Biological containment is the prevention or reduction in the spread of transgenes by modifying plant growth or development, most commonly through modification of reproductive characteristics. This review provides a summary of the current strategies for biological containment, including the use of both naturally occurring and engineered mechanisms. A wide range of strategies and their efficacy, where possible, are discussed. While some strategies are still in the conceptual phase, others are much closer to realization and application in commercial agriculture.
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