Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 421479
Title The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients
Author(s) Adams, T.B.; Lucas Gavin, C.; McGowen, M.M.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Porthogese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.; Smith, R.L.
Source Food and Chemical Toxicology 49 (2011)10. - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 2471 - 2494.
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.06.011
Department(s) Sub-department of Toxicology
VLAG
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2011
Keyword(s) food-additives amendment - chronic progressive nephropathy - hyaline droplet nephropathy - d-limonene para-mentha-1,8-diene - sister-chromatid exchanges - organic anion transporters - human risk-assessment - 3 continental sites - beta-myrcene - alpha-pinene
Abstract This publication is the thirteenth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2600 substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic potential.
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