The taxonomic status of the genus Pellegriniodendron J. Léonard (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae), which consists in one tree species endemic to West Central tropical Africa, is re-evaluated. Based on our morphological comparison and on published phylogenetic studies, we conclude that P. diphyllum should be included within the genus Gilbertiodendron J. Léonard, and the new combination Gilbertiodendron diphyllum (Harms) Estrella & Devesa is proposed. A lectotype for Macrolobium reticulatum, synonym of G. diphyllum, is also designated. The species is fully described and illustrated, and a distribution map is also presented.
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