Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 404147
Title Milk urea concentration as an indicator of ammonia emission from dairy cow barn under restricted grazing
Author(s) Duinkerken, G. van; Smits, M.C.J.; Andre, G.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Dijkstra, J.
Source Journal of Dairy Science 94 (2011)1. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 321 - 335.
Department(s) Livestock Research
LR - Backoffice
Animal Nutrition
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2011
Keyword(s) livestock buildings - nitrogen-excretion - dietary nitrogen - ventilation rate - manure stores - protein - cattle - model - volatilization - houses
Abstract Bulk milk urea concentration was evaluated to assess its potential as an indicator of ammonia emission from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing. An experiment was carried out with a herd of, on average, 52 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The cows were housed in a naturally ventilated barn with cubicles and a slatted floor, were fed ensiled forages and feed supplements, and each day were allowed 8.5 h of grazing. The experiment was a balanced randomized block design, replicated 3 times. The experimental factor was the bulk milk urea level, which was adjusted to levels of 15, 35, and 55 mg of urea per 100 g of milk, respectively, by changing the level of nitrogen fertilization of the pasture, the herbage mass and grass regrowth age, and the level and type of feed supplement. Ammonia emission from the barn was measured using sulfur hexafluoride as the tracer gas. Ammonia emission generally increased upon an increase in adjusted milk urea levels. A dynamic regression model was used to predict ammonia emission from bulk milk urea concentration, temperature, and a slurry mixing index. This model accounted for 66% of the total variance in ammonia emission and showed that emission increases exponentially with increasing milk urea concentration. At levels of 20 and 30 mg of urea per 100 g of milk, ammonia emission increased by about 2.5 and 3.5%, respectively, when milk urea concentration increased by 1 mg/100 g. Furthermore, emissions from the barn increased 2.6% when temperature increased by 1°C. The study showed that bulk milk urea concentration is a useful indicator for ammonia emissions from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing.
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