mangrove forests.

79 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30334876
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Ekaterina V. Dolbunova, Viktor V. Tsybryi, Andrey N. Mazurkevich, Andrey V. Tsybryi, Jacek Szmańda, Piotr Kittel, Mirosława Zabilska-Kunek, Mikhail V. Sablin, Susanna P. Gorodetskaya, Caroline Hamon, John Meadows

The multilayer settlement Rakushechny Yar situated in the lower Don River (Rostov region, Russia) is one of the oldest early Neolithic sites in this region, dated to the 7th and 6th millennia BC. Recent investigations have shown a particular importance of this site in the study of the spread of the Near Eastern “Neolithic package” and the neolithisation of Eastern Europe. Long-term study has provided unique evidence of lives of ancient communities. New 14C dates contribute to refining the chronology of the recently excavated to dating the development of cultural traditions more precisely. The excellent preservation state of organic materials led to uncovering a rich assemblage of faunal and fish remains, household constructions, hunting and fishing tools, as well as pottery. The subsistence strategies and the life cycle of these communities were reconstructed through multiple proxies, which describe a particular system of resource management determined by specific economic, environmental and cultural conditions. Rich fish remains, shell middens, site location, specific toolkit with restricted categories, and incomplete context of tool production testify all that it was a specialized site for aquatic resource procurement. Faunal remains indicated the use of resources from other ecological niches as well. Finds of bones of domesticated animals in the same Early Neolithic layers may suggest even a more complicated organization of this ancient community and may indicate the northern limit of the Neolithic package distribution.

80 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30334877
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Liangqing Cheng, Yougui Song, Huanyu Sun, Balázs Bradák, Orozbaev Rustam, Xiulan Zong, Huifang Liu

Central Asia loess deposits can yield detailed records of aridification across the Asian interior, as well as the atmospheric circulation. In this study, we presented grain size, heavy mineral assemblage, rock magnetism and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of a loess section in the Tacheng Basin in Xinjiang region, NW China. The results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility indicated that a near-surface SE wind prevailed in the Tacheng area after Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, while a near-surface SW prevailing wind developed during MIS3b. We inferred that the change of wind direction was due to glacial advance during MIS3b. Combining the result of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility with grain size, heavy mineral assemblage data and previously published low-field mass susceptibility revealed that dust transported by the near-surface SW wind had a greater ability to enhance magnetic susceptibility and higher amphibole/epidote ratio. Additionally, a strong Siberian High during Heinrich Event (H)5 at ca. 48 ka blocked the advection of moist air into the region via mid-latitude westerlies, causing glacial recession and the weakening of the prevailing SW wind. Our study has implications for identifying changes in paleo-wind direction and dust source, which can aid understanding of the influence of westerlies and the Siberian High on dust accumulation, as well as their interactions.

81 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30334878
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): R.R. Makshaev, A.A. Svitoch

Pleistocene key sections of the Northern Caspian Lowland are characterized by the incompleteness of the geological record, which is presented in depositional breaks, their duration, causes, and types. Depositional breaks occurred in all periods of the Middle and the Late Pleistocene and occupied various time intervals, usually quite continuous – from ∼180 ka (Cherny Yar) to 100–110 ka (Alexandrov Gay, Gorky Erik, Kopanovka, Enotaevka), rarely shorter – about 15–40 ka (Seroglazovka, Mergenevo). Period of accumulation in these sections is small (3.5–44 ka) and covers only 1.2–9% (average 3–4%) for presented deposits and less than 10% from all chronological record. The total chronological assessment of the geological record incompleteness in all studied sections estimated as more than 90%. In all studied sections accumulation rates for Holocene, Upper Khvalynian, Lower Khvalynian, Upper Khazarian, Chernoyarian, and Lower Khazarian are lower than the average for this region. Incompleteness is usually characterized by erosion of river waters of the Volga and Ural system, but more often by abrasion of the Khvalynian and the Khazarian transgressive waters. Another cause of incompleteness of the geological record is long continuous periods without significant deposition. This is often observed in subaerial conditions in the vast watershed area.

82 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30334879
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Gonzalo José Linares-Matás, José Yravedra, Miguel Ángel Maté-González, Lloyd A. Courtenay, Julia Aramendi, Felipe Cuartero, Diego González-Aguilera

Developments in methodological approaches to high-resolution morphometrical study of cut-mark morphology further our understanding of butchering activities. Identification of micro-morphological variability between different taphonomical alterations on ancient bone allows detection and comparison of bone-surface modifications and associated taphonomical agents and activities. By taking a geometrical-morphometrical approach, data from 3-D laser-scanning and micro-photogrammetrical models of experimental cut-marks enable statistical analysis to classify and distinguish between cut-marks by bifaces from those by flakes, and, in each case, between marks made by flint from those made by quartzite tools. Analysis of two tool types, each made from two raw materials as independent variables, is a methodological advance in morphometrical studies of experimental cut-marks, which hitherto have tended to focus on the respective parts played by tool types or types of raw material in morphometrical characterization of experimental and archaeological cut-marks.

