Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 409280
Title Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems
Author(s) Makarova, K.S.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, J. van der
Source Nature Reviews Microbiology 9 (2011)6. - ISSN 1740-1526 - p. 467 - 477.
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2577
Department(s) Microbiological Laboratory
VLAG
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2011
Keyword(s) provides acquired-resistance - dna-repair system - immune-system - small rna - repeats - prokaryotes - bacteria - defense - archaea - protein
Abstract The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of evolution for both the cas genes and the unique spacer content. Here, we provide an updated analysis of the evolutionary relationships between CRISPR-Cas systems and Cas proteins. Three major types of CRISPR-Cas system are delineated, with a further division into several subtypes and a few chimeric variants. Given the complexity of the genomic architectures and the extremely dynamic evolution of the CRISPR-Cas systems, a unified classification of these systems should be based on multiple criteria. Accordingly, we propose a 'polythetic' classification that integrates the phylogenies of the most common cas genes, the sequence and organization of the CRISPR repeats and the architecture of the CRISPR-cas loci
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