Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 400104
Title Quantification of the emetic toxin cereulide in food products by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using synthetic cereulide as a standard
Author(s) Biesta-Peters, E.G.; Reij, M.W.; Blaauw, R.H.; Veld, P. de; Rajkovic, A.; Ehling-Schulz, M.; Abee, T.
Source Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76 (2010)22. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 7466 - 7472.
Department(s) Food Microbiology Laboratory
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2010
Keyword(s) bacillus-cereus - dodecadepsipeptide - valinomycin - assay
Abstract Bacillus cereus produces the emetic toxin cereulide, a cyclic dodecadepsipeptide that can act as a K+ ionophore, dissipating the transmembrane potential in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Because pure cereulide has not been commercially available, cereulide content in food samples has been expressed in valinomycin equivalents, a highly similar cyclic potassium ionophore that is commercially available. This research tested the biological activity of synthetic cereulide and validated its use as a standard in the quantification of cereulide contents in food samples. The synthesis route consists of 10 steps that result in a high yield of synthetic cereulide that showed biological activity in the HEp-2 cell assay and the boar sperm motility assay. The activity is different in both methods, which may be attributed to differences in K+ content of the test media used. Using cereulide or valinomycin as a standard to quantify cereulide based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the concentration determined with cereulide as a standard was on average 89.9% of the concentration determined using valinomycin as a standard. The recovery experiments using cereulide-spiked food products and acetonitrile as extraction solute showed that the LC-MS method with cereulide as a standard is a reliable and accurate method to quantify cereulide in food, because the recovery rate was close to 100% over a wide concentration range.
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