Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 356726
Title Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review
Author(s) Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.
Source NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 54 (2006)1. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 77 - 94.
Department(s) Livestock Research
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2006
Keyword(s) biologische landbouw - dierhouderij - regelingen - wetgeving - dierenwelzijn - Nederland - organic farming - animal husbandry - regulations - legislation - animal welfare - Netherlands - ascaridia-galli - toxoplasma-gondii - free-range - pasteurella-multocida - internal parasites - feather pecking - pig production - laying hens - infections - poultry
Categories Animal Health and Welfare / Animal Housing, Management and Care / Organic Farming
Abstract Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions of organic livestock production have been formulated by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) and were further implemented by EU regulation 2092/91 in the year 2000. The consequences of these rules for the health of the animals were not yet fully anticipated at the time these regulations were made and it has become clear that in some cases the rules are not clear enough, thereby even hampering the development of the production system. In this review we shall discuss the implications of these rules for animal health, whereby we shall focus on pig, poultry and dairy production systems. Disease prevention in organic farming is based on the principles that an animal that is allowed to exhibit natural behaviour is not subject to stress, is fed optimal (organic) feed, and will have a higher ability to cope with infections than animals reared in a conventional way. Fewer medical treatments would thus be necessary and if an animal would become diseased, alternative treatments instead of conventional drugs should be preferred. Although homeopathy or phytotherapy are recommended according to prevailing regulations, not many organic farmers use this treatment regimen because of lack of scientific evidence of effectiveness. Important health problems in organic livestock farming are often related to the outdoor access area, exposing the animals to various viral, bacterial and parasitic infections some of which may only influence the animals¿ own welfare whereas other ones may also endanger the health of conventional livestock (e.g. Avian Influenza) or pose a food safety (Campylobacter, Toxoplasma) problem to the consumer. Many preventive measures can be taken, such as using better animal breeds, optimized rearing conditions, pre- and probiotics, and addition of acids to the drinking water. In case of infectious disease, tight vaccination schedules may prevent serious outbreaks
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