Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 370018
Title Milling characteristics and distribution of phytic acid and zind in long-, medium- and short-grain rice
Author(s) Liang, J.; Tsuji, K.; Nakano, K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.
Source Journal of Cereal Science 48 (2008)1. - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 83 - 91.
Department(s) Food Microbiology Laboratory
Food Chemistry Group
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2008
Keyword(s) milled rice - nutrient content - protein-content - parboiled rice - japonica rice - brown rice - kernel - phosphorus - minerals - iron
Abstract Milling and polishing are important operations during the production of white rice. The degree of milling and polishing has a significant effect on the nutritional aspects of white rice, especially on minerals, due to a non-uniform distribution of nutrients in the kernel. Information on the distribution of nutrients in rice will greatly help in understanding the effect of milling and aid in designing procedures that improve technological and sensory properties of rice while retaining its essential nutrients as much as possible. In this study, three kernel shapes (short-, medium- and long-grain) of rice were selected for the study of milling characteristics and distribution of zinc (Zn) and phytic acid using abrasive milling and X-ray fluorescent microscope imaging approaches. Milling characteristics differed with kernel shapes and cultivars. Mass loss (y, %) correlated well with milling duration (x, s) and was fitted using a polynomial equation of y=ax2+bx+c (R2=0.99). Different kernel shapes of rice resulted in different patterns. Breakage in milling increased with longer duration of milling. The relation between breakage (y, %) and milling duration (x, s) fitted the exponential equation y=aebx. Levels of phytic acid, as well as Zn, decreased with prolonged milling. Phytic acid decreased at a higher rate than Zn. The analysis of different milling runs showed that the concentration of phytic acid decreased from the surface region inward, whereas X-ray fluorescent images indicated that the highest concentration of phosphorus was at the interface of the embryo and perisperm. Our results help in understanding the milling characteristics of different rice cultivars. Understanding these characteristics offers opportunities to optimize milling procedures for maximum phytate removal at minimum mineral losses and yield loss
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