Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 411888
Title Effect of ammonia in cigarette tobacco on nicotine absorption in human smokers
Author(s) Amsterdam, J. van; Sleijffers, A.; Spiegel, P. van; Blom, R.; Witte, M.; Kassteele, J. van de; Blokland, M.H.; Steerenberg, P.; Opperhuizen, A.
Source Food and Chemical Toxicology 49 (2011)12. - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 3025 - 3030.
Department(s) Biometris (WU MAT)
RIKILT - R&C Groeibevorderaars
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2011
Keyword(s) respiratory-tract - oral-mucosa - smoking - deposition - retention - ph - permeation - additives - exposure - delivery
Abstract The function of ammonia as tobacco additive is subject of scientific debate. It is argued that ammonia, by increasing the proportion of free nicotine, increases the absorption of nicotine in smokers. As a result of the addition of ammonia to cigarettes, smokers get exposed to higher internal nicotine doses and become more addicted to the product. On two occasions, the nicotine absorption in blood was measured after smoking a commercial cigarette of either brand 1 or brand 2, which differed 3.8-fold in ammonium salt content. Using a standardized smoking regime (six puffs, 30 s puff interval, 7 s breath hold before exhalation), 51 regular smokers smoked brand 1 (Caballero Smooth Flavor; 0.89 mg ammonium per gram tobacco) and brand 2 (Gauloise Brunes; 3.43 mg ammonium per gram tobacco). Puff volumes and cardiovascular parameters were monitored during and following smoking, respectively. Measurement of serum nicotine level in the blood samples collected over time following smoking of the two brands, showed that total amount of nicotine absorbed did not differ between the two brands. Present results demonstrate that smoking tobacco containing a higher amount of the tobacco additive ammonium does not increase the absorption of nicotine in the smoker’s body.
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