Abstract In Ghana, a policy reform in 2002 made provisions for ownership rights and benefit-sharing agreements to individuals who plant timber trees in off-reserve areas. Governmental and non-governmental organisations provided support for tree planting among smallholder farmers since in the expectation that rural livelihoods will be enhanced, while it could also give a boost to carbon sequestration. This chapter addresses livelihood aspect of the scheme, which is still limited due to a lack of timber proceeds and strongly dependent on outside actor support. Secure land and tree tenure, partnerships between farmers and public and/or private actors, as well as engagement in carbon credits generation can substantially enhance the sustainability of the tree-planting scheme and its potential contribution to rural livelihoods
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