<br/>Financial losses from egg breakage have increased over the years. To seek any relation with shell strength, the structure of eggshell and shell membranes were examined by light microscope, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. They were taken from eggs laid by laying hens, from eggs removed from the oviduct and from eggs laid prematurely, and occasionally from incubated hen eggs and eggs of guinea-fowl, duck, turkey, emu and ostrich.<p/>The results with different methods of measurement showed how shell membranes vary in thickness, how some structural properties of shell may influence shell strength, how the shell and shell membranes form and how they are destroyed during incubation and what factors influence the cuticular surface of the eggs.
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