<p/>In a model system the physical transport phenomena that occur during the sterilization of a canned liquid food were investigated. Flow phenomena and heat transfer were studied experimentally as well as theoretically. Experiments on flow patterns and temperature profiles revealed a boundary layer flow at the vertical sidewall, a stratified core in the upper part of the container and a perfectly mixed, unstratified region in the lower part of the container. A dimensionless correlation for the overall heat transfer coefficient from steam to liquid was determined.<p/>From the observed flow patterns and temperature profiles a simplified mathematical model was developed, with which temperature stratification in the liquid during heating could be simulated. The applicability of the simplified model for lethality calculations was briefly examined.<p/>Some attention was also paid to the effect of solid particles on heating characteristics of the container contents.<p/>Literature on the research of convection heating of liquids in closed containers was reviewed, as well as literature about the influence of temperature stratification on natural convection boundary layer flow.
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