Dispersal of a new virulence of Puccinia graminis tritici (Pgt)-Ug99 from Uganda-Kenya to Yemen, over >1000 km, happened in four years. Geo-agro-ecology of wheat cultivation and the epidemiology of Pgt indicate that the Rift Valley is a natural conduit “flyway.” The widely prevalent “green bridges” favor survival and spread of Pgt. This part of the Rift Valley is one single epidemiological zone, and the annual Pgt build-up is from the endogenous inoculum.
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