|Title||Quality assessments of untreated and washed quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds based on histlogical and foaming capacity investigations|
|Author(s)||Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Ossenkoppele, J.S.; Houben, R.; Lotgering, M.; Groot, M.J.|
|Source||Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education 2 (2010)4. - ISSN 0809-103X - p. 1033 - 1038.|
|Department(s)||RIKILT - Business Unit Safety & Health
RIKILT - Analyse & Ontwikkeling
|Publication type||Refereed Article in a scientific journal|
|Abstract||Quinoa seed has a high nutritional value, but has a coating of bitter-tasting saponins, making it unpalatable. Therefore the seeds are usually processed in order to remove the naturally occurring saponins from the seeds. To investigate the impact of processing, untreated and washed seeds of the white and brown types of quinoa were investigated histologically and by foaming capacity evaluations. Reference samples of known origin and treatment were investigated as well as unknown samples. The results revealed a relationship between the presence of saponin containing papillose cells at the outermost layer of the seed hull in the histological sections and the foaming capacity of the seeds. After washing, the papillose cells were severely damaged or completely removed and virtually no foam formation was observed. This investigation indicated
that washing resulted in an effective removal of the saponin layer, leading to quality improvement of the seeds intended for human and animal consumption. The same features were observed for the unknown samples. These results imply that the treatment of the investigated samples was based on washing. The determination of the type of treatment applied provided useful information for the correct tax classification for Custom purposes.