Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 409338
Title Safety and Effectiveness of Struvite from Black Water and Urine as a Phosphorus Fertilizer
Author(s) Gell, K.; Ruijter, F.J. de; Kuntke, P.; Graaff, M. de; Smit, A.L.
Source Journal of Agricultural Science 3 (2011)3. - ISSN 1916-9752 - p. 67 - 80.
Department(s) PPO/PRI AGRO Duurzame Bedrijfssystemen
Sub-department of Environmental Technology
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2011
Abstract To ensure food supply, phosphorus must be recycled, for which an appealing method is using struvite fertilizer from human excreta. One struvite from black water and another from urine were assessed for safety under Dutch regulations, and for effectiveness as P fertilizer in a maize field experiment and a literature review. Both struvites contained 12% P, 12% Mg, 6% N, and 0.5-1.5% of several micronutrients. Struvites did not exceed Dutch regulations for heavy metals or pathogens, and based on literature, organic toxins should be far below regulatory limits. In this study and 18 others, struvite appears to have similar effectiveness to soluble fertilizer. Early in the season, 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 of black water struvite and soluble phosphorus improved maize performance (P
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