Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Record number 434740
Title Critical loads of heavy metals for soils
Author(s) Vries, W. de; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.
Source In: Heavy metals in soils. Trace metals and metalloids in soils and their bioavailability / Alloway, B.J., Dordrecht : Springer Science + Business Media - p. 211 - 237.
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4470-7_8
Department(s) Alterra - Sustainable soil management
Publication type Peer reviewed book chapter
Publication year 2012
Abstract To enable a precautionary risk assessment for future inputs of metals, steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks to food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. A critical load for metals equals the load resulting at steady state in a concentration in a compartment (e.g. soil solution, plant, fish) that equals the critical limit for that compartment. This chapter presents an overview of methods to assess critical limits and critical loads of metals, with a focus on cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in soils in relation to impacts on: (i) agriculture (food quality and crop health) and (ii) ecology (plants, invertebrates and soil organisms involved in nutrient cycling processes). Results are presented using generic input data. Furthermore, examples of national and European applications are shown. Results are discussed in view of the uncertainty and applicability of the critical load concept for heavy metals in future agreements on the reduction of metal emissions. It is concluded that for policy applications, dynamic models are also needed to estimate the times involved in attaining a certain chemical state in response to input (deposition, fertilisers or manure) scenarios.
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