83 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30366355
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Anne M. Jensen

Archaeological sites are recognized as sources of data about past cultures. Their value as information sources about past environmental conditions and processes, as well as socio-natural systems is described, emphasizing benefits for disciplines beyond archaeology.
Just as new techniques are expanding what we can learn from them, the sites and their preserved data are in imminent danger of destruction.
This problem is extremely acute in the Arctic, although by no means limited to that region. Research at sites in the Utqiaġvik, Alaska area, primarily Walakpa, demonstrate the issues and provide experiences that may be helpful to others dealing with similar situations. Suggestions are offered for actions to ameliorate the accelerating loss of data.

84 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30366356
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Manon Bondetti, Sofia Scott, Alexandre Lucquin, John Meadows, Olga Lozovskaya, Ekaterina Dolbunova, Peter Jordan, Oliver E. Craig

The Neolithization of Northern Eurasia is marked by the emergence of pottery among hunter-gatherer societies. The driving forces behind the adoption of ceramic cooking vessels among non-agricultural societies remain unclear, although previous research, mainly in North East Asia (e.g. Japan, Korea and the Russian Far East), suggests that it was adopted as a specialist technology for processing aquatic resources, linked to the intensification of fishing activities and a move to sedentism. The stratified site of Zamostje 2 in the forest zone of the Volga-Oka region includes both aceramic Mesolithic and two early ceramic horizons dating to Early Neolithic (EN) and Middle Neolithic (MN). This provides a unique opportunity to look at the impacts of the adoption of pottery on the wider economy and determine whether pottery function changes over time. This was achieved through the analysis of lipids from 167 potsherds dating from the earliest phases (mid-6th millennium cal BC) to the MN (5th millennium cal BC). Contrary to our expectations, the pottery from the EN phase was used to process a broad range of foodstuffs including terrestrial resources, such as forest fruits, in addition to freshwater fish. In contrast, pottery from the MN phase was used exclusively for processing aquatic resources. The results show that in this case, pottery was adopted as a more general-purpose cooking container, at least in the earliest phases of use, and that a specialist function only emerged later.

85 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30401666
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Martin J. Head

The Quaternary System/Period and Pleistocene Series/Epoch were defined in 2009 by the Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Gelasian Stage/Age (2.58 Ma), which aligns with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 103 and approximates the Gauss–Matuyama Chron boundary, contrary to earlier reports. The Vrica GSSP (1.80 Ma) was repurposed in 2011 to define the Calabrian Stage, effectively completing the Lower Pleistocene Subseries/Subepoch. The candidate for the Middle Pleistocene Subseries (and proposed Chibanian Stage) GSSP (∼774 ka) is the Chiba section, Japan. It aligns with MIS 19 and approximates the Matuyama–Brunhes Chron boundary (∼773 ka). The Upper Pleistocene Subseries, with a base traditionally marked by the onset of the Last Interglacial, is not yet defined by GSSP. The Holocene Series/Epoch was formally defined in 2008 by a GSSP in the NGRIP2 Greenland ice core with an age of 11,700 yr b2k – before 2000 CE, and in 2018 was subdivided, using climatic events at 8.2 and 4.2 ka, into the Greenlandian, Northgrippian and Meghalayan stages/ages and their corresponding Lower/Early, Middle, Upper/Late subseries/subepochs. The Northgrippian GSSP (8236 yr b2k) is defined in the NGRIP1 Greenland ice core, and the Meghalayan GSSP (4250 yr b2k) in a speleothem from Meghalaya, India. This subdivision formally introduces the rank of subseries/subepoch, and incorporates by far the briefest of all stages into the geological time scale. Using ice cores and a speleothem for GSSPs is unique to the Holocene. The presently undefined term Anthropocene is already used extensively and, like Holocene subdivisional terms, its functionality will be enhanced by formal definition. The Anthropocene should not be confused with anthropogenic: it reflects a tipping point in the Earth System response to the marked intensification of human impacts, not simply the fact of human impact. The geological Anthropocene, as currently envisioned, would start in the mid-twentieth century, holding the rank of series, and terminating the Holocene but not interfering with its subdivision other than to terminate the Meghalayan Stage.

86 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30401667
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Danny N. Walker

Dicrostonyx has been reported from seven Late Pleistocene localities in Wyoming. All localities are stratified, highly fossiliferous and detail a similar sequence of faunal changes through the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Three of these are found in the northern Bighorn Mountains: Natural Trap Cave, Prospects Shelter and Shutdown Shelter. Little Box Elder and Bell Caves are found in the Laramie Range while Little Canyon Creek Cave and Bush Shelter are found in the southern Bighorn Mountains. These latter four localities contain sizable samples of Dicrostonyx teeth which have not been previously described. All four of these faunas date older than 12,000 years B.P. A review of the physiology of Dicrostonyx shows the genus is adapted to cold, moist climates and should not be used as an indicator of an environment similar to the modern High Arctic tundra. Preliminary examination of occlusal surfaces of Dicrostonyx teeth from these four localities suggests a taphonomy resulting from both diurnal and nocturnal birds of prey, similar to studies on the Dicrostonyx remains from Natural Trap Cave. There remains a slight possibility for at least some of the Dicrostonyx remains to be accumulated due to mammalian carnivore predation.

