Ongoing research on climate change indicates that we cannot rule out the possibility of extreme climatic changes, beyond current IPCC scenarios. The thinking about policy responses to address these risks is still in its infancy. This study explores the possibilities for responding to extreme climatic changes in an integrated, systematic fashion. It distinguishes four main categories of emergency response options: drastic emission reduction, carbon dioxide removal, solar radiation management and enhanced adaptation to unavoidable consequences. These options may also become relevant if natural or social systems would turn out to be more vulnerable than until recently assumed or if current mitigation efforts would be unsuccessful
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