In: Development of the TOXSWA model for predicting the behaviour of pesticides in surface water : proceedings of a workshop, held on November 8, 1994 at Wageningen, The Netherlands / Crum, S.J.H., Deneer, J.W., - p. 13 - 31.
The TOXSWA model has been developed to estimate exposure concentrations of aquatic organisms to pesticides. TOXSWA describes the fate of pesticides entering field ditches by drift or atmospheric deposition, by surface run-off, or by drainage or leaching through the soil. TOXSWA considers four processes: transport, transformation, sorption and volatilization. The two mass conservation equations for the water layer and the sediment are solved with a variable weight finite-difference method. A calculation example shows that, for pesticides with high sorption capacities, sorption to macrophytes may considerably lower the exposure concentration, but the concentration will continue longer.
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