As a rule, previous studies have generally addressed the comparison of novel and traditional processing technologies by a targeted approach, in the sense that only the impact on specific quality attributes is investigated. By contrast, this work focused on an untargeted strategy, in order to take into account unexpected and unintended effects of (novel) processing, and to possibly uncover unknown compounds resulting from alternative processing. The potential of headspace GC–MS fingerprinting was explored as a tool to compare the impact of thermal, high pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for mild pasteurisation of orange juice. This study demonstrated that when processing conditions are selected based on equivalent microbial safety, the impact of heat, HP and PEF pasteurisation on the volatile profile of orange juice can be considered comparable. During refrigerated storage, however, indirect impact differences were revealed, which were attributed to differences in degree of enzyme inactivation
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