Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 408925
Title The consequences of being colonial: Allee effects in metapopulations of seabirds
Author(s) Schippers, P.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Schotman, A.G.M.; Snep, R.P.H.; Slim, P.A.
Source Ecological Modelling 222 (2011)17. - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 3061 - 3070.
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.05.022
Department(s) CL - Ecological Models and Monitoring
Centre for Ecosystem Studies
CE - Molecular Ecology Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Management
CL - Urban and Regional Development
Land Use Planning
CE - Vegetation and Landscape Ecology
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2011
Keyword(s) density-dependent dispersal - common terns - population-dynamics - survival - evolution - habitat - models - gulls - size - performance
Abstract Most seabirds live in large colonies. This fact signifies that there is an advantage in living and breeding together. Four explanations are put fore ward for this colonial behaviour, more birds have: (1) a reduced per capita predation of chicks in colonies, (2) a better anti-predator defence, (3) a more efficient foraging in temporally patchy environments and (4) sex ratios that are more likely to be close to one. These factors induce a strong Allee-type density-dependent relation, a positive relation between density and population growth rate at low density. Nevertheless, these Allee effects are generally ignored in seabird population studies. Therefore we study the consequences of introducing Allee-type density-dependent relations in a spatially explicit metapopulation model for the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo). Simulations show that Allee effects might be responsible for a 20-fold decline in the recolonization distances, causing patches and parts of metapopulations to effectively become more isolated. This leads to long recolonization times of empty breeding patches which consequently cause slower metapopulation expansion and recovery. Additionally, we show that the typical early warning signals, that show that a population is near its critical threshold induce by Allee effects, is less pronounced in colonies that are part of a metapopulation. Hence, we offer some simple equations to estimate critical densities and thresholds in a colony
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