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Record number 409521
Title Bioavailability pathways underlying zinc-induced avoidance behavior and reproduction toxicity in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms.
Author(s) Ma, W.C.; Bonten, L.T.C.
Source Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 74 (2011)6. - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 1721 - 1726.
Department(s) Centre for Ecosystem Studies
SS - Soil Chemistry and Nature
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2011
Keyword(s) metal accumulation - organic-matter - eisenia-andrei - contaminated field - heavy-metals - soils - copper - ph - speciation - calcium
Abstract We investigated possible bioavailability pathways underlying zinc-induced avoidance behavior and sublethal reproduction impairment in Lumbricus rubellus. Clay-loam (pH 7.3) and sandy soil (three pH values of 4.3–6.0) were amended with zinc sulfate at six soil concentrations of total Zn ranging from 0.1 to 36 mmol/kg dw. Estimated and measured concentrations of free and exchangeable Zn ranged 10-4 to 7.1 mmol/l. Avoidance behavior responses were fast and could be directly predicted from the activity of free zinc ions without a modifying pH effect. The repellent effect is thus likely mediated by a direct action of Zn2+ ions on epidermal chemosensitive receptors. Body zinc uptake, however, was determined by proton competition with free Zn2+ sorption. Excess accumulation of body Zn was a good predictor of reproduction decline, which is indicative of internal zinc poisoning. The results indicated that zinc affects earthworms via both direct and indirect mechanisms of external and internal exposure.
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