Sequences of three different genes in 69 taxa of Amorphophallus were combined to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of this species-rich Aroid genus. The data set was analyzed by three different methods, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analysis, producing slightly different tree topologies. Three major clades identified in all analyses reflect the biogeographical distribution of Amorphophallus. Some clades were supported by morphological characters such as sessile/nonsessile stigma, pollen opening mechanism, shape of the main segments of the lamina, growth cycle, and berry colour. When optimised, a nonsessile stigma may have evolved from a sessile one with several reversals. Pollen opening by connective rupturing evolved from pollen opening by pores. Unequally shaped segments of the lamina evolved from equally shaped segments. Simultaneously existing leaf and inflorescences evolved from alternating leaves and inflorescences. Blue, purple, green, and yellow berries evolved from red/orange/white ones.
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