The environmental conditions that affect fate and bio-availability of insecticides are often linked with community trophic status. An increase in adsorption of insecticides to sediments and organic matter in nutrient-loaded systems generally results in a decrease in bio-availability. By reducing arthropod populations insecticides may temporarily reduce the top-down control of algae, thereby enhancing the stimulatory effects of nutrient loading. Non-arthropod grazers of algae not susceptible to insecticides may soon take over the control (functional redundancy). Prolonged algal blooms, however, can be expected in the case of nutrient-loaded freshwater ecosystems and a frequent input of insecticides.
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