The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the space between the withers and the compartment ceiling on freedom of movement. The investigation was based on physical, biochemical and behavioural measurements during commercial transports. In total 7 transports were performed with cattle (adult dairy cattle, pregnant heifers and rosé veal calves) using a double deck vehicle with natural or forced ventilation for transportation to a slaughter house or assembly place for further shipment. The ceiling was set at 10, 15 or 20 cm for adult dairy cattle and rosé veal calves and 40 cm for pregnant heifers, above the withers. Adult dairy cattle and rosé veal calves head-butted the ceiling and pregnant heifers did not. Adult cattle move less (P
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