Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 409009
Title Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water
Author(s) Graaff, M.S. de; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.
Source Water Science and Technology 63 (2011)11. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2759 - 2765.
DOI https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2011.558
Department(s) Sub-department of Environmental Technology
WIMEK
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2011
Keyword(s) afvalwaterbehandeling - urine - huishoudens - nieuwe sanitatie - energieterugwinning - fosfor - anaërobe behandeling - waste water treatment - households - new sanitation - energy recovery - phosphorus - anaerobic treatment - nitrogen removal - waste-water - struvite - systems - precipitation - tank
Categories Waste Water Treatment
Abstract Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat, is more than sufficient for anaerobic treatment, nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The phosphorus balance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating concentrated BW showed a phosphorus conservation of 61% in the anaerobic effluent. Precipitation of phosphate as struvite from this stream resulted in a recovery of 0.22 kgP/p/y, representing 10% of the artificial phosphorus fertiliser production in the world. The remaining part of the phosphorus ended up in the anaerobic sludge, mainly due to precipitation (39%). Low dilution and a high pH favour the accumulation of phosphorus in the anaerobic sludge and this sludge could be used as a phosphorus-enriched organic fertiliser, provided that it is safe regarding heavy metals, pathogens and micro-pollutants.
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