87 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30401668
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Min-Te Chen
88 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30401669
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Christopher H. Roosevelt, Berkay Dinçer, Christina Luke, Çiler Çilingiroğlu

In 2005 the Central Lydia Archaeological Survey (CLAS) identified an open-air Lower Paleolithic site called Bozyer near Lake Marmara in the province of Manisa, Turkey. Intensive survey of Bozyer in 2008 resulted in collection of over 300 stone tools. Subsequent systematic analysis attributed 189 of these lithics to a Lower Paleolithic industry. The assemblage is characterized by flakes and retouched flake tools, many of which were produced with the bipolar flaking technique; preferential use of locally available quartz and quartzite over chert; a low proportion of cores, most of which were reused as choppers and chopping tools; and the absence of bifaces and other large cutting tools. With few exceptions, similar assemblages are rare in Anatolia, and comparable industries from Eurasia and the Near East date to the Early Pleistocene period. The lithic industry from Bozyer thus joins other nearby sites in evidencing some of the earliest hominin activities outside Africa, shedding new light on growing understandings of Lower Paleolithic technology, mobility, and activities in Anatolia.

89 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30401670
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Mikhail Zhilin, Svetlana Savchenko

Excavations of Mesolithic peat bog sites with good preservation of organic materials in the Trans-Urals brought to light direct evidence of fishing including bones of freshwater fish, mainly perch and pike and various fishing tools. Harpoons and an intact fishing hook were found in the Early Mesolithic layer of Beregovaya 2 site. Middle Mesolithic layers yielded a harpoon and/or leister head, a fishing hook, and net sinkers made of pieces of stone bound across with a strip of bast. Number of fish bones increases in Late Mesolithic layer of Beregovaya II indicating greater importance of fishing at that time. A wooden paddle blade from this layer is a direct evidence of the use of boats. Nets were the main fishing tool while the role of fishing hooks, harpoons and leisters decreased, which is in good accordance with the composition of catches.

90 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30401671
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): Alex Brown, Anneli Poska, Aleks Pluskowski

This paper presents the first quantitative past land-cover reconstructions for northern Poland using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA), interpreted alongside traditional percentage pollen data and historical sources. These data are used to evaluate the impact of cultural change on past vegetation and land-use in northern Poland during the last 2000 years. Vegetation change and land-use are apparent corresponding to the late Roman Iron Age (1st to 3rd centuries), Migration Period (4th–7th centuries), early Medieval (8th to early-13th centuries) and late medieval (early-13th to mid-15th centuries). The Roman Iron Age is characterised by significant land cover estimates for meadowland, likely part of a broad spectrum agricultural strategy. Widespread depopulation and woodland regrowth characterise the Migration Period, followed by the progressive clearance of woodland from the 7th/8th centuries corresponding to Slavic colonization. Polish control of the region from the mid-10th century is accompanied by intensification in agricultural land-use. However, archaeological evidence for increasing settlement instability during the 11th/12th centuries is not obviously apparent in the palynological data. This likely reflects the sporadic nature and uneven impact of conflict, but also the difficulty in resolving short-term events in the palynological record. Significant woodland clearance occurred prior to the crusades, with the consequence that there is no clearly identifiable horizon of significant landscape change associated with the arrival of the Teutonic Order. However, large tracts of woodland survived in sparsely populated frontier zones and in areas with poor agricultural soils, managed as part of an extensive provisioning network covering the Teutonic Order's state.

91 show abstract
1040-6182 * * 30401672
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019

Source: Quaternary International
Author(s): A.S. Astakhov, A.A. Bosin, Liu Yanguang, A.V. Darin, I.A. Kalugin, A.V. Artemova, V.V. Babich, M.S. Melgunov, Vasilenko YuP, E.G. Vologina

This paper presents the first results of the quantitative reconstruction of ice conditions in the Arctic based on a comparison of the data for periods of meteorological observations with variations in the chemical compositions of the sediments accumulated during the same times. The biogenic elements (Br, Ca, and Sr) and some redox-sensitive (As and Fe) elements are the most informative for the reconstruction of changes in ice conditions with positive correlations, and the lithogenic elements (K and Ti) are predominantly negatively correlated. The reconstruction results for the last 300–400 years of average annual air temperature anomalies for all cores in general terms coincide with the reconstruction for the Northern Hemisphere. The common features of all reconstructions are low temperatures during the Little Ice Age (LIA) and a rapid warming in the middle of the 19th century and in the last decades of the 20th and first decades of the 21st centuries. The results of the reconstruction of the duration of the ice-free period generally coincide with the temperature changes for the last two centuries, although for LIA there is an inverse correlation between the variations in temperature and the duration of the ice-free period. A possible reason for this may be changes in the structure of the surface currents in the Chukchi Sea and the northern part of the Bering Sea, because of which the inflow of warm and freshened waters through the Bering Strait to the Arctic increased occasionally.

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