|Title||A genetic analysis of the introgression process from cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to wild prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.)|
|Source||University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Rene Smulders; Clemens van de Wiel. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730312 - 144|
Laboratory of Plant Breeding
WUR Plant Breeding
|Publication type||Dissertation, internally prepared|
|Keyword(s)||lactuca sativa - lactuca serriola - wilde verwanten - hybridisatie - genetische analyse - introgressie - genenstroom - terugkruisen - plantenveredeling - wild relatives - hybridization - genetic analysis - introgression - gene flow - backcrossing - plant breeding|
|Categories||Plant Breeding and Genetics (General)|
Many plant species can hybridise and produce fertile offspring. Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives has raised concerns with regard to GM crops, as it constitutes a possible route along which the transgene could disperse from crops into related wild species, establish itself in the natural population, and persist under natural conditions. This may cause unintended ecological consequences such as the formation of more invasive weeds and genetic erosion. After crop-wild hybridization, the persistence of the hybrids and of the crop genes (including the transgenes) in later generations depends on their genetic make-up, which consists of specific combinations of wild and crop genomic segments, and on the environmental conditions. Therefore, knowledge on the dynamics of crop-wild hybridization and introgression using conventional crop varieties is needed as it constitutes the baseline for putting into perspective the effects of transgene introgression under natural conditions.
This study focused on understanding the genetic process of hybridization and introgression from cultivated to wild relative species using cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its closest wild relative, prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) as a crop-wild complex model. Natural populations of prickly lettuce in Europe were tested for the occurrence of crop-wild hybrids using Bayesian-based programmes (Structure, InStruct and NewHybrids) which returned a crop-wild hybrid occurrence of 7%. However, the geographical location of the hybrids led to the conclusion that crop-wild hybridization is not the cause of the recent northward spread of L. serriola in Europe.
To test for the importance of the crop genomic segments to the performance of lettuce crop-wild hybrids, three hybrid generations were created (F2 as a selfing generation, and BC1 and BC2, backcrossed to the wild genotype to mimick the introgression process) by crossing L. sativa (cv. Dynamite) with L. serriola collected from Eys (the Netherlands). The three populations were genotyped with Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers for genetic analysis. Because of the importance of the abiotic stresses as selection factors under natural conditions and the prospective of generating GM crop varieties with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance, the three populations were evaluated for vigour at the rosette stage under greenhouse conditions of non-stress, drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. The BC1 population was also evaluated under field conditions at two locations (Wageningen and Sijbekarspel, the Netherlands) for hybrid germination, vigour, survival and reproduction. Based on the location and allelic effect of the QTLs for germination, vigour, survival and reproductive traits in the current lettuce crop-wild cross, genomic regions were suggested where transgenes could be or could not be located in order to mitigate their persistence in crop-wild hybrids through genetic hitchhiking and background selection.