Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Record number 431177
Title Exploring global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface water
Author(s) Hofstra, N.; Bouwman, A.F.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Medema, G.J.
Source Science of the Total Environment 442 (2013)1. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 10 - 19.
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.013
Department(s) Environmental Systems Analysis Group
WIMEK
Publication type Refereed Article in a scientific journal
Publication year 2013
Keyword(s) activated-sludge treatment - parvum oocysts - giardia cysts - dairy calves - waste-water - healthy-adults - river water - production systems - nonpoint sources - climate-change
Abstract The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. This paper presents the first model-based inventory with 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution of global Cryptosporidium emissions for the year 2000 from humans and animals to surface water. The model is based on nutrient distribution modelling, because the sources and transport of oocysts and nutrients to the surface water are comparable. Total emissions consist of point source emissions from wastewater and nonpoint source emissions by runoff of oocysts in manure from agricultural lands. Results indicate a global emission of 3 × 10^17 oocysts per year, with comparable contributions from point and nonpoint sources. Hot-spot areas for point sources are big cities in China, India and Latin America, while the area with the largest nonpoint source emissions is in China. Uncertainties in the model are large. Main areas for further study are (i) excretion rates of oocysts by humans and animals, (ii) emissions of humans not connected to sewage systems, and (iii) retention of oocysts to determine surface water pathogen concentrations rather than emissions. Our results are useful to health organisations to identify priority areas for further study and intervention.
Comments
There are no comments yet. You can post the first one!
Post a comment
 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.