Novel surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor assays for the bioeffect-related screening of chemicals with thyroid-disrupting activity are described. Two thyroid transport proteins (TPs), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and recombinant transthyretin (rTTR), were applied in an inhibition assay format in a Biacore 3000 using CM5 biosensor chips coated with L-thyroxine (T4), the main hormone of the thyroid system. Assay conditions were optimized for the natural thyroid hormones, and known thyroid disruptors and structurally related compounds were selected as model compounds to be tested in both assays for their relative potency (RP) compared to T4. The chosen compounds were halogenated phenols, halogenated bisphenols, bisphenol A, 3,5-dichlorobiphenyl, and its hydroxylated metabolite 4-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorobiphenyl (4-OH PCB 14). The TBG-based assay was highly specific for T4, and the rTTR-based assay was sensitive toward several compounds, the highest sensitivity (RP = 4.4) being obtained with 4-OH PCB 14, followed by tetrabromobisphenol A (RP = 1.5) and tetrachlorobisphenol A (RP = 0.75). For the bioeffect-related screening of known and identification of possible new thyroid disruptors, the TPs-based biosensor assays were more sensitive (IC50 of 13.7 ± 1.3 and 8.6 ± 0.7 nM for the rTTR and the TBG-based assay, respectively), easier to perform, and faster alternatives (10 min/sample) than the currently used methods such as radioligand binding assays and immunoprecipitation-HPLC
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