Telocentric trisomics (telotrisomics; one arm of a metacentric chromosome present in addition to two complete genomes) are used in theoretical studies of pairing affinities and chiasma formation in competitive situations and applied in genome analysis, gene localization, gene transfer, and breakage of close linkages. These applications require knowledge of the recombination characteristics of telotrisomics. Appropriate cytological and molecular markers and favorable chromosome morphology are not always available or applicable for quantitative analyses. We developed new mathematical models for extracting the maximum information from simple metaphase I observations. Two types of telotrisomics of the short arm of chromosome 1R of rye (Secale cereale), including several genotypes, were used as test material. In simple telotrisomics, pairing between morphologically identical complete chromosomes was more frequent than pairing between the telocentric and either of the normal chromosomes. In the telocentric substitution, morphologically identical telocentrics paired less frequently with each other than either one with the normal chromosome. Pairing partner switch was significant. Interaction between the two arms was variable. Variation within plants was considerable. Telotrisomics without markers are suitable for analyzing pairing preferences, for gene localization and gene transfer, and for breaking tight linkages, but less so for genome analysis.
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