The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.<p/>Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main types of hard plinthite were distinguished. The rather uniform soils of the Amazon Planalto proved to be mainly Kaolinitic Yellow Latosols.<p/>Various intergrades toward Groundwater Laterites and Red Yellow Podzolic soils were shown to exist.<p/>Special attention was given to the relation between the soil conditions and vegetative cover. The mean gross timber volume and the presence of specific tree species were discussed.<p/>The suitability was assessed of the soils for agricultural production, especially vegetables, cash crops and some perennials such as oil palms.
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