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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 411254
Title Diffuse charge and Faradaic reactions in porous electrodes
Author(s) Biesheuvel, P.M.; Yu, F.; Bazant, M.Z.
Source Physical Review. E, Statistical nonlinear, and soft matter physics 83 (2011)6. - ISSN 1539-3755 - p. 1 - 17.
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.83.061507
Department(s) Sub-department of Environmental Technology
WIMEK
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2011
Keyword(s) electrochemical thin-films - water salinity difference - double-layer - capacitive deionization - fuel-cell - model - desalination - interface - voltage - electrosorption
Abstract Porous electrodes instead of flat electrodes are widely used in electrochemical systems to boost storage capacities for ions and electrons, to improve the transport of mass and charge, and to enhance reaction rates. Existing porous electrode theories make a number of simplifying assumptions: (i) The charge-transfer rate is assumed to depend only on the local electrostatic potential difference between the electrode matrix and the pore solution, without considering the structure of the double layer (DL) formed in between; (ii) the charge-transfer rate is generally equated with the salt-transfer rate not only at the nanoscale of the matrix-pore interface, but also at the macroscopic scale of transport through the electrode pores. In this paper, we extend porous electrode theory by including the generalized Frumkin-Butler-Volmer model of Faradaic reaction kinetics, which postulates charge transfer across the molecular Stern layer located in between the electron-conducting matrix phase and the plane of closest approach for the ions in the diffuse part of the DL. This is an elegant and purely local description of the charge-transfer rate, which self-consistently determines the surface charge and does not require consideration of reference electrodes or comparison with a global equilibrium. For the description of the DLs, we consider the two natural limits: (i) the classical Gouy-Chapman-Stern model for thin DLs compared to the macroscopic pore dimensions, e.g., for high-porosity metallic foams (macropores >50 nm) and (ii) a modified Donnan model for strongly overlapping DLs, e.g., for porous activated carbon particles (micropores
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