The data currently available in the European Union in terms of food consumption and of food chemical and nutrient concentration data present many limitations when used for estimating intake. The most refined techniques currently available were used within the European Union FP5 Monte Carlo project to estimate, as accurately as possible, the intake of food additives, pesticide residues and nutrients. Databases of 'true' intakes of food additives (based on brand level food consumption records and additive concentration data), pesticide residues (based on duplicate diet studies) and nutrients (based on biomarker studies) have thus been generated. These kind of estimates are rarely repeatable because the databases generated and used to calculate them require an extraordinary expenditure of time and resources. The databases created served the purpose of estimating as accurately as possible 'true' chemical intakes for assessing the validity of additive, nutrient and pesticide probabilistic models.